(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Children's Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Hall's journal of health"

I 




■M. 



M 



# 



' / 



WARSHAW COLLECTION 

Spec,ahzmg in theLore of American Business 

Industry and the Professions. 

ALBANY, N. Y. 

CLASS - .NO. 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH, 



Vol. 9. 



JANUARY, 1862. 



No. 1. 



HEALTH TRACTS. 

The January and February numbers contain sixty-two one-page 
Health Tracts. The number of the tract answers to the number of 
the page. January contains from No. 1 to 31, 'both included; 
February has No. 32 to No. 62, both included, both for 25 cents. 

Tract 

Air and Sunshine, . . . .51 
Apples, 59 



Burns and Bites, . . 27, 23 
Baths and Bathing, ... 30 
Colds Cured, .... 27, 3 
Colds Neglected, . . . 27, 29 
Colds Prevented, . . . .31 
Corns and Shoes, .... 14 
Consumption and Measles, 11, 16 

Coffee Drinking, 46 

Catarrh, 52 

Checking Perspiration, . .58 

Costiveness, 22 

Drunkenness and Dyspepsia, 8 

Dyspepsia, 33 

Disease, Causes of, .... 4 
Disease Avoided, .... 28 

Drinking, .35 

Diet for Invalids, . . . . 54 

Erect Position, 11 

Eating, 26 

Eating Wisely, 32 

Eat, How to, 34 

Eating, When and What, . 40 
Eyes, Care of, ... . 5, 15 
Eyesight Failing, . . . .61 

Erysipelas, 56 

Fruits in Summer, .... 2 
Flannel, Wearing, ... 19 
Feet, Care of, ... 14, 21 
Fifteen Follies, 53 



Tract 

Growing Beautiful, . . 15 
Hair, the Care of, . . . 18 

Headache, 41, 62 

Health without Medicine, . 20 
Healthful Observances, . .38 
Health's Three Essentials, 19, 42 
Hydrophobia, . . . . .49 



Inconsiderations, . 
Ice, its Uses, . . . 
Music Healthful, . 
Medicine, Taking, . 
Nothing but a Cold, 
Neuralgia, .... 
Nursing Hints, 
Precautions, . . . 
Presence of Mind, 
Premonitions, . . 
Private Things, 
Poisons, • . . . . 
Rheumatism, . . 

Sitting, 

Sabbath Physiology, 
Sour Stomach, . . 
Sleeping, .... 
Sick-Headache, . . 
Traveling Hints, . 
The Three Ps, . . 
Winter Rules, . . 
Walking, .... 
Warnings, ... . 
Valuable Knowledge 



23 



1 
9 

7 
60 
36 
44 
57 
37 
39 
43 
45 

27, 55 
50 
13 
17 
24 
25 

62, 41 
6 
47 
10 
12 
48 
27 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 1. 



^CONSIDERATIONS 



It is inconsiderate to eat when you don't feel like it. Sleepless natursj 
calls for food when it is needed. 

It is inconsiderate to eat to "make it even," to swallow a thing, not be- 
cause you want it, but because you do not want it wasted by being left on 
the plate, and thrown into a slop-tub ; but then it would have gone to 
fattening the pigs or feeding the cows, whereas it goes into your stomach 
when not needed, only to gorge and oppress and sicken. 

It is inconsiderate to enter a public vehicle, and open a window or door 
without the express permission of each of the several persons nearest. 

It is inconsiderate to ask persons nearest to a window or door of a public 
conveyance to open the same, for you thereby tax their courtesy to grant a 
request for your gratification, at the expense of their own preferences, and 
thus show yourself to have the selfishness of a little mind, and the manners 
of a boor ; for you have no claim on the self-denial of a stranger, nor should 
you put such to the risk of injury to health for your mere gratification. 
The most that can happen from a too close vehicle is a fainting fit, which 
kills nobody, and which would rectify itself in five minutes if simply let 
alone ; but an open window in a conveyance has originated pleurisies, in- 
flammation of the lungs, sore throat, colds, peritonital inflammations, and 
the like, which have hurried multitudes from health to the grave within a 
week. The openness of a travelling conveyance has killed a hundred, 
where closeness has killed one. 

It is inconsiderate to be waked up in the morning as a habit ; it is an 
interference with nature, whose unerring instinct apportions the amount of 
sleep to the needs of the body, nor will she allow that habitual interference 
with impunity, under any circumstances. 

It is inconsiderate to crowd the doors or vestibules of public assemblies, 
whether of worship or of pleasure ; they are for purposes of ingress or 
egress, and to stand in them, to lounge or gaze about, to the incommoding of 
a dozen or more persons, within any five minutes, is not only impolite, but 
it is impertinent. 

It is inconsiderate in passing out of a public assembly to stop an instant 
for purposes of salutation or conversation, to the detention of a dozen, or a 
hundred, or a thousand who are behind you. 

It is inconsiderate to keep a caller waiting in a cold or dark or cheerless 
parlor for two, ten, or twenty minutes, to his risk of health or loss of time, 
merely for the purpose of showing a style of dress or personal adornment 
not habitual, or of making an impression of some kind foreign to the facts 
of the case. 

It is inconsiderate to take a medicine, simply because it had cured some 
one else who had an ailment similar to your own. Of two donkeys on the 
verge of utter exhaustion and prostration, the one laden with salt was greatly 
refreshed, and had his burden largely lightened by swimming a river ; the 
other with a sack of wool by the same operation doubled the weight of his 
load, and perished. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 2. 



SUMMER FRUITS 



Physiological research has fully established the fact that acids promote the separation of 
the bile from the blood, which is then passed from the system, thus preventing fevers, the pre- 
vailing diseases of summer. All fevers are "bilious," that is, the bile is in the blood. "Whatever 
is antagonistic of fever is cooling. It is a common saying that fruits are cooling," and also 
berries of every description; it is because the acidity which they contain aids in separating the 
bile from the blood, that is, aids in purifying the blood. Hence the great yearning for greens 
and lettuce and salads in the early spring, these being eaten with vinegar ; hence also the taste for 
something sour, for lemonades, on an attack of fever. 

But this being the case, it is easy to see, that we nullify the good effects of fruits and berries, 
In proportion as we eat them with sugar, or even sweet injlk or cream. If we eat them in their 
natural state, fresh, ripe, perfect, it is almost impossible to eat too many, to eat enough to hurt 
us, especially if we eat them alone, not taking any liquid with them whatever. Hence also is 
buttermilk, or even common sour milk promotive of health in summer time. Sweet milk tends 
to biliousness in sedentary people ; sour milk is antagonistic. The Greeks and Turks are passion- 
ately f jnd of sour milk. The shepherds use rennet, and the milk-dealers alum to make it sour 
the sooner. Buttermilk acts like watermelons on the system. 



THE DIFFERENCE. 

"When a simpleton wants to get well, he buys something " to take ;" a philosopher gets some- 
thing "to do;" and it is owing to the circumstance, that the latter has been in a minority almost 
undistinguishable in all nations and ages, that doctors are princes, instead of paupers ; live like 
gentlemen, instead of cracking rocks for the turnpike. 



POISONOUS BITES. 

Dttbing the increased travel of summer, the bites from insects and reptiles of various kinds 
are of frequent occurrence. Persons of healthful blood are bitten with impunity sometimes, 
while those in feeble health suffer distressing, and sometimes fatal, consequences. 

A'mostall poisonous bites arise from the acidity of the virus; it then follows that an alkali is 
the best antidote, because an alkali and an acid are as much opposed to each other as light and 
darkness, as sweet and sour. And as expedition is sometimes the life of a man, it is of consider- 
able practical importance to know what is the most universally available remedy. A handful of 
the fresh ashes of wood 13 the most generally accessible; pour on enough water, hot is best, to 
cover it, stir it quickly, And either apply the fluid part, that is the ley, with a rag or sponge, or 
have less water, and apply a poultice made of simple water and fresh wood-ashes. Eenew the 
poultice every half-hour until the hurting is entirely removed. As to minor insects, the relief 
is almost instantaneous. The next most convenient remedy is common spirits of hartshorn, a 
small vial of which should be in every family, and in every traveller's trunk or carpet-bag, in 
summer-time at least. Saleratus, dampi-ned and applied to the wound or stung place, is not as 
powerful as hartshorn. It failed recently to cure the sting of a bee, the gentleman dying in con- 
vulsions within an hour after he was stung; this arose from some peculiarity of constitution, aa 
" Idiosyncracy," a3 physicians term it. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 3. 



HOW TO CURE A COLD 



The moment a man is satisfied he has taken cold, let him do three things : 

First, eat nothing ; second, go to bed, cover up warm in a warm room ; 
third, drink as much cold water as he can, or as he wants, or as much 
hot herb-tea as he can ; and in three cases out of four he will be almost 
well in thirty-six hours. 

If he does nothing for his cold for forty- eight hours after the cough com- 
mences, there is nothing that he can swallow that will, by any possibility, 
arrest the cold, for, with such a start, it will run its course of about a fort- 
night in spite of all that can be done, and what is swallowed in the mean 
time in the way of food, is a hindrance and not good. 

" Feed a cold and starve a fever" is a mischievous fallacy. A cold always 
brings a fever ; the cold never beginning to get well until the fever subsides ; 
but every mouthful swallowed is that much to feed the fever; and but for 
the fact that as soon as a cold is fairly started, nature, in a kind of despera- 
tion, steps in and takes away the appetite, the commonest cold would be 
followed by very serious results, and in frail people would be always fatal. 

These things being so, the very fact of waiting forty-eight hours gives 
time for the cold to fix itself in the system ; for a cold does not usually 
cause cough until a day or two has passed, and then waiting two days 
longer gives it the fullest chance to do its work before any thing at all is 
done. 

Intelligent druggists know that all medicines sold for coughs, colds, con- 
sumption, and tickling in the throat, contain opium in some form or other. 
They repress the cough but do not eradicate it ; hence the first purchase 
paves the way for a second or a third ; meanwhile, as it is the essential 
nature of opium to close up, to constringe, to deaden the sensibilities, the 
bowels do not feel the presence of their contents calling for a discharge, and 
constipation is induced and becomes the immediate cause of three fourths 
of all ordinary ailments, such as headache, neuralgia, dyspepsia, and piles. 

Warmth and abstinence are safe and certain cures when applied early. 
Warmth keeps the pores of the skin open, and relieves it of the surplus 
which oppresses it ; while abstinence cuts off the supply of material for 
phlegm, which would otherwise have to be coughed up. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 4. 



NINE NEVERS. 



Nevee write a letter or a line in a passion. 
Never spit or blow your nose on the sidewalk. 

Never find a fault until you are as sure as you are of your existence that a fault has been com* 
mitted. 

Never say what you would do under any given circumstances. 

Never disparage another by name in a letter. 

Never get in a rage. 

Never utter a syllable in a passion. 

Never refuse to pay a debt when you have the money in your pocket. 

Never take physic until you have tried patience. 



CAUSES OF DISEASE. 

The complaints of people are in a measure innumerable ; every now and then a peculiarity of 
ailment is presented which is not recorded in any book extant; just as new questions of law are 
constantly arising. But while the effects of disease are so numerous, the causes of them may be 
reduced down so low as to be all told in the number five : 

First— Poisons. 

Second — Improper eating. 

Third — Variations of atmosphere. 

Fourth — Occupations. 

Fifth — Ilereditary tendencies ; which last, indeed, is a modification of the first. 

Of the four, by far the most frequent causes of disease are found in the food we eat, and in 
the air we breathe, the rectification of both of which is within our own power; requiring only a 
moderate amount of intelligence, but a large share of moral power, that is, a resolute self- 
denial. It thus follows, that death, short of old age, is chargeal le to man himself; that in an im- 
portant sense, the great mass of those who die short of threescore years and ten, are the authors 
of their own destruction. And each should inquire, " To what extent am I chargeable with my 
own ailments V 



BURYING ALIVE. 

" Tis well," were the last recorded words of the great "Washington, uttered in reference to 
his burial. 

" Do not let my body be put into the vault in less than three days after I am dead," and, 
looking earnestly into his secretary's face, he continued, " Do you understand me ?" "Yes, 11 said 
Mr. Lear. " 'Tis well," replied Washington, and 6poke no more. 

The great Dr. Physic left an injunction that a blood-vessel should be severed before he was 
buried, in order to make it certain that he was dead. 

The marvellous stories put in circulation by the credulous, in reference to the turning Oi 
bodies, and the tearing of the grave-clotbes in the fearful struggle for breath, are without any 
rational foundation. If a hot iron raises no blister on the skin, or if a severed artery does not 
bleed, there can be no reasonable ground for doubting that death has taken place. These testa 
should be applied not sooner than eight or ten hours after the apparent decease. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 5. 



CARE FOR THE EYES 



Prescott, the historian, in consequence of a disorder of the nerve of the eye, 
wrote every word of his " Historicals " without pen or ink, as he could not see 
when the pen was out of ink, or from any other cause failed to make a mark. He 
used an agate stylus on carbonated paper, the lines and edges of the paper being 
indicated by brass wires in a wooden frame. 

Crawford, the sculptor, the habit of whose life had been to read in a reclining 
position, lost one eye, and soon died from the formation of a malignant cancerous 
tumor behind the ball, which pushed it out on the cheek. 

There are many affections of the eyes which are radically incurable. Persons 
of scrofulous constitutions, without any special local manifestation of it, often 
determine the disease to the eye by some erroneous habit or practice, and it 
remains there for life. It is useful, therefore, to know some of the causes which, 
by debilitating the eye, invite disease to it, or render it incapable of resisting 
adverse influences. 

Avoid reading by candle or any other artificial light. 

Reading by twilight ought never to be indulged in. A safe rule is — never read 
after sun-down, or before sun-rise. 

Do not allow yourself to read a moment in any reclining position, whether in 
bed or on a sofa. 

The practice of reading while on horseback, or in any vehicle in motion by 
wheels, is most pernicious. 

Reading on steam or sail-vessels should not be largely indulged in, because the 
slightest motion of the page or your body alters the focal point, and requires a 
painful straining effort to readjust it. 

Never attempt to look at the sun while shining unless through a colored glass of 
some kind : even a very bright moon should not be long gazed at. 

The glare of the sun on water is very injurious to the sight. 

A sudden change between bright light and darkness is always pernicious. 

In looking at minute objects, relieve the eyes frequently by turning them to 
something in the distance. 

Let the light, whether natural or artificial, fall on the page from behind, a little 
to one side. 

Every parent should peremptorily forbid all sewing by candle or gas-light, espe- 
cially of dark materials. 

If the eyes are matted together after sleeping, the most instantaneous and 
agreeable solvent in nature is the application of the saliva with the finger before 
opening the eye. Never pick it off with the finger nail, but wash it off with the 
ball of the fingers in quite warm water. 

Never bathe or open the eyes in cold water. It is always safest, best, and most 
agreeable, to use warm water for that purpose over seventy degrees. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 6. 



Hints for the Travelling Season. 



At this season many persons contemplate travelling ; to do so with the largest 
amount of comfort, and advantage, physical, social, and mental, the following sug- 
gestions are made : 

Take one fourth more money than your actual estimated expenses. 

Acquaint yourself with the geography of the route and region of travel. 

Have a good supply of small, change, and have no bill or piece higher than ten 
dollars, that you may not take counterfeit change. 

So arrange as to have but a single article of luggage to look after. 

Dress substantially ; better to be too hot for two or three hours at noon, than 
to be too cool for the remainder of the twenty-four. 

Arrange, under all circumstances, to be at the place of starting fifteen or twenty 
minutes before the time, thus allowing for unavoidable or unanticipated detention 
on the way. 

Do not commence a day's travel before breakfast, even if that has to be eaten 
at daylight. Dinner or supper, or both can be more healthfully dispensed with, 
than a good warm breakfast. 

Put your purse and watch in your vest-pocket, and all under your pillow, and 
you will not be likely to leave either. 

The most if not secure fastening of your chamber-door is a common bolt on the 
inside ; if there is none, lock the door, turn the key so that it can be drawn partly 
out, and put the washbasin under it; thus, any attempt to use a jimmy or put in 
another key, will push it out, and cause a racket among the crockery, which will 
be pretty certain to rouse the sleeper and rout the robber. 

A sixpenny sandwich eaten leisurely in the cars, is better for you than a dollar 
dinner bolted at a " station." 

Take with you a month's supply of patience, and always think thirteen times 
before you reply once to any supposed rudeness or insult, or inattention. 

Do not suppose yourself specially and designedly neglected, if waiters at hotels 
do not bring what you call for in double quick time ; nothing so distinctly marks 
the well bred man as a quiet waiting on such occasions ; passion proves the puppy. 

Do not allow yourself to converse in a tone loud enough to be heard by a 
person two or three seats from you ; it is the mark of a boor if in a man, and ot 
want of refinement and lady-like delicacy, if in a woman. A gentleman is not 
noisy ; ladies are serene. 

Comply cheerfully and grncefully with the customs of the conveyances in which 
you travel, and of the places where you stop. 

Respect yourself by exhibiting the manners of a gentleman and a lady, if you 
fcrish to be treated as such, and then you will receive the respect of others. 

Travel is a great leveller ; take the position which others assign you from youi 
conduct rather than from your pretensions. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 7. 



MUSIC HEALTHFUL. 



Music, like painting and statuary, refines, and elevates, and 
ennobles. Song is the language of gladness, and it is the utter- 
ance of devotion. But coming lower down, it is physically bene- 
ficial ; it rouses the circulation, wakes up the bodily energies, and 
diffuses life and animation around. Does a lazy man ever sing ? 
Does a milk-and-water character ever strike a stirring note? 
Never. Song is the outlet of mental and physical activity, and 
increases both by its exercise. No child *has completed a religious 
education who has not been taught to sing the songs of Zion. No 
part of our religious worship is sweeter than this. In David's 
day it was a practice and a study. 



YOUNG- OLD PEOPLE. 

Some look old at less than forty ; others beyond threescore have 
the vivacity, the sprightliness, and the spring of youth. One of 
the most active politicians of the times is now in his seventy-fifth 
year, and yet goes by the name of " the ever youthful Palmer- 
ston," and with the weight of nations on his shoulders, will 
find time to take a rapid ride on horseback daily, from ten to 
twenty miles. " The heavy cares and severe labors of the Earl 
of Malmesbury average eleven hours a day," and yet at the age 
of " fifty years, he is scarcely above forty in appearance." It is 
by no means an uncommon thing to read the deaths of men and 
women of the English nobility at eighty and ninety years, to be 
accounted for in part by their taking time to do things, and 
thereby doubling the time for doing them. The British are a 
dignified people, manly, mature ; a deliberative people, with the 
result of being as a nation, the most solid, the most substantial, 
and the greatest on the globe. They are worthy of that great- 
ness, and we above all the peoples should be proud of it. 
Americans, on the other hand, are a hasty race ; their habitual 
hurries and anxieties eat out the very essence of life before half 
that life is done, and all bloodless, fidgety, skinny, and thin, we 
are but " a vapor that appeareth for a little time, and then 
vanisheth away.'' 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 8. 



DYSPEPSIA AND DRUNKENNESS. 



A dkuxkard is never so great a fool as to kill himself; tlie 
dyspeptic is. 

More persons are destroyed by eating too much, than by drink- 
ing too much. Gluttony kills more than drunkenness in civilized 
society. 

The dyspeptic kills himself; the drunkard kills others. 

The dyspeptic takes his own life under the influence of mental 
depression ; the drunkard kills others under the influence of 
mental excitement. But, although both are unlike unconscious 
at the time of what they are doing — one slaying himself, the 
other slaying his fellow-man — the suicide has the sympathies of 
society, and finds among it many apologists ; while towards the 
drunken murderer of another the feeling is one of vindictive 
impatience for the gallows to do its duty. 

Both the drunkard and the dyspeptic are unconscious of crime 
at the instant of its perpetration. Both states are brought on by 
over-indulgence of the appetite ; the one for food, the other for 
drink ; and both end in shedding blood. 

The dyspeptic lays his plans for self-murder with deliberation ; 
the drunkard murders another in the surprise of ungovernable 
passion ; and, if deliberation darkens the deed, then is the drunk- 
ard the less criminal of the two. 

If the drunkard is murderously inclined, it is only for a brief 
hour, while the fit is upon him, and he need be watched only for 
that time. But the dyspeptic, who is set on his own heart's 
blood, must be watched sedulously for days and months, or, the 
first moment that the eye is off his movements, he improves to 
his ruin. 

Few palliate the drunkard's deed, while the dyspeptic meets 
with universal sympathy. Should this be so ? What is the 
ground for this partiality ? Surely all are called upon to mature 
this subject and to inquire, with a feeling of considerable personal 
responsibility, if, in the matter of eating, there is a daily watch 
against excesses, which so often end in that worst of all crimes, 
(because done with deliberation, and is not repented of,) self- 
murder ! 



HEALTH TRACT, NO. 9. 



USES OF ICE. 



In health no one ought to drink ice-water, for it has occasioned fatal 
inflammations of the stomach and bowels, and sometimes sudden death. 
The temptation to drink it is very great in summer ; to use it at all with 
any safety the person should take but a single swallow at a time, take the 
glass from the lips for half a minute, and then another swallow, and so on. 
It will be found that in this way it becomes disagreeable after a few 
mouthfuls. 

On the other hand, ice itself may be taken as freely as possible, not only 
without injury, but with the most striking advantage in dangerous forms of 
disease. If broken in sizes of a pea or bean, and swallowed as freely as 
practicable, without much chewing or crushing between the teeth, it will 
often be efficient in checking various kinds of diarrhoea, and has cured 
violent cases of Asiatic cholera. 

A kind of cushion of powdered ice kept to the entire scalp, has allayed 
violent inflammations of the brain, and arrested fearful convulsions induced 
by too much blood there. 

In croup, water, as cold as ice can make it, applied freely to the throat, 
neck, and chest, with a sponge or cloth, very often affords an almost miracu- 
lous relief, and if this be followed by drinking copiously o'f the same ice- 
cold element, the wetted parts wiped dry, and the child be wrapped up well 
in the bed-clothes, it falls into a delightful and life-giving slumber. 

All inflammations, internal or external, are promptly subdued by the 
application of ice or ice-water, because it is converted into steam and 
rapidly conveys away the extra heat, and also diminishes the quantity of 
blood in the vessels of the part. 

A piece of ice laid on the wrist will often arrest violent bleeding of the 
nose. 

To drink any ice-cold liquid at meals retards digestion, chills the body, 
and has been known to induce the most dangerous internal congestions. 

Refrigerators, constructed on the plan of Bartlett's, are as philosophical as 
they are healthful, for the ice does not come in contact with the water or 
other contents, yet keeps them all nearly ice cold. 

If ice is put in milk or on butter, and these are not used at the time, they 
lose their freshness and become sour and stale, for the essential nature of 
both is changed, when once frozen and then thawed. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 14. 



WINTEE SHOES. 



Like the gnarled oak that has withstood the storms and thunderbolts of centuries, man him- 
self begins to die at the extremities. Keep the feet dry and warm, and we may snap our 
fingers in joyous triumph at disease and the doctors. Put on two pair of thick woollen stockings, 
but keep this to yourself ; go to some honest son of St. Crispin, and have your measure taken for 
a stout pair of winter boots or shoes ; shoes are better for ordinary, every-day use, as they allow 
the ready escape of the odors, while they strengthen the ankles, accustoming them to depend on 
themselves. A very slight accident is sufficient to cause a sprained ankle to a habitual boot- 
wearer. Besides, a shoe compresses less, and hence admits of a more vigorous circulation of blood. 
But wear boots when you ride or travel. Give directions also to have no cork or India rubber 
about the shoes, but to place between the layers of the soles, from out to out, a piece of stout hemp 
or tow-linen, which has been dipped in melted pitch. This is absolutely impervious to water — does 
not absorb a particle, while we know that cork does, and after a while becomes " soggy" and 
damp for a week. When you put them on for the first time, they will feel " as easy as an old 
shoe,'' and you may stand on damp places for hours with impunity. 



CU.RE FOR CORNS. 

Corns are caused by too tight or too loose shoes, and sometimes in the bottoms of the feet by 
the wooden pegs protruding through the soles of the shoe, by the neglect of the maker to rasp them 
off sufficiently smooth. 

Medical books record cases where the injudicious paring of corns has resulted in mortification 
and death. The safest, the best, the surest plan is to never allow a corn to be touched with any 
thing harder than the finger-nail. As soon as it becomes troublesome enough to attract attention, 
soak the foot fifteen minutes, night and morning, in quite warm water ; then rub two or three 
drops of sweet oil into the top of the corn, with the end of the finger. Do this patiently for a 
couple of minutes. Then double a piece of soft buckskin, something larger round than a dime, 
rather oblong. Cut a hole through it large enough to receive the corn, and thus attach it to the 
toe. This prevents pressure on the corn, which always agravates it, and in less than a week the 
corn will generally fall out, or can be easily picked out with the finger-nail, and will not return for 
many weeks or months ; and when it does return, repeat the process. No safer or more efficient 
plan of removal has ever been made known. 



NEW SHOES MADE EASY. 

All part from an old shoe with special reluctance, because of the easiness of its adaptation to 
the foot. To put on a " bran new" boot or shoe, with the easy fitting of the discarded old one, 
is well worth knowing how to do. It is only necessary to keep a secret. Before you have your 
measure taken, put on two pair of thick stockings, and let Crispin go ahead. The new pair will be 
almost as easy as the old. 



HLALTH TRACT No. 15. 



GROWING BEAUTIFUL. 



Persons may outgrow disease and become healthy by proper attention to the laws of their 
physical constitution. By moderate and daily exercise men may become active and strong in 
limb and muscle. But to grow beautiful, how ? Age dims the lustre of the eye, and pales the 
roses on beauty's cheek ; while crowfeet, and furrows, and wrinkles, and lost teeth, and gray 
hairs, and bald head, and tottering limbs, and limping most sadly mar the human form divine. 
w But dim as the eye is, as pallid and sunken as maybe the face of beauty, and frail and feeble that 
once strong, erect, and manly body, the immortal soul, just fledging its wings for its home in 
heaven, may look out through those faded windows as beautiful as the dew-drop of a summer's 
morning, as melting as the tears that glisten in affection's eye — by growing kindly, by cultivating 
sympathy with all human kind, by cherishing forbearance towards the follies and foibles of our 
race, and feeding, day by day, on that love to God and man which lifts us from the brute, 
and makes us akin to angels. 



WEAK EYES. 

WILLIS 03ST HALL. 

{From the Home Journal of Jan. 28, 1860.) 

A Good Hall. — A " very good haul," indeed, does he get, every month, who with a ne$ 
dollar, takes the " Journal of Health," edited by Hall the Doctor ! Of the pocket-wisdom most 
wanted, plain, pithy and pertinent, this little periodical, in our opinion, is the very purse. Now, 
what weak-eyed man or woman, for instance, will not be wiser for the following : " Many who 
are troubled with weak eyes, by avoiding the use of them in reading, sewing, and the like, until 
after breakfast, will be able to use them with greater comfort for the remainder of the day, the 
reason being, that in the digestion of the food the blood is called in from all parts of the 
system, to a certain extent, to aid the stomach in that important process ; besides, the food 
eaten gives general strength, imparts a stimulus to the whole man, and the eyes partake of their 
share." 



The Door-bell Requiem. — To the belle men no longer adore, a door-tell tolls the requiem, 
(with its fewer-and-farther betweenities on New-Year's day,) or so seems to think Dr. Hall. Ah ! 
the poetry there is — or might be — under the following statement of it in prose ! " There are 
maiden ladies, who, some years ago, numbered their callers by dozens and scores, and ever 
hundreds ; but for a few years past they have fallen off in geometrical progression, and now the 
diminution is really frightful. Formerly, when youth and beauty were theirs, the door-bell 
began to tingle as soon as the clock struck nine of the morning, with scarcely an intermission 
until it verged toward midnight. But now how great the change ! Merry voices are heard 
outside, but they do not greet their ears ; brisk footfalls sound on the pavement, but they do 
not stop at their doors, and a weary forenoon has almost passed away with only one or two 
visitors to break the disturbing monotony, former visions begin to assume more tangible 
Bhape3 and the embodied idea stands out in high relief— Pasaee /" 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 16. 



MEASLES AND CONSUMPTION. 



This disease prevails extensively in cities during the winter 
season, and will usually cure itself, if only protected against 
adverse influences. The older persons are, the less likely they 
are to recover perfectly from this ailment, for it very often 
leaves some life-long malady behind it. The most hopeless 
forms of consumptive disease are often the result of ill-conduct- 
ed or badly managed measles. In nine cases out of ten, not a 
particle of any medicine is needed. 

Our first advice is, always, and under all circumstances, send 
at once for an experienced physician. Meanwhile keep the 
patient in a cool, dry, and well-aired room, with moderate 
covering, in a position where there will be no exposure to 
drafts of air. The thermometer should range at about sixty- 
five degrees, where the bed stands, which should be moderately 
hard, of shucks, straw, or curled hair. Gratify the instinct for 
cold water and lemonade. It is safest to keep the bed for seve- 
ral days after the rash has begun to die away. The diet should 
be light, and of an opening, cooling character. 

The main object of this article is to warn persons that the 
greater danger is after the disappearance of the measles. We 
would advise that for three weeks after the patient is well 
enough to leave his bed, he should not go out of the house, nor 
stand or sit for a single minute near an open window or door, 
nor wash any part of the person in cold water nor warm, but 
to wipe the face with a damp cloth. For a good part of this 
time the appetite should not be wholly gratified ; the patient 
should eat slowly of light nutritious food. In one case, a little 
child, almost entirely well of the measles, got to playing with 
its hands in cold water; it gradually dwindled away and- died. 
All exercise should be moderate, in order to prevent cooling 
off too quickly afterwards, and to save the danger of exposure 
to drafts of air, which, by chilling the surface, causes chronic 
diarrhoea, if it falls on the bowels ; deafness for life, if it falls on 
the ear ; or incurable consumption, if it falls on the lungs. 

The easiest method of securing an erect and manly carriage is 
to walk with the chin slightly above a horizontal line, as if 
looking at something higher than your own head. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 17. 



SA.BB-A.TH PH"2:SIOLOGY 



The Almighty rested one seventh of the time of creation, commanding man to observe an equa 
repose. The neglect of this injunction will always, sooner or later, bring mental, moral, and phy- 
sical death. 

Rest is an invariable law of animal life. The busy heart beats, beats ever, from infancy to 
age, and yet for a large part of the time it is in a state of repose. 

William Pitt died of apoplexy at the early age of forty-seven. When the destinies of nations 
hung in a large measure on his doings, he felt compelled to give an unremitting attention to af- 
fairs of state. Sabbath brought no rest to him, and soon the unwilling brain gave signs of ex- 
haustion. But his presence in Parliament was conceived to be indispensable for explanation and 
defense of the public policy. Under such circumstances, it was his custom to eat heartily substan- 
tial food, most highly seasoned, just before going to his place, in order to afford the body that 
strength and to excite the mind to that activity deemed necessary to the momentous occasion. 
But under the high tension both brain and body perished prematurely. 

Not long ago, one of the most active business men of England found his affairs so extended, 
lhat he deliberately determined to devote his Sabbaths to his accounts. He had a mind of a wide 
^rasp. His views were so comprehensive, so far-seeing, that wealth came in upon him like a flood. 
He purchased a country seat at the cost of $400,000, determining that he would now have rest and 
quiet. But it was too late. As he stepped on his threshold after a survey of his late purchase, he 
became apoplectic. Although life was not destroyed, he only lives to be the wreck of a man. 

It used to be said that a brick kiln " must be kept burning over the Sabbath ;" it is now 
fcnown to be a fallacy. There can be no " must" against the divine command. Even now it is a 
received opinion that iron blast furnaces will bring ruin if not kept in continual operation. Eight- 
een years ago, an Englishman determined to keep the Sabbath holy as to them, with the result, as 
his books testified, that he made more iron in six days than he did before in seven ; that he made 
more iron in a given time, in proportion to the hands and number and size of the furnaces, than 
any establishment in England which was kept in operation during the Sabbath. 

In our own New-York, the mind of a man who made half a million a year, went out in the 
night of madness and an early grave within two years, from the very strain put upon it by a 
variety of enterprises, every one of which succeeded. 

" It will take about five years to clear them off," said an observant master of an Ohio canal- 
boat, alluding to the wearing-out influences on the boatmen, who worked on Sabbaths as well as 
other days. As to the boatmen and firemen of the steamers on the Western rivers, which never 
lay by on the Sabbath, seven years is the average of life. The observance, therefore, of the 
seventh portion of our time for the purposes of rest ia demonstrably a physiological neces- 
Blty — a law of our nature. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 18. 



THE BEST HAIK-WASH. 



A Southern correspondent says : " In the matter of a hair- wash, in a recent 
number of the Journal op Health, I have received a thousand times its cost, 
and it has also been a benefit to many others." 

Make half a pint soap-suds with pure white soap and warm water, on rising any 
morning ; but before applying it, brush the whole scalp well, while the hair is per- 
fectly dry, with the very best Russia bristle brush, scrub back and forth with a 
will, let not any portion of the surface escape. When brushing the top and front, 
lean forward, that the particles may fall. After this operation is finished, strike 
the ends of the bristles on the hearth or on a board, next pass the coarse part of 
the comb through the bristles ; next, brush or flap the hair back and forth with 
the hand until no dust is seen to fall ; then with the balls of the fingers dipped in 
the soap-suds, rub the fluid into the scalp and about the roots of the hair; do this 
patiently and thoroughly. Finally, rinse with clear water, and absorb as much of 
the water from the hair as possible with a dry cloth ; then (after allowing the hair 
to dry a little more by evaporation, but not to dry entirely) dress it as usual, 
always, under all circumstances, passing the comb through the hair slowly and 
gently, so as not to break any one off, or tear out any one by the roots. 

By this operation the alkali of the soap unites with the natural oil of the hair, 
and leaves it perfectly clean and beautifully silken, and with cold water washings 
of the whole head and neck and ears every morning, it will soon be found that 
the hair will " dress" as handsomely as if u oiled to perfection;" with the great ad- 
vantage of conscious cleanliness, giving, too, the general appearance of a greater 
profusion of hair than when it is plastered flat on the scalp, with variously scented 
hog's fat, as is the common custom. 

It has been recently established, in a court of justice in the city of New-York, 
that one of the most popular hair- washes ever known was made by adding a little 
alcohol, scented with a perfume, to common soap-suds. 

A better hair-wash is a tea-spoonful of powdered borax in half a glass of warm water, applied as 
above weekly, with a good use of the hair-brush daily, using a comb only to straighten out the 
hair, touching the scalp but very lightly indeed, (otherwise it makes it rough and injures the roots 
of the hair.) This will prevent DANDRUFF, which answers to what is deposited from the curry- 
comb r,f a horse, being the dead scales, dried oil, perspiration, and dust of the scalp. Nothing 
can ever make hair grow on a shining scalp. Pare soft water will make the hair " dress " better 
than any thing else in nature. It is an unclean scalp that " rots " the hair and imparts an un- 
pleasant odor. If good health, a clean scalp, and cutting off the extreme ends of the hair 
monthly does not make it grow, nothing else can. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 19. 



WEARING FLANNEL. 



In our climate, fickle in its gleams of sunshine and its balmy airs, as a co- 
quette with her smiles and favors, consumption bears away every year the 
ornaments of many social circles. The fairest and loveliest are its favorites. 
An ounce of prevention in this fatal disease is worth many pounds of cure, for 
when once well seated, it mocks alike medical skill and careful nursing. If the 
fair sex could be induced to regard the laws of health, many precious lives might 
be saved ; but pasteboard soles, the low-neck dresses, and lilliputian hats, sow an- 
nually the seeds of a fatal harvest. The suggestion in the following article from 
the Journal of Health, if followed, might save many with consumptive tendencies 
from an early grave : 

"Put it on at once ; winter and summer nothing better can be worn next to the 
skin than a loose red woollen shirt ; ' loose,' for it has room to move on the skin, 
thus causing a titillation which draws the blood to the surface and keeps it there ; 
and when that is the case no one can take cold ; ' red,' for white flannel fulls up, 
mats together, and becomes tight, stiff, heavy and impervious. Cotton-wool 
merely absorbs the moisture from the surface, while woollen flannel conveys it from 
the skin and deposits it in drops on the outside of the shirt, from which the ordi- 
nary cotton shirt absorbs it, and by its nearer exposure to the air it is soon dried 
without injury to the body. Having these properties, red wool flannel is worn by 
sailors even in the midsummer of the warmest countries. Wear a thinner material 
in summer." 



TO CONSUMPTIVES. 

You want air, not physic ; you want pure air, not medicated air ; you want nu- 
trition, such as plenty of meat and bread will give, and they alone ; physic has no 
nutriment; gasping for air can not cure you ; monkey-capers in a gymnasium can 
not cure you ; and stimulants can not cure you. If you want to get well, go in for 
beef and out-door air, and do not be deluded into the grave by advertisements and 
unreliable certifiers. 



THREE ESSENTIALS. 

The three great essentials to human health are : Keep the feet always dry 
and warm ; Have one regular action of the bowels every day ; and Cool off 
very slowly after all forms of exercise. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 20. 

i mmn without mbmcme. 



A NEW YEAR'S PRESENT FOR TOTJR WIFE. 

JE^IBegixx -with. th.e January Number..^^ 

SUBSCRIPTIONS RECEIVED 

FOR 



mulVi W$ntml 

^3 O 



A MONTHLY PUBLICATION, 

Price One Dollar per year. 

HEALTH IS A DUTY" INCUMBENT ON ALL. 



Health is a duty. — When we announced as a starting-point in the first 
number of our Journal that a man ought to keep well, and being sick was 
an implied wrong, no doubt it appeared to many rather a rigid doctrine : 
to wit, that it is a sin to be sick. But men of reflection will not be long in 
coming to the conclusion, that if it is not so in some cases, it is so in a vast 
number of instances ; and a practical man may benefit himself largely, if he 
be also conscientious, by inquiring, when incapacitated from discharging 
the duties of life by illness, " Is it my fault V A servant who cuts off his 
hand to avoid labor, does, certainly, a deliberate wrong to the person to 
whom he justly owes his labor. And although we may not deliberately 
make ourselves sick, yet, if it is done through gross inattention or from 
ignorance, the degree of criminality in the latter is but a short distance 
from the former. 

To use a not uncommon expression, a man has no business to be side. 
In other words, his being a sick man is not always a necessity. People do 
not get sick without a cause, except in rare cases ; and that cause is, very 
generally, within themselves, resulting from inattention, ignorance, or reck 
lessness, either on the part of themselves, their parents, or their teachers. 
It is a very poor excuse for a man to say that he can not pay a debt — that 
declaration becomes insulting to the creditor — when that inability is the 
result of improvidence or actual extravagance. When any man is disabled 
by sickness from discharging his duty to himself, his family, or to society, 
the question should at once be, " Is it from Heaven or of men ?" Not of 
the former, for it is said He does not willingly afflict the children of men ; 
consequently, sickness is not of His sending. It is the result of causes 
within ourselves. In a literal sense, as well as a moral, it is true, " Israeli 
thou hast destroyed thyself!" In plainer terms, disease is not sent upon us ; 
we bring it upon ourselves, and, therefore, health is a duty incumbent on all 



HEALTH TRACT, Ko. 21. 



ATTENTION TO THE FEET. 

It is utterly impossible to get well or keep well, unless 
the feet are kept dry and warm all the time. If they are 
for the most part cold, there is cough or sore throat, or 
hoarseness, or sick headache, or some other annoyance. 

If cold and dry, the feet should be soaked in hot water 
for ten minutes every night, and when wiped and dried, 
rub into them well, ten or fifteen drops of sweet oil ; do 
this patiently with the hands, rubbing the oil into the soles 
of the feet particularly. 

On getting up in the morning, dip both feet at once into 
water, as cold as the air of the room, half ankle deep, for 
a minute in Summer ; half a minute or less in Winter, rub- 
bing one foot with the other, then wipe dry, and if 
convenient, hold them to the fire, rubbing them with the 
hand until perfectly dry and warm in every part. 

If the feet are damp and cold, attend only to the morn- 
ing washings, but always at night remove the stockings, 
and hold the feet to the fire, rubbing them with the hands 
for fifteen minutes, and get immediately into bed. 

Under any circumstances, as often as the feet are cold 
enough to attract attention, draw off the stockings, and 
hold them to the fire ; if the feet are much inclined to damp- 
ness, put on a pair of dry stockings, leaving the damp ones 
before the fire to be ready for another change. 

Some person's feet are more comfortable, even in Winter, 
in cotton, others in woolen stockings. Each must be guided 
by his own feelings. Sometimes two pair of thin stockings 
keep the feet warmer, than one pair which is thicker than 
both. The thin pair may be of the same or of different 
materials, and that which is best next the foot, should be 
determined by the feelings of the person. 

Sometimes the feet are rendered more comfortable by 
basting half an inch thickness of curled hair on a piece of 
thick cloth, slipping this into the stocking, with the haii 
next the skin, to be removed at night, and placed before 
the fire to be perfectly dried by morning. 

Persons who walk a great deal during the day, should, 
on coming home for the night, remove their shoes and 
stockings, hold the feet to the fire until perfectly dry ; put 
on a dry pair, and wear slippers for the remainder of the 
evening. ^ 

Boots and gaiters keep the feet damp, cold and unclean, 
by preventing the escape of that insensible perspiration 
which is always escaping from a healthy foot, and condens- 
ing it ; hence the old-fashioned low shoe is best for health. 



HEALTH TRACT, Wo. 22. 



KEGULATING THE BOWELS. 

It is best that the bowels should act every morning after 
breakfast ; therefore, quietly remain in the house, and 
promptly attend to the first inclination. If the time passes, 
do not eat an atom until they do act ; at least not until break 
fast next day, and even then, do not take anything except a 
single cup of weak coffee or tea, and some cold bread and 
butter, or dry toast, or ship-biscuit. 

Meanwhile, arrange to walk or work moderately, for an 
hour or two, each forenoon and afternoon, to the extent of 
keeping up a moisture on the skin, drinking as freely as 
desired as much cold water as will satisfy the thirst, taking 
special pains, as soon as the exercise is over; to go to a good 
fire or very warm room in Winter, or, if in Summer, to a 
place entirely sheltered from any draught of air, so as to 
cool off very slowly indeed, and thus avoid taking cold or 
feeling a " soreness " all over next day. 

Remember, that without a regular daily healthful action 
of the bowels, it is impossible to maintain health, or to 
regain it, if lost. The coarser the food, the more freely 
will the bowels act, such as corn (Indian,) bread eaten hot ; 
hominy ; wheaten grits ; bread made from coarse flour, 
or " shorts ;" Graham bread ; boiled turnips, or stirabout. 

If the bowels act oftener than twice a day, live for a 
short time on boiled rice, farina, starch, or boiled milk. 
In more aggrevated cases, keep as quiet as possible on a 
bed, take nothing but rice, parched brown like coffee, 
then boiled and eaten in the usual Avay ; meanwhile drink 
nothing whatever, but eat to your fullest desire bits of ice 
swallowed nearly whole, or swallow ice cream before en- 
tirely melted in the mouth ; if necessary, wear a bandage 
of thick woolen flannel, a foot or more broad bound tightly 
around the abdomen ; this is especially necessary if the pa- 
tient has to be on the feet much. All locomotion should 
be avoided when the bowels are thin, watery or weakening. 
The habitual use of pills, or drops or any kind of medicine 
whatever, for the regulation of the bowels, is a sure means 
of ultimately undermining the health ; in almost all cases 
laying the foundation for some of the most distressing of 
chronic maladies, hence all the pains possible, should be 
taken to keep them regulated by natural agencies, such as 
the coarse foods and exercises above named. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 23. 



BXJRISrS A.ISTD BITES. 



POISONS. 

For any poison, the most speedy, certain, and most frequently efficacious remedy in the world, 
if immediately taken, is a heaping teaspoonful of ground mustard, stirred rapidly in a glass of 
cold water, and drank down at a draught, causing instantaneous vomiting. As soon as the vomit- 
ing ceases, swallow two tablespoonfuls or more of sweet-oil, or any other mild oil. 

If no ground mustard is at hand, drink a teacupful or more of sweet-oil, or any other pure 
mild oil, melted hog's lard, melted butter, train oil, cod-liver oil, any of which protect the coats of 
the stomach from the disorganizing effects of the poison ; and, to a certain extent, by filling up the 
pores of the stomach, (the mouths of the absorbents,) prevent the poison being taken up into the 
circulation of the blood. Persons bitten by rattlesnakes have drank oil freely, and recovered. 
These are things to be done while a physician is being sent for. 



BITES AND STING-S. 

Apply instantly, with a soft rag, most freely, spirits of hartshorn. The venom of stings being 
an acid, the alkali nullifies them. Fresh wood ashes, moistened with water, and made into a poul- 
tice, frequently renewed, is an excellent substitute — or, soda or saleratus — all being alkalies. 

To be on the safe side, in case of snake or mad-dog bites, drink brandy, whisky, rum, or other 
spirits, as free as water — a teacupful, or a pint or more, according to the aggravation of the cir- 
cumstances. 

POULTICES. 

As to inflammation, sores, cuts, wounds by rusty nails, etc., the great remedy is warmth and 
moisture, because these promote evaporation and cooling ; whatever kind of poultice is applied, 
that is best which keeps moist the longest, and is in its nature mild ; hence cold light (wheaten) 
bread, soaked in sweet milk, is one of the very best known. There is no specific virtue in the 
repulsive remedy of the " entrails of alive chicken," of scraped potatoes, turnips, beets, carrots, or 
any other scrapings ; the virtue consists in the mild moisture of the application. Hence the memory 
need not be burdened with the recollection of particular kinds of poultices, but only with the prin- 
ciple that that poultice is best which keeps moist longest without disturbance. 



SCALDS AND BURNS. 

The best, most instantaneous, and most accessible remedy in the world, is to thrust the injure 
part in cold water, send for a physician, and while he is coming, cover the part an inch or more 
deep with common flour. The water gives instantaneous relief by excluding the oxygen of the 
air ; the flour does the same thing, but is preferable, because it can be kept more continuously 
applied, with less inconvenience, than by keeping the parts under water. As they get well, the 
flour scales off, or is easily moistened and removed. If the injury is at all severe, the patient 
should live mainly on tea and toast, or gruels, and keep the bowels acting freely every day, by 
eating raw apples, stewed fruits, and the like. No better and more certain cure for scalds and 
burns has ever oeen proposed. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 24. 



SOUR STOMACH 



Nature provides a liquid (the gastric juice) in the stomach, 
sufficient to dissolve as much food as the system requires, and no 
more. Whatever is eaten beyond what is needed has no gastric 
juice to dissolve it, and being kept at the temperature of the 
stomach, which is about a hundred degrees, it begins to decom- 
pose — that is, to sour — in one, two, three, or more hours, just as 
new cider begins to sour in a few hours. In the process of sour- 
ing, gas is generated as in the cider-barrel, the bung is thrown 
out, and some of the contents run over at the bung-hole, because 
in souring, the contents expand, and require more room. So with 
the stomach. It may be but partially filled by a meal ; but 
if more has been swallowed than wise nature has provided gastric 
juice for, it begins to sour, to ferment, to distend, and the man 
feels uncomfortably full. He wants to belch. That gives some 
relief. But the fermentation going on, he gets the " belly ache" 
of childhood or some other discomfort, which lasts for several 
hours, when nature succeeds in getting rid of the surplus, and the 
machinery runs smoothly again. But if these things are frequently 
repeated, the machinery fails to rectify itself, looses the power of 
readjustment, works with a clog, and the man is a miserable dys- 
peptic for the remainder of life ; and all from his not having had 
wit enough to know when he had eaten a plenty, and being fool- 
ish enough, when he had felt the ill effects of thus eating too much, 
to repeat the process an indefinite number of times ; and all for the 
trifling object of feeling good for the brief period of its passing 
down the throat. For each minute of that good he pays the 
penalty of a month of such suffering as only a dyspeptic can appre- 
ciate. What a fool man is ! He is a numskull, a goose, a sheep, 
a goat, a jackass. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 25. 



SLEEPING. 

It is nothing short of murderous for one person to sleep habitually in a room 
less than twelve feet each way ; and even then the fire-place should be kept open, 
and a door ajar, or the windows raised at bottom, or lowered at top, (both better ;) 
this creates a draught up the chimney, and carries off much of the foul air generat- 
ed during sleep. A little fire, or a lamp, or jet of gas burning in the fire-place, 
increases the draught. As the air we breathe is the chief agent for removing all 
impurities from the blood, the more effectual as it is purer, it must be plain to all 
that the room in which we spend a clear third of our entire existence should con- 
tain the purest air possible, and that this must have an immense influence on the 
health. Hence, our chambers should be large and airy — the higher above the 
ground the better — with windows facing the south, so as to have all the benefit of 
sunlight and warmth, to keep them dry and cheerful. Besides a few handsome 
pictures or paintings on the walls, illustrating what is beautiful and elevating, there 
should be no furniture except a table, a dressing-bureau, and a few chairs, all with- 
out covering. With the exception of the bedding and a clean dry towel, there 
should be no woven fabric, neither carpet, curtains, nor hanging garments ; for 
these, especially if woolen, retain odors, dust, dampness, and seeds of corruption 
and disease for months. There should be a hearth-rug at the bedside to prevent 
the bare feet from coming in contact with the cold floor, on getting out of a warm 
bed. No liquid except a pitcher of cold water should be allowed to remain five 
minutes in a sleeping-room. The deadly carbonic acid gas which comes from the 
lungs at every out-breathing of the sleeper, rises to the ceiling in warm weather, 
but falls to the floor when the room is freezing cold. Hence, in summer, the pur- 
est and coolest air in a room is near the floor ; in winter, the foulest. 

To Sleep Soundly. — Inability to sleep, as a growing habit, is the first step to- 
ward certain madness ; in every disease it is an omen of ill. Hence, to cultivate 
sound sleep, do not sleep a moment in the day-time ; go to bed at a regular hour, 
and never take a "second nap " after waking of yourself in the morning. Take 
nothing after dinner but a piece of cold bread and butter, and one cup of hot drink ; 
not China tea, as it makes many wakeful. Never go to bed cold or very hungry, 
nor with cold feet. Read nothing after supper, listen to nothing, talk about no- 
thing of a very exciting character ; avoid carefully every domestic unpleasantness, 
as to child, servant, husband, or wife. Let no angry word be spoken or thought 
harbored for a single instant after tea-time, for death may come before the morn- 
ing-light. Grown persons generally require seven hours' sleep in summer, and 
eight in winter. Few indeed, except invalids, will fail to sleep well who go to bed 
at a regular early hour, on a light supper, in a large room, and clean, comfortable 
bed, if there is no sleeping in the day-time, and not more than seven hours in any 
twenty-four are passed in bed. One week's faithful trial will prove this. Children, 
and all persons at school or engaged in hard study, should take all the sleep they 
can get, and should never be waked up in the morning after having gone to bed at 
a regular early hour. Every humane parent will make it a religious duty to ar- 
range that every child shall go to bed in an affectionate, loving, and glad spirit. 
If wakeful during the night, get up, draw on the stockings, throw back the bed- 
cover to air it, walk the floor in your night-gown, with the mouth closed, all the 
while rubbing the skin briskly with both hands, until cooled off and a little tired. 
Except from August first to October first, in fever and ague localities, a chamber" 
window should be open two or three inches at least. — See Dk. Hall on " Sleep." 



HEALTH THACT, No. 26. 



EATING 



The stomach has two doors, one for the entrance of the food, on the left side, 
the other, for its exit, after it has been properly prepared for another process. 
As soon as the food is swallowed, it begins to go round and round the stomach so 
as to facilitate dissolution ; just as the melting of a number of small bits of ice is 
expedited by being stirred in a glass of water ; the food, like the ice, dissolving 
from without, inwards, until all is a liquid mass. 

Eminent physiologists have said, that as this liquid mass passes the door of 
exit, where there is a little movable muscle, called the Pyloric Yalve, (a faithful 
watchman,) that which is fit for future purposes gives a tap, as it were ; the 
Valve flies open, and it makes an honorable exit. Thus it goes on until the stom- 
ach is empty, provided no more food has been taken than there was a supply of 
gastric juice for. If a mouthful too much has been taken, there is no gastric juice 
to dissolve it ; it remains hard and undigested, it is not fit to pass, and the janitor 
refuses to open the door ; and another and another circuit is made, with a steady 
refusal at each time, until the work is properly done. Boiled rice, roasted apples, 
cold raw cabbage cut up fine in vinegar, tripe prepared in vinegar, or souse, pass 
through in about an hour ; fried pork, boiled cabbage and the like, are kept danc- 
ing around for about five hours and a half. 

After, however, there has been a repeated refusal to pass, and it would appear 
that any longer detention was useless, as in the case of indigestible food, or a dime, 
or cent, or fruit-stone, the faithful watchman seems to be almost endowed with in- 
telligence as if saying : " "Well, old fellow, you never will be of any account ; it is 
not worth while to be troubled with you any longer, pass on, and never show your 
face again." 

When food is thus unnaturally detained in the stomach, it produces wind, eructa- 
tions, fullness, acidity, or a feeling often described as a "weight," or "load," or 
" heavy." But nature is never cheated. Her regulations are never infringed with 
impunity ; and although an indigestible article may be allowed to pass out of the 
stomach, it enters the bowels as an intruder, is an unwelcome stranger, the parts 
are unused to it, like a crumb of bread which has gone the wrong way by passing 
into the lungs, and nature sets up a violent coughing to eject the intruder. As 
to the bowels, another plan is taken, but the object is the same — a speedy rid- 
dance. As soon as this unwelcome thing touches the lining of the bowels, nature 
becomes alarmed, and like as when a bit of sand is in the eye, she throws out 
water, as if with the intention of washing it out of the body, hence the sud- 
den diarrheas with which two-legged pigs are sometimes surprised. It was a 
desperate effort of nature to save the body, for if undigested food remains too 
long, either in the stomach or bowels, fits, convulsions, epilepsies, apoplexies, and 
death, are a very frequent result. Inference : Always eat slowly and in modera- 
tion of well-divided food. 



HEALTH TRACT NO. 27. 



VALUABLE KNOWLEDGE. 



Bites and Stings of insects and snakes have been cured by instantly washing 
the parts freely with spirits of hartshorn or other alkali ; at other times by 
applying a poultice made of common table-salt and the yolk of an egg. 

Burns and Scalds are instantly relieved by immersing the parts in cold 
water ; then send for the doctor, and while he is coming, cover the injured 
parts hnlf an inch deep with common dry flour ; keep the bowels acting daily, 
and take nothing but gruel, soups, stale bread, and baked fruits. This is the 
safest, best, speediest, and most certain cure ever made known for burns. 

Colds. — Swallow not a morsel, cover up warm in bed, and remain there until 
well, drinking most freely of warm teas of any kind. If these things are done 
the day a cold is taken, they will seldom fail of a cure within thirty-six hours. 

Corns. — After bathing the feet twenty minutes in hot water, rub a few drops 
of sweet oil on the corn with the finger for two or three minutes. Do this 
every night, and protect the corn from the pressure of a tight shoe or the chaf- 
ing of a loose one, and the corn can be easily picked out with the finger-nail in 
a few days, not to return for months, if ever, when renew the treatment. 

Cough of Children. — Keep them warm in a warm room, eating nothing but 
broths, stale bread, gruels, and baked fruits, and every four or five hours rub 
into the skin all over the chest, with the hand, patiently, half a teaspoonful of 
common sweet oil ; taking every few hours during the day, a teaspoonful at a 
time, of sweet cider boiled to a syrup, which will keep a year in a cool cellar. 

Diarrhea of summer is often cured by maintaining perfect quietude on a bed, 
and eating acid fruits or berries in their natural state while ripe, raw, and 
fresh. If the acid fruit fails, eat nothing for a few days but common rice, parch- 
ed brown like coffee, then prepare in the usual way. 

Erysipelas. — Keep the parts covered well with a poultice made of raw cran- 
berries pounded. This disease comes without warning, and often ends fatally 
in a few days. 

Odors — Of places, keep then clean; of persons, arising from a scrofulous 
taint, wash face, hands, neck, arms, arm-pits, and feet daily in a basin of water^ 
in which has been mixed two table-spoonfuls of the compound tincture of spirits 
of hartshorn. 

Poison. — Whether animal, vegetable or mineral, if swallowed, will be instantly 
neutralized in most cases by drinking a teacupful of common sweet oil promptly. 
The Choctaw Indians are said to rely on this as an infallible cure for the bite 
of rattlesnakes ; if Laudanum, drink every ten minutes or oftener, until the 
drowsiness goes off, strong coffee, each cup cleared with the white of one egg. 

New Shoes made easy. — Before having your measure taken, put on two pair 
of thick woolen stockings, but don't tell Crispin. 

Surfeit. — Careful and wise persons sometimes over-eat, and are foundered 
like a horse ; walk in the open air (until freely relieved) with sufficient activity 
to keep up a moderate perspiration, then go to a warm room and remain 
with all the clothing on until cooled off, and take nothing for the next two meals 
but stale bread and some warm drink, so as to rest the stomach. 

Teeth. — If the tooth aches, out with it and be done with it. From five years 
old up to twenty, a conscientious dentist should be required to examine each 
particular tooth most minutely every three months, and once a year thereafter : 
use nothing for plugs but the purest gold. For personal comeliness, comfort, 
and health no money is more remunerative than that given to a good dentist. 

Work by the day and not by the job when you want exercise. By thus 
working slowly, you are not exhausted before you know it, and by going to a 
very warm room the moment the work is over, cooling off very slowly, a cold ia 
avoided, as well as that soreness and stiffness of limbs next day, which is the 
-esult of fitful, hasty, and too violent exercise. 



HEALTH TRACT, Fo. 28. 



AVERTING- DISEASE 



Paix is a blessing ; it is the great life-preserver ; it is the 
sleepless, faithful sentinel which gives prompt warning that 
harm is being done. Pain is the result of pressure on or against 
a nerve ; that pressure is made by a blood-vessel, for there is no 
nerve without a blood-vessel in close proximity. In health, 
each blood-vessel is moderately full ; but the very moment dis- 
ease, or harm, or violence, by blow or cut or otherwise, comes 
to any part of the body, nature- becomes alarmed as it were, and 
sends more blood there to repair the injury — much more than 
is usually required ; that additional quantity distends the blood- 
vessels, presses against a nerve, and gives disquiet or actual 
pain. In these cases this increased quantity of blood is called 
"inflammation." Again, if a man eats too much, or is consti- 
pated, or by some other means makes his blood impure, it be- 
comes thickened thereby, and does not flow through its channels 
as freely as it should ; hence it accumulates, dams up, congests, 
distending the veins, which in their turn make pressure on some 
adjoining nerve, and give dull pain, as headache. This conges- 
tion in the arteries gives a sharp, pricking pain. 

Pain, then, is the result of more blood being determined to 
the part where that pain is, than naturally belongs to it. The 
evident alternative is to diminish the quantity of blood, either 
at the point of ailment or in the body in general. Thus it is 
that a mustard-plaster applied near a painful spot, by withdraw- 
ing the blood -to itself, gives instantaneous relief. Opening a 
vein will do the same thing; and so, but not as expeditiously, 
will any purgative medicine, because that by all these things, by 
diminishing the amount of fluid as to the whole body, each par- 
ticular part is proportionably relieved. On the same principle 
is, it that a "good sweat" is "good" for any pain, and affords 
more or less relief. Friction does the same, even if it is per- 
formed with so soft a thing as the human hand, for any rubbing 
reddens, that is, attracts blood to the part rubbed, and thus di- 
minishes the pain at the spot where there is too much blood. 

1. The instant we become conscious of any unpleasant sensa- 
tion in the body, eat nothing. 2. Keep warm. 3. Be still. 

These are applicable and safe in all cases ; sometimes a more 
speedy result is attained if, instead of being quiet, the patient 
would, by moderate, steady exercise, keep up a gentle perspira- 
tion for several hours. In many cases, this remedy will become 
more and more efficient, with increasing intervals for need of its 
application, until at length a man is not sick at all, and life goes 
out like the snuff of a candle or as gently as the dying embers 
on the hearth. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 29. 



NEGLECTING GOLDS 



Every intelligent physician knows that the best possible 
method of promptly curing a cold is, that the very day in which 
it is observed to have been taken, the patient should cease ab- 
solutely from eating a particle for twenty-four or forty-eight 
hours, and should be strictly confined to a warm room, or be 
covered up well in bed, taking freely hot drinks. It is also in 
the experience of every observant person, that when a cold is 
once taken, very slight causes indeed increase it. The expres- 
sion, "It is nothing but a cold," conveys a practical falsity of 
the most pernicious character, because an experienced medical 
practitioner feels that it is impossible to tell in any given case, 
where a cold will end ; hence, and when highly valuable lives 
are at stake, his solicitudes appear sometimes to others to verge 
011 folly or ignorance. A striking and most Instructive example 
of these statements is found in the case of Nicholas the First, 
the Emperor of all the Eussias. For more than a year before 
his death, his confidential medical adviser observed that in con- 
sequence of the Emperor " not giving to sleep the hours needed 
for restoration," his general vigor was declining, and that ex- 
posures which he had often encountered with impunity, were 
making unfavorable impressions on the system — that he had less 
power of resistance. At length, while reviewing his troops on 
a January day, he took a severe cold, which at once excited the 
apprehensions of his watchful physician, who advised him not 
to repeat his review. 

" Would you make as much of my illness if I were a com- 
mon soldier ?" asked the Emperor, in a tone of good-natured 
pleasantry. 

" Certainly, please your majesty; we should not allow a com- 
mon soldier to leave the hospital if he were in the state in 
which your majesty is." 

"Well, you would do your duty — I will do mine," and the 
exposure was repeated, with the result of greatly increasing the 
bad effects of this original cold, and he died in a week after- 
wards. 

Colds are never taken while persons are in active motion, 
bat when at rest, just after the exercise. This result can be 
averted infallibly by going instantly to a warm room and re- 
maining with all the clothing on, in which the exercise has 
been taken, until the body has gradually cooled down to ita 
natural temperature, known by not feeling the slightest mois- 
ture on the forehead. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 30. 



BATHS AND BATHING 



Pigs, puppies, and babies are the better for being well washed every day, but 
for persons in general to undergo such an operation as regular as the morning 
comes is absurd and hurtful. Absurd, because unnecessary, and no man ever did 
it for a lifetime ; hurtful, because multitudes who commenced the unnatural prac- 
tice, have abandoned it from the conviction that it had an unfavorable effect, or 
that they ceased to be benefited by it. 

It is proper that once a week there should be a most thorough washing of the 
whole body with soap, water at about eighty degrees Fahrenheit, and a common 
scrubbing-brush. To avoid taking cold, especially in winter, the heat of the room 
should be within six or eight degrees of that of the water. 

The whole operation, from the time of beginning to undress until completed, 
should not exceed twenty minutes, including the friction, which should be rapid 
and thorough, with a coarse towel. 

Microscopists say that the skin of a man is like the scales of a fish, which are 
covered with a slimy substance, to throw off the water and also to lubricate the* 
scales so that they may slide over each other with the greatest facility. If this lubri- 
cator were kept washed from the fish, it would die. It may be inferred that the 
oil which nature throws out on the skin is designed for the wise purpose of a lubri- 
cator, to keep the skin moist and soft and smooth. In severe fever or cold, the 
dry harsh skin, and the " goose flesh," are familiar to all ; in both of which there 
is an entire absence of perspiration, and relief comes only with perspiration. Let 
all think for themselves in this matter. 

Much is said about the universality of bathing among the Romans. The practice 
did not become general until national voluptuousness, gormandizing and intempe- 
rance were destroying the national vigor ; but their magnificent bathing establish- 
ments, public and private, failed to restore individual health or to prevent national 
ruin. We are told that the " Eastern Nations" practice bathing. Suppose they 
do ; they*are the filthiest people on the face of the globe, as to the Moors, Turks, 
Hindoos, East-Indians, Chinese, Japanese, etc., while the average of human life 
is less than our own by many years ; and their great men and great deeds and 
magnificent achievements, where are they ? 

The masses with us have imperative duties to perform, and can not afford to 
spend an hour every day in wriggling and splashing and spluttering about in cold 
water ; and happily health does not require it, either of the day laborer or of the 
man of elegant leisure ; all that is needed for either, beyond the weekly batb 
named, is to wash the exposed parts morning, and in some cases, evening too, 
most thoroughly ; that is, the hands, face, neck, throat, arms, and armpits. Bevond 
*jhis is not indicated either by common-sense or a rational physiology. 



HEALTH TEACT, NO. 31. 



HOW TO AVOID COLDS 



Physiologists have said that if a few drops of the blandest fluid in nature 
are injected into a blood-vessel against the current, death is an instantaneous 
result. 

Millions of canals or tubes from the inner portions of the body, open 
their little mouths at the surface, and through these channels, as ceaseless 
as the flow of time, a fluid containing the wastes and impurities of the 
system is passing outwards, and is emptied out on the skin ; ordinarily, it is 
so attenuated, so near like the air, that it can not be seen with the naked 
eye, but extraordinarily, under the influence of increased natural or artificial 
heat, as from exercise or fire, this fluid is more profuse, and is seen and 
known as " the sweat of the brow" — perspiration. 

This fluid must have exit or we die in a few hours. If it does not have 
vent at the surface of the body, it must have some internal outlet. Nature 
abhors shocks as she does a vacuum. Heat distends the mouths of these 
ducts, and promotes a larger and more rapid flow of the contained fluid: 
on the other hand, cold contracts them, and the fluid is at first arrested, 
dams up and rebounds. If the purest warm milk, injected against the 
current of the blood, kills in a moment, not from any chemical quality, but 
from the force against the natural current, there need be no surprise at the 
ill-effects of suddenly closing the mouths of millions of tubes at the same 
instant, causing a violence at every pin-head surface of the body. If these 
mouths are gradually closed, nature has time to adapt herself to the circum- 
stances by opening her channels into the great internal " water-ways" of 
the body, and no harm follows. Hence the safety of cooling off slowly 
after exercise or being in a heated apartment, and the danger of cooling off 
rapidly, under the same circumstances, familiarly known by the expression 
" checking the perspiration." 

The result of closing the pores of the skin is various according to the 
direction the shock takes, and this is always to the weakest part : in the 
little child it is to the throat, and there is croup or diphtheria : to the adult 
it is to the head, giving catarrh in the head or running of the nose ; to the 
lungs, giving a bad cold, or, if very violent, causing pneumonia or inflamma- 
tion of the lungs themselves ; or pleurisy, inflammation of the covering of 
the lungs; to the bowels causing profuse and sudden diarrhea, or to the 
covering of the bowels, inducing that rapid and (often) fatal malady known 
as peritoneal inflammation ; if the current is determined to the liver, there 
is obstinate constipation, or bilious fever, or sick headache. Hence a "cold" 
is known by a cough, when perspiration is driven inward, and is directed 
to the lungs ; by pleurisy, when to the lining of the lungs ; by a sick head- 
ache or bilious fever, when to the liver, etc. ; diarrhea or constipation when 
to the bowels and liver. 

To avoid bad colds, then, it is only necessary to avoid closing the pores 
of the skin, either rapidly, by checking perspiration, or slowly, by remaining 
still until the body is thoroughly chilled, that is, until the pores are nearly 
or entirely closed by inaction in a cold atmosphere or room. In the matter 
of health, these suggestions are of incalculable importance. 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 



Vol. 9. 



FEBRUARY, 1862. 



No. 2. 



HEALTH TRACTS. 

The January and February numbers contain sixty-two one-page 
Health Tracts. The number of the tract answers to the number of 
the page. January contains from No. 1 to 31, both included; 
February has No. 32 to No. 62, both included. 

Tract 



Air and Sunshine, . . . .51 

Apples, ....... 59 

Burns and Bites, . , 27, 23 
Baths and Bathing, ... 30 
Colds Cured, .... 27, 3 

Colds Neglected, ... 27, 29 
Colds Prevented, . . . .31 

Corns and Shoes, .... 14 

Consumption and Measles, 11, 16 
Coffee Drinking, . . . . ^ . 46 

Catarrh, 52 

Checking Perspiration, . .58 

Costiveness, 22 

Drunkenness and Dyspepsia, 8 

Dyspepsia, 33 

Disease, Causes of, .... 4 
Disease Avoided, .... 28 

Drinking, 35 

Diet for Invalid?, .... 54 

Erect Position, 11 

Eating, 26 

Eating Wisely, 32 

Eat, How to, 34 

Eating, When and What, . 40 
Eyes, Care of, ... . 5, 15 
Eyesight Failing, . . . .61 
Erysipelas, .... .56 

Fruits in Summer, .... 2 
Flannel, Wearing, ... 19 
Feet, Care of, ... 14, 21 
Fifteen Follies, . . . . . 53 



Growing BeautifuT, 
Hair, the Care of, . . 

Headache, 

Health without Medicine, . 
Healthful Observances, . . 
Health's Three Essentials, 19 
Hydrophobia, ... 
Inconsiderations, . 
Ice, its Uses, . . . 
Music Healthful, . 
Medicine, Taking, . 
Nothing but a Cold, 
Neuralgia, .... 
Nursing Hints, 
Precautions, . . . 
Presence of Mind, 
Premonitions, . . 
Private Things, 
Poisons, .... 
Rheumatism, . . 

Sitting, 

Sabbath Physiology, 
Sour Stomach, . . 
Sleeping, .... 
Sick-Headache, . . 
Traveling Hints, . 
The Three Ps, . . 
Winter Rules, . . 
Walking, .... 
Warnings, . . . 
Valuable Knowledge 



Tract 

. 15 

. 18 

41, 62 

. 20 

. 38 

. 42 

.49 
1 

. 9 
. 7 

. 60 
. 36 

. 44 
. 57 

. 37 
. 39 

. 43 
. 45 
27, 55 
. 50 

. 13 
. 17 

. 24 

. 25 

62, 41 

6 

. 47 
. 10 

. 12 
. 48 

. 27 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 32. 



HOW TO EAT WISELY 



As a universal rule in health, and, with very rare exceptions, in disease, that is 
best to be eaten which the appetite craves or the taste relishes. 

Persons rarely err in the quality of the food eaten ; nature's instincts are the 
wise regulators in this respect. 

The great sources of mischief from eating are three: Quantity, Frequency, 
Rapidity ; and from these come the horrible dyspepsias which make of human life a 
burden, a torture, a living death. 

Rapidity. — By eating fast, the stomach, like a bottle being filled through a fun- 
nel, is full and overflowing before we know it. But the most important reason is, 
the food is swallowed before time has been allowed to divide it in sufficiently small 
pieces with the teeth ; for, like ice in a tumbler of water, the smaller the bite are, 
the sooner are they dissolved. It has been seen with the naked eye, that if solid 
food is cut up in pieces small as half a pea, it digests almost as soon, without being 
chewed at all, as if it had been well masticated. The best plan, therefore, is for all 
persons to thus comminute their food ; for even if it is well chewed, the comminu- 
tion is no injury, while it is of very great importance in case of hurry, forge tfulness, 
or bad teeth. Cheerful conversation prevents rapid eating. 

Frequency. — It requires about five hours for a common meal to be dissolved and 
pass out of the stomach, during which time this organ is incessantly at work, when 
it must have repose, as any other muscle or set of muscles, after such a length of 
effort. Hence persons should not eat within less than a five hours' interval. The 
heart itself is at rest more than one third of its time. The brain perishes without 
repose. Never force food on the stomach. 

All are tired when night comes ; every muscle of the body is weary and looks to 
the bed; but just as we lie down to rest every other part of the body, if we, by a 
hearty meal, give the stomach five hours' work, which, in its weak state, requires a 
much longer time to perform than at an earlier hour of the day, it is like imposing 
upon a servant a full day's labor just at the close of a hard day's work ; hence the 
unwisdom of eating heartily late in the day or evening ; and no wonder it has cost 
many a man his life. Always breakfast before work or exercise. 

No laborers or active persons should eat an atom later than sun-down, and then 
it should not be over half the midday meal. Persons of sedentary habits or who 
are at all ailing, should take absolutely nothing for supper beyond a single piece of 
cold stale bread and butter, or a ship-biscuit, with a single cup of warm drink. 
Such a supper will always give better sleep and prepare for a heartier breakfast, with 
the advantage of having the exercise of the whole day to grind it up and extract 
its nutriment. Never eat without an inclination. 

Quantity. — It is variety which tempts to excess ; few will err as to quantity 
who will eat very slow. Take no more than a quarter of a pint of warm drink, 
with a piece of cold stale bread and butter, one kind of meat, and one vegetable, 
or one kind of fruit. This is the only safe rule of general application, and allows 
all to eat as much as they want. 

Cold water at meals instantly arrests digestion, and so will much warm drink ; 
nence a single tea-cup of drink, hot or cold, is sufficient for any meal. 

For half an hour after eating sit erect, or walk in the open air. Avoid severe 
fitudy or deep emotion, soon after eating. Do not sit down to a meal under great 
grief or surprise, or mental excitement. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 33. 



DYSPEPSIA. 



Dyspepsia is the inability of the stomach to prepare from the food eaten the nourishment requi- 
site to sustain the body, and to supply it with pure blood, which, in its impure, unnatural condi« 
tion, is sent to every fiber of the system ; hence there is not a square inch of the body which is 
not liable to be affected with uneasiness or actual pain, and that portion will suffer most which 
has been previously weakened, or diseased, or injured in any way. Hence among a dozen dys- 
peptics, no two will have the same predominant symptoms, either in nature or locality ; and as 
these persons differ further in age, sex, temperament, constitution, occupation, and habits of mind 
and body, it is the hight of absurdity to treat any two dyspeptics precisely alike ; hence the 
failure to cure in many curable cases. 

Dyspeptics of high mental power and of a bilious temperament, are subject to sick-headache ; 
those who are fat and phlegmatic, have constipation and cold feet ; while the thin and nervous 
have horrible neuralgies, which make of life a continued martyrdom, or they are abandoned to 
forebodings so gloomy, and even fearful sometimes, as to eat out all the joy of life, and make 
death a longed-for event. Some dyspeptics are wonderfully forgetful ; others have such an irri- 
tability of temper as to render companionship with them, even for a few hours, painful, while 
there is such a remarkable incapacity of mental concentration, of fixedness of purpose, that it is 
Impossible to secure any connected effort for recovery. 

There are some general principles of cure applicable to all, and which will seldom fail of high 
advantages. 

1. The entire body should be washed once a week with soap, hot water, and a stiff brush. 

2. Wear woolen next the skin the year round, dux ing the daytime only. 

3. By means of ripe fruits and berries, coarse bread, and other coarse food, keep the bowels 
acting freely once in every twenty-four hours. 

4. Under all circumstances, keep the feet always clean, dry, and warm. 

5. It is most indispensable to have the fullest plenty of sound, regular, connected, and refresh 
ing sleep in a clean, light, well-aired chamber, with windows facing the sun. 

6. Spend two or three hours of every forenoon, and one or two of every afternoon, rain or 
shine, in the open air, in some form of interesting, exhilarating, and unwearying exercise — walk 
ing, with a cheering and entertaining companion is the very best. 

7. Eat at regular times, and always slowly. 

8. That food is best for each which is most relished, and is followed by the least discomfort. 
What may have benefited or injured one, is no rule for another. This eighth item is of universal 
application. 

9. Take but a teacupful of any kind of drink at one meal, and let that be hot. 

10. Confine yourself to coarse bread of corn, rye, or wheat — to ripe, fresh, perfect fruits and 
berries, in their natural state — and to fresh lean meats, broiled or roasted, as meat is easier of 
digestion than vegetables. Milk, gravies, pastries, heavy hot bread, farinas, starches, and greasy 
food in general, aggravate dyspepsia by their constipating tendencies. 

11. It is better to eat at regular times as often as hungry, but so little at once, as to occasion no 
discomfort whatever. 

12. Constantly aim to divert the mind from the b odily condition, in pleasant ways ; this is half 
the cure in many cases. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 34. 



HOW TO EAT. 



Before a man becomes hungry, watchful nature has calculated, in her 
way, how much nutriment the body needs, and provides as much of a 
liquid substance as will be necessary to prepare from the food which may 
be eaten, that amount of sustenance which the system may require. When 
this is stored up, and all is ready, the sensation of hunger commences, and 
increases with the steadily increasing amount of the digesting material 
just referred to, and the very instant the first mouthful of food is swallowed, 
this "gastric juice" is poured out into the stomach through a thousand 
sluices ; but no more has been prepared than was necessary, for Nature 
does nothing in vain ; so that if a single mouthful more of food has-been 
swallowed than the untempted or unstimulated appetite would have called 
for, there is no gastric juice for its solution, and it remains but to fret and 
worry and irritate for hours together. If the amount eaten is much in 
excess, the stomach, as if in utter discouragement at the magnitude of its 
task, ceases its attempts at digestion, and forthwith commences the process 
of ejecting the unnatural load by means of nausea and vomiting in some 
cases ; in others, it remains for an hour or more like a weight, a hard round 
ball, or a lump of lead, an uneasy heaviness ; then it begins to "sour," that 
is, to decompose, to rot, and the disgusting gas or liquid comes up into the 
throat, causing more or less of a scalding sensation from the pit of the 
stomach to the throat; this is called "heartburn." At length, the 
half-rotted mixture is forced out of the mouth by the outraged stomach 
with that horrible odor and taste with which every glutton is familiar. In 
some cases the stenchy mass is passed out of the stomach downwards, 
causing, in its progress, a gush of liquid from all parts of the intestinal 
canal, to wash it, with a flood, out of the system ; this is the " Diarrhea " 
which surprises the gourmand at midnight or in the early morning hours, 
when a late or over-hearty meal has been eaten. When sufficient food has 
been taken for the amount of gastric juice supplied, hunger ceases, and 
every mouthful swallowed after that, no gastric juice having been prepared 
for its dissolution, remains without any healthful change, inflaming, and 
irritating, and exhausting the stomach by its efforts to get rid of it, and 
this is the first step towards forming " dyspepsia," which becomes more 
and more deeply fixed by every repeated outrage, until at length it remains 
a life-time worry to the mind, filling it with horrible imaginings, and a 
wearing wasting torture to the body, until it passes into the grave. 

The moral of the article is, that the man who " forces" his food, he who 
eats without an inclination, and he who strives by tonics, or bitters, or wine, 
or other alcoholic liquors, to " get up" an appetite, is a sinner against body 
and soul — a virtual suicide ! 






HEALTH TRACT, No. 35. 



DRINKING. 



Man is the only animal that drinks without being thirsty, swallowing whole 
quarts of water when Nature does not call for it, with the alleged view of 
" washing out " the system. When persons are thirsty, that thirst should be fully 
assuaged with moderately cool water, drank (in summer time or under great bodily 
heat or fatigue) very leisurely, but not within half an hour of eating a regular 
meal. Eminent physioiogists agree that drinking at meals dilutes the gastric 
juice, diminishes its solvent power, and retards digestion, especially if what is 
drank is cold. Persons in vigorous health, and who work or exercise a great 
part of every day in the open air, may drink a glass of water, or a single cup of 
weak coffee or tea, at each meal, and live to a good old age. But it is very cer- 
tain that sedentary persons and invalids can not go beyond that habitually, with 
impunity. The wisdom of such consists in drinking nothing at all at the regular 
meals beyond a swallow or two at a time of some hot drink of a mild and nutri- 
tious character. Feeble persons will be benefited by hot drinks, because they 
warm up the body, excite the circulation, and thus promote digestion, if taken 
while eating, and not exceeding a cupful. 

Cold water ought never to be drank within half an hour of eating ; for the 
colder it is, the more instantly does it arrest digestion, not only by diluting the 
gastric juice, but by reducing its temperature, which is near one hundred degrees. 
Ice-water is something over thirty-two degrees, and, when swallowed, mixes with 
the gastric juice, and lowers its temperature, not to be elevated until heat enough 
has been withdrawn from the general system ; and that draft must be made until 
the hundred degrees of warmth are attained: but some persons have so little 
vitality, that the body exhausts itself in its instinctive efforts to help the stomach, 
from which its life and strength come ; and the person rises from the table with a 
cold chill running down the back or over the whole body. Sometimes these 
drafts upon the body for warmth to the stomach are so sudden and great, that 
they can not be met, and instantaneous death is the result. Many a person has 
dropped dead at the pump or at the spring ; such a result is more certain if, in 
addition to the person being very warm at the time of drinking, there is also 
great bodily fatigue. A French general recently fell dead from drinking cold 
water on reaching the top of a mountain over-heated and exhausted in the effort 
of bringing up his battalions with promptitude. Under all circumstances of heat 
or fatigue, the glass of water should be grasped in the hand, held half a minute, 
then, taking not over two swallows, rest a quarter of a minute ; then two swallows 
more, and so on, until the thirst is nearly assuaged. It will seldom happen that 
a person is inclined to take over half a dozen swallows thus. 

No case is remembered in the practice of a quarter of a century, where malt 
liquors, wines, brandies, or any alcoholic drinks whatever, have ever had a perma- 
nent good effect in improving the digestion. Apparent advantages sometimes 
result, but they are transient or deceptive. If there is no appetite, it is because 
Nature has provided no gastric juice ; and that is the product of Nature, not of 
alcohol. If there is appetite but no digestive power, liquor no more supplies that 
power than would the lash give strength to an exhausted donkey. If torture 
does arouse the sinking beast, it is only that it shall fall a little later into a still 
greater exhaustion from which there is no recovery ; so with the use of liquor and 
tobacco as whetters of the appetite, when at length the desire for the accustomed 
stimulus ceases, and the man " sickens;" there is no longer a relish for the dram 
and the chew, and life fades apace, either in a stupor from which there is no 
awaking, or by wasting and uncontrollable diarrhea. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 36. 



NOTHING BUT A COLD 



The immediate cause of a vast number of cases of disease and death is a " cold ;" it is that 
which fires a magazine of human ills ; it is the spark to gunpowder. It was to a cold taken on 
a raw December day, that the great Washington owed his death. It was a common cold, aggra- 
vated by the injudicious advice of a friend which ushered in the final illness of Washington 
Irving. Almost any reader can trace the death of some dear friend to a " little cold." 

The chief causes of cold are two: 1st, cooling off too soon after exercise; 2d, getting tho- 
roughly chilled while in a state of rest without having been overheated ; this latter originates 
dangerous pleurisies, fatal pneumonias (inflammation of the lungs,) and deadly fevers of the 
tjrphoid type. 

Persons in vigorous health do not take cold easily ; they can do with impunity what would be 
fatal to the feeble and infirm. Dyspeptic persons take cold readily, but they are not aware of it, 
because its force does not fall on the lungs, but on the liver through the skin, giving sick-headache ; 
and close questioning will soon develop the fact of some unusual bodily effort, followed by 
cooling off rapidly. 

A person wakes up some sunny morning, and feels as if he had been " pounded in a bag ;" everT 
joint is stiff, every muscle sore and a single step can not be taken without difficulty or actual pain. 
Reflection will bring out some unwonted exercise, and a subsequent cooling off before knowing it — 
as working in the garden in the spring-time ; showing new servants " how to do," by turning 
themselves into chambermaids, waiters at table, and pastrycooks, Bridget being 'cute enough not 
to learn, " on purpose," (why should she, when she is paid full wages to oversee her mistress !) in 
going a " shopping," the particular pest of city husbands — an expedition which taxes the mind 
and body to the utmost ; the particular shade of a ribbon, the larger or smaller size of a 
"figure" on a calico dress, or a camel's hair shawl ; whether the main flower of a bonnet shall be 
" Jimpson" or a rose-bud ; whether the jewelry shall sport a Cupid's 'arrow or a snake's head ; ihese 
and similar debatable points on a thousand " little nothings," rouse their minds to a pitch of in- 
terest and excitement scarcely exceled by that of counselors of state in determining the 
boundaries of empires or the fate of nations. 

Of course they went out upon that expedition dressed within an inch of life, as if for a ball, an 
opera, or a court reception, to return home exhausted in body, depressed in mind, and thoroughly 

heated ; the first thing done is to toss down a glass of water to cool off the inner woman ; 

next to lay aside bonnet, shawl, and " best dress," to cool the outer ; then to " blaze away at 
every body in general, and the poor unfortunate husband in particular, if he has not had the 

gumption before then, to learn to give a wide berth on such occasions, to cool the upper man: 

and lastly, to put on a cold dress, lie down on a bed in a tireless room, and fall asleep, to wake up 
with infinite certainty, to a bad cold, which is to confine to the chamber for days and weeks 
together, and not unseldom, carries them to the grave ! 

A little attention would avert a vast amount of human suffering in these regards. Sedentary 
persons, invalids, and those in feeble health, should go directly to a fire after all forms of exer- 
cise, and keep all the garments on for a few minutes ; or, if in warm weather, to a closed apart- 
ment, and, if any thing, throw on an additional covering. When no appreciable moisture is found 
on the forehead, the out-door garments may be removed. The great rule is, cool off very slowly 
always after the body has in any manner been heated beyond its ordinary temperature. 



HEALTH TRACT, Ho. 37 



PRECAUTIONS, 

1. Never sleep in a room where there is any green paper on the walls, as this 
color is made of arsenic or lead ; the former is by far the most dangerous, being 
scheeles green, and is known positively by a drop of muriatic acid on the green 
leaving it white. 

2. White glazed visiting-cards contain sugar of lead, and will poison a child 
who is tempted to chew them from the slight sweetish taste. 

8. Green glazed cards used for concert-tickets, are still more poisonous ; a 
single one of them contains a grain and a half of arsenic, enough to kill a child. 

4. Never put a pin in the mouth or between the teeth, for a single instant, 
because a sudden effort to laugh or speak, may convey it into the throat, or lungs, 
or stomach, causing death in a few minutes, or requiring the windpipe to be cut 
open to get it out ; if it has passed into the stomach, it may, as it has done, cause 
years of suffering, ceasing only when it has made its way out of the body through 
the walls of the abdomen or other portion of the system. 

5. It is best to have no button or string about any garment worn during the 
night. A long, loose night-gown is the best thing to sleep in. Many a man has 
facilitated an attack of apoplexy by buttoning his shirt-collar. 

6. If you wake up of a cold night, and find yourself very restless, get out of 
bed, and standing on a piece of carpet or cloth of any kind, spend five or ten 
minutes in rubbing the whole body vigorously and rapidly with the hands, having 
previously thrown the bed clothing towards the foot of the bed so as to air both 
bed and body. 

7 If you find that you have inadvertently eaten too much, instead of taking- 
something to settle the stomach, thus adding to the load under which it already 
labors, take a continuous walk with just enough activity to keep up a very slight 
moisture or perspiration on the skin, and do not stop until entirely relieved, but 
end your exercise in a warm room, so as to cool off very slowly. 

8. Never put on a pair of new boots or shoes on a journey, especially on a visit 
to the city ; rather wear your easiest, oldest pair, otherwise you will soon be pain- 
fully disabled. 

9. A loosely-fitting boot or shoe, while traveling in winter, will keep the feet 
warmer, without any stockings at all, than a tight pair, over the thickest, warmest 
hose. 

10. Riding against a cold wind, immediately after singing or speaking in public, 
is suicide. 

11. Many public speakers have been disabled for life by speaking under a hoarse- 
ness of voice. 

12. If you happen to get wet in cold weather, keep moving on foot with a 
rapidity sufficient to keep off a feeling of chilliness until you get into a house, and 
not waiting to undress, drink instantly and plentifully of hot tea of some sort ; tken 
undress, wipe dry quickly, and put on warm, dry clothing. 

13. Never go to bed with cold feet, if you want to sleep well. 

14. If a person faints, place him instantly flat on a bed, or floor, or earth, on 
his back, and quietly let him alone at least for ten minutes ; if it is simply a faint- 
ing-fit, the blood, flowing on a level will more speedily equalize itself throughout 
the system ; cold water dashed in the face, or a sitting position are unnecessary and 
pernicious. 

15. Never blow your nose, nor spit the product of a cough, nor throw a fruit* 
peel on the sidewalk. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 38. 



HEALTHFUL OBSERVANCES. 

1. Tj eat when you do not feel like it is brutal, nay, this a slander on the lower 
animals, they do not so debase themselves. 

2. Do not enter a sick-chamber on an empty stomach, nor remain as a watcher 
or nurse until you feel almost exhausted, nor sit between the patient and the fire» 
nor in the direction of a current of air from the patient toward yourself, nor eat 
or drink any thing after being in a sick-room until you have rinsed your mouth 
thoroughly. 

3. Do not sleep in any garment worn during the day. 

4. Most grown persons are unable to sleep soundly and refreshingly, over seven 
hours in summer, and eight in winter ; the attempt to force more sleep on the sys- 
tem by a nap in the daytime, or a "second nap" in the morning, renders the 
whole of the sleep disturbed and imperfect. 

5. Some of the most painful "stomach aches" are occasioned by indigestion, this 
generates wind, and hence distension. It is often promptly remedied by kneading 
the abdomen with the ball of the hand, skin to skin, from one side to another, 
from the lower edge of the ribs downwards, because the accumulated air is forced 
on and outwards along the alimentary canal. 

6. When you return to your house from a long walk or other exhaustive exer- 
cise, go to the fire or warm room, and do not remove a single article of clothing 
until you have taken a cup or more of some kind of hot drink. 

I. In going into a colder atmosphere, keep the mouth closed, and walk with a 
rapidity sufficient to keep off a feeling of chilliness. 

8. Two pair of thin stockings will keep the feet warmer than one pair of a 
greater thickness than both. 

9. The " night sweats" of disease come on towards daylight, their deathly clam- 
miness and coldness is greatly modified by sleeping in a single, loose, long woolen 
shirt. 

10. The man or woman who drinks a cup of strong tea or coffee, or other stimu- 
lant, in order to aid in the better performance of any work or duty, public or pri- 
vate, is a fool, because it is to the body and brain an expenditure of what is not 
yet got ; it is using power in advance, and this can never be done, even once, with 
impunity. 

II. The less a man drinks of any thing in hot weather the better, for the more 
we drink the more we want to drink, until even ice-water palls and becomes of a 
metallic taste ; hence the longer you can put off drinking cold water on the morning 
of a hot day, the better will you feel at night. 

12. Drinking largely at meals, even of cold water or simple teas, is a mere habit 
and is always hurtful. No one should drink at any one meal more than a quarter of 
a pint of any liquid, even of cold water, for it always retards, impairs, and interferes 
with a healthful digestion. 

13. If you sleep at all in the daytime, it will interfere with the soundness of 
your sleep at night much less, if the nap be taken in the forenoon. 

14. A short nap in the daytime maybe necessary to some. Let it not exceed ten 
minutes, to this end sleep with the forehead resting on a chair-back or edge of the 
table. 

15. Never swallow an atom of food while in a passion, or if under any great 
mental excitement, whether of a depressing or elevating character ; brutes won't do it. 



HEALTH TRACT, NO. 39. 



PEESENCE OP MIND. 

1. If a man faints, place him flat on his back and lei- him alone. 

2. If any poison is swallowed, drink instantly half a glass of cool water with a 
heaping teaspoonful each of common salt and ground mustard stirred into it ; this 
vomits as soon as it reaches the stomach ; but for fear some of the poison may still 
remain, swallow the white of one or two raw eggs or drink a cup of strong coffee, these 
two being antidotes for a greater number of poisons than any dozen other articles 
known, with the advantage of their being always at hand ; if not, a half-pint of 
sweet-oil, or lamp-oil, or " drippings," or melted butter or lard are good substitutes, 
especially if they vomit quickly. 

3. The best thing to stop the bleeding of a moderate cut instantly, is to cover it 
profusely with cob-web, or flour and salt, half-and-half. 

4. If the blood comes from a wound by jets or spirts, be spry, or the man will 
be dead in a few minutes, because an artery is severed ; tie a handkerchief loosely 
around near the part between the wound and the heart ! ! put a stick between the 
handkerchief and the skin, twist it round until the blood ceases to flow, and keep 
it there until the doctor comes ; if in a position where the handkerchief can not be 
used, press the thumb on a spot near the wound, between the wound and the heart ; 
increase the pressure until the bleeding ceases, but do not lessen that pressure for 
an instant, until the physician arrives, so as to glue up the wound by the coagula- 
tion or hardening of the cooling blood. 

5. If your clothing takes fire, slide the hands down the dress, keeping them as 
close to the body as possible, at the same time sinking to the floor by bending the 
knees ; this has a smothering effect on the flames ; if not extinguished, or a great 
headway is gotten, lie down on the floor, roll over and over, or better, envelop 
yourself in a carpet, rug, bed-cloth, or any garment you can get hold of, always 
preferring woolen. 

6. If a man asks you to go his security, say, "No," and run ; otherwise you may 
be enslaved for life, or your wife and children may spend a weary existence, in 
want, sickness, and beggary. 

I. If you find yourself in possession of a counterfeit note or coin, throw it in the 
fire on the instant ; otherwise you may be tempted to pass it, and may pass it, to 
feel mean therefor, as long as you live, then it may pass into some man's hands as 
mean as yourself, with a new perpetration of iniquity, the loss to fall eventually on 
some poor struggling widow, whose "all" it may be. 

8. Never laugh at the mishaps of any fellow mortal. 

9. The very instant you perceive yourself in a passion shut your mouth ; this is 
one among the best precepts outside of inspiration. 

10. The man who always exacts the last cent, is always a mean man; there is no 
" evacuant" in all the "Materia Medica" efficient enough to "purge" him of his 
debasement ; he is beyond druggery. 

II. Never affect to be "plain" or " blunt ;" these are the synonyms of brutality 
and boorishness ; such persons are constantly inflicting wounds which neither time 
nor medicine can ever heal. 

12. Never be witty at another's expense; true generosity never dwelt in such a 
heart ; it only wants the opportunity to become a cheat or a rogue. 

13. If the body is tired, rest ; if the brain is tired, sleep. 

14. If the bowels are loose, lie down in a warm bed, remain there, and eat 
nothing until you are well. 

15. If an action of the bowels does not occur at the usual hour, eat not an atom 
until they do act, at least for thirty-six hours ; meanwhile drink largely of cold 
water or hot teas, and exercise in the open air to the extent of a gentle perspira- 
tion, and keep this up until things are righted; this one suggestion, if practiced, 
would save myriads of lives every year, both in city and country. 

16. The three best medicines in the world are warmth, abstinence, and repose. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 40. 



WHAT TO EAT, AND WHEN. 

When a piece of land is exhausted of the element which is the principal 
ingredient of a certain crop, that ingredient must be supplied, or the crop 
will fail in quantity and in quality ; hence the thrifty farmer ascertains the 
wants of the soil, and supplies it with the needed manure every year. The 
human body is exhausted of its elements day by day, and day by day must 
these elements be supplied by what we eat and drink ; but the required pro- 
portion of these elements changes with the seasons, with the temperature of 
the weather, and he who eats the same in quantity and quality in July as at 
Christmas, will die in a month, because the adult eats for two reasons — to 
warm and to nourish. All food contains two chief principles : Carbon, to keep 
from freezing ; Nitrogen, to keep from famishing. The proportion of these 
elements varies with the food. Those who work a great deal, require a 
great deal of nourishment, of nitrogen, for it is the flesh-forming principle. 
Those who are exposed a great deal to the cold should eat the carbonaceous, 
the heat-supplying food. Butter and fat are three fourths carbon ; vegeta- 
bles have but little, berries none. Hence Greenlanders in their icy homes 
luxuriate in blubber and whale-oil, while the people of the sunny South 
revel in oranges and bananas, on the plantain and the peach, on dates and 
figs, on lemons, tamarinds, pine-apples, etc. We who live in latitudes 
between, are permitted the diet of the Polar Sea and the tropics, in their 
season. A wise man will take but little carbonaceous food on a suddenly 
hot day ; but if suddenly cold, it is best for him to eat more of fuel-making 
food. An infinite number of fevers and of colds would be avoided if timely 
attention were paid to these things. By the aid of these statements, the 
following tables may be used to great advantage, showing the amount of 
carbon, or heat-forming principle, in several articles of food. There is not 
one per cent of nitrogen, or flesh-forming principle, in fruits, berries, and 
the more common vegetables. Meats have about fifteen per cent. The 
meats average twenty-five per cent of nutriment, that is, including both 
carbon and nitrogen. Of all meats, mutton is the most nutritious— thirty 
per cent; fish least, twenty per cent. Of all vegetables, white beans are 
the most nutritious, ninety-five per cent; wheat-flour, ninety per cent; 
turnips, the least, five per cent. Of fruits, plums are the most nutritious, 
thirty per cent ; apples, seventeen ; melons and cucumbers, three, the rest 
being mere water and waste. The more waste, the more open the bowels are. 



Apricots, 

Berries, 

Cherries, 

Currants, 

Turnips, 3 

Artichokes, 9 

Blood, 10 

Milk 10 



Percentage Percentage Percentage 

of Carbon. of Carbon. of Carbon. 

Potatoes, 11 



Lean Meat, 13 

Rye Bread, 31 

Guru Arabic, 36 

Arrow-Rooty 36 

Green Peas, 36 

Starch, 37 

Lentils 37 



Wheat Bread, 40 

Sugar, 42 

Apples, 45 

Meats, Fat, 53 

Butter, 65 

Soup, 75 

Lard, 80 

Beans, 88 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 41. 



SICK HEAD-ACHE 

Is sickness at stomach, a tendency to vomit, combined with pain in some part of 
the head, generally the left side. It is caused by there being too much bile in the 
system, from the fact that this bile is manufactured too rapidly, or is not worked 
out of the system fast enough by steady, active exercise. Hence sedentary per- 
sons, those who do not walk about a great deal, but are seated in the house nearly 
all the time, are almost exclusively the victims of this distressing malady. It 
usually begins soon after waking up in the morning, and lasts a day or two or 
more. There are many causes ; the most frequent is, derangement of the stomach 
by late and hearty suppers ; by eating too soon after a regular meal, (five hours 
should, at least, intervene ;) eating without an appetite ; forcing food ; eating after 
one is conscious of having had enough ; eating too much of any favorite dish ; 
eating something which the stomach can not digest, or sour stomach. Any of these 
things may induce sick head-ache ; all of them can be avoided. Over-fatigue or 
great mental emotion of any kind, or severe mental application, have brought on 
sick head-ache, of the most distressing character, in an hour ; it is caused by in- 
dulgence in spirituous liquors. When a person has sick head-ache, there is no ap- 
petite ; the very sight of food is hateful ; the tongue is furred ; the feet and hands 
are cold, and there is a feeling of universal discomfort, with an utter indisposition 
to do any thing whatever. A glass of warm water, into which has been rapidly 
stirred a heaping tea-spoon each of salt and kitchen mustard, by causing instanta- 
neous vomiting, empties the stomach of the bile or undigested sour food, and a 
grateful relief is often experienced on the spot ; and rest, with a few hours of 
sound, refreshing sleep, completes the cure, especially if the principal part of the 
next day or two is spent in mental diversion and out-door activities, not eating an 
atom of food (but drinking freely of cold water or hot teas) until you feel as if a piece 
of plain, cold bread and butter would " taste really good." Nine times in ten the 
cause of sick head-ache is in the fact, that the stomach was not able to digest the 
food last introduced into it, either from its having been unsuitable, or excessive in 
quantity. When the stomach is weak, a spoonful of the mildest, blandest food 
would cause an attack of sick head-ache, when ten times the amount might have 
been taken in health, not only with impunity but with positive advantage. 

Those who are " subject to sick head-ache " eat too much and exercise too little, 
and have cold feet and constipation. (See Health Tracts Nos. 21 and 22.) A diet 
of cold bread and butter, and ripe fruits or berries, with moderate continuous exer- 
cise in the open air, sufficient to keep up a very gentle perspiration, would, of 
themselves, cure almost every case within thirty-six hours. Two teaspoonfuls of 
pulverized charcoal, stirred in half a glass of water, and drank, generally gives in- 
stant relief. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 42. 



HEALTH'S THREE ESSENTIALS, 



Am, ^ho are now in health can keep well, and three out of four of those suffer- 
ing frcv^ the common transient ailments of life can be perfectly cured by giving a 
steady, judicious attention to the three following rules : 

RULE FIRST. 

Nev( r eat between meals, nor take any thing for supper but a single piece of 
CC-ld btvad and butter, and a glass of water, or one cup of any kind of hot drink. 

RULE SECOND. 

Secv-e one regular, free, and full daily action of the bowels every morning after 
breakfast, by the use of your ordinary food ; (see Health Tract No. 22 ;) and 
to thia end, do not leave your home under any pretense, for a single moment, until 
there is an inclination to stool ; then, as you value a long and healthful life, do not 
defer the call for a single second of time, for any thing short of a fire or a fit ; 
rather cherish the inclination. If it does not come within half-an-hour of the regu- 
lar time, solicit nature. If unsuccessful, do not eat an atom of any thing until the 
passage is secured, or at least until next morning. Meanwhile, drink as much cold 
A r ater, or hot tea, as you desire, and keep exercising (tenfold better if in the open 
jar) to the extent of sustaining a scarcely perceptible perspiration for the greater 
part of the day ; for it must strike you, that if food is steadily passed into the 
mouth, and there is no corresponding outlet, harm is absolutely inevitable. If, 
during the second day, the bowels do not move, call in a regularly educated phy- 
sician. 

RULE THIRD. 

Cool off very slowly after all forms of exercise ; the neglect of this lights up the 
fires of three fourths of all the diseases which afflict humanity. Cool off slowly by 
putting on more clothing than while exercising, instead of laying aside some, even 
a hat or a bonnet ; go to a closed room rather than sit or stand out of doors ; sit 
by a good fire rather than an open window ; at all events keep in motion in such 
a way as to allow the perspiration, or any extra warmth, to disappear very gradu- 
ally indeed. 

If a fourth rule were added, it should be to keep one end of the body, the feet, 
always dry and warm, (see Health Tract No. 21,) and the other, the head, cool and 
clean, by spending two minutes in midwinter, and five or more in midsummer, in 
washing, with ordinary cold water, the scalp, if the hair is short, the ears, neck, 
throat, arm-pits, upper part of chest and arms ; rub dry briskly, dress quickly, 
and go to breakfast. 

These same observances (the first three) will incalculably mitigate every disease 
to which mortal man is subject — will moderate every pain, and will soothe every 
sigh ; and a pity is it beyond expression, that every human creature does not know 
and habitually practice them. 



HEALTH TBACT, Fo. 43. 



PEEMONITIONS. 

An incalculable amount of sickness, suffering, and premature death would be 
avoided every year, if we could be induced to heed the warnings, the premonitions, 
which kindly nature gives of the coming on of the great enemy, disease. Many a 
mother especially, has lost a darling child, to her life-long sorrow, by failing to 
observe the approach of disease, in some unusual act or circumstance connected 
with her offspring. 

1. If an adult or child wakes up thirsty in the morning, however apparently well 
at the moment, or the preceding evening, there will be illness before noon always, 
infallibly. It is generally averted by remaining warm in bed, in a cool, well-ven- 
tilated room, eatmg nothing, but drinking plentifully of some hot tea all day ; some 
little may be eaten in the afternoon by a child. But as long as a person wakes 
with thirst in the morning, there is an absence of health — there is fever. 

2. If, when not habitual to him, one is waked up early in the morning by an in- 
clination to stool, especially if there is a feeling of debility afterwards, it is the pre- 
monition of diarrhea, summer complaint, dysentery, or cholera. There should be 
perfect quietude, etc., as above ; in addition, a piece of warm, thick, woolen flan- 
nel should be wrapped tightly around the abdomen, (belly ;) the drink should be 
boiled milk ; or far better, eat pieces of ice all the time, and thus keep the thirst 
perfectly subdued ; eat nothing but boiled rice, corn starch, sago, or tapioca, and 
continue all these until the tiredness and thirst are gone, the strength returned, 
and the bowels have been quiet for twelve hours, returning slowly to the usual ac- 
tivities and diet. 

3. If a child is silent, or hangs around its mother to lay its head on her lap, or 
is most unusually fretful, or takes no interest in its former amusements, except for 
a fitful moment at a time, it is certainly sick, and not slightly so. Send at once for 
a physician, for you can't tell where or in what form the malady will break out ; 
and in children especially, you can never tell where any particular ailment will end. 

4. When there is little or no appetite for breakfast, the contrary having been 
the case, the child is sick, and should be put to bed, drinking nothing but warm 
teas, eating not an atom until noon, then act according to developments. 

5. If a child manifests a most unusual heartiness for supper, for several nights 
in succession, it will certainly be sick within a week, unless controlled. 

6. If there is an instantaneous sensation of sickness at stomach, during a meal, 
eat not a particle more ; if just before a meal, omit it ; if after a meal, go out of 
doors, and keep out in active exercise for several hours, and omit the next meal, 
for all these things indicate an excess of blood or bile, and exercise should be taken 
to work it off, and abstinence, to cut off an additional supply, until the healthful 
equilibrium is restored. 

7. A kind of glimmer before the eyes, making reading or sewing an effort, how- 
ever well you may feel, will certainly be followed by head-ache or other discom- 
fort, for there is too much blood, or it is impure ; exercise it off in the open air, 
and omit a meal or two. 

8. If you are not called to stool at the accustomed hour, (except when travel- 
ing, then let things take care of themselves — do nothing,) eat not an atom until it 
is done, for loss of appetite, or nausea, or loose bowels, or biliousness, is certainly 
impending. Exercise freely out of doors, and drink cold water or hot teas to the 
fullest desired extent. 

9. If there is a most unnatural indisposition to exertion, you need rest, quiet, 
and abstinence ; exercise in weariness never does any good, always harm. But if 
causelessly despondent, or there is a general feeling of discomfort, the blood is bad, 
warm the feet, unload the bowels, eat nothing for twelve hours, and be out of 
doors all day. 

10. If, without any known cause, or special pain, you are exceedingly restless, 
can not sleep, or if you do, it is dreamy, disturbed, or distressing, you have eaten 
too much, or are on the verge of some illness. Take nothing next day but hot 
drinks and toasted bread, and a plenty of out-door exercise. In all these cases, a 
thorough washing with soap and hot water, and vigorous bodily friction, greatly ex- 
pedite restoration. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 44. 



1STEUEALGIA, 

From two Greek words, Neuros, nerve, and Algos, pain ; means nerve-pain ; but as 
there is no pain except in connection with the nerves, every pain or ache in the 
body is really "neuralgia." Ailments are generally named from the part affected, 
or the nature of the malady. " Head-ache," because the pain is in the head. 
• " Pleuritis," or pleurisy, because there is inflammation, too much arterial blood in 
the pleura, or covering of the lungs. Neuralgia is always caused by bad blood ; 
bad, because too poor or too much of it ; too poor, because there is not exercise 
and pure air enough to secure a good digestion, and the person is thin and pale ; 
too much blood, because there is too much eating, and the bowels not acting every 
day, more is taken into the system than passes from it, and it is too full. The 
person may be fleshy enough, and does not appear sick at all. For a week, live on 
cold bread and butter, fruits, and cold water. Take an enema of a pint or more 
of tepid water daily, and spend the whole of daylight in active exercise in the open 
air, and the neuralgia will be gone in three cases out of four — the feet being kept 
warm, and the whole body most perfectly clean. There are two kinds of neuralgia, 
sharp and dull ; both caused by there being too much blood in or about the nerve. 
Perhaps arterial blood gives the sharp, venous blood the dull or heavy pain. In 
either case, the pain is of all forms of intensity, from simple discomfort to an agony 
almost unendurable. In the more fleshy parts, the pain is less severe, since the 
soft flesh yields before the distending nerve ; distended by more and more blood 
getting into it, until it is occasionally three times its usual size ; but when the 
nerve is in a tooth, or between two bones, or passes through a small hole in the bone, 
as in the face, or "facial neuralgia," which is neuralgia proper, or the Tic Dol- 
ereux of the French, the suffering is fearful, because there is no room for disten- 
sion, and every instant, the heart, by its beating, plugs more blood into the invisi- 
ble blood-vessels of the nerves. But in any such case - , open a blood-vessel in the 
arm or elsewhere, until the person is on the very point of fainting, and the most 
excruciating neuralgia is gone in an instant, because the heart ceases to send on 
blood, and the blood already in a part, as naturally, flows out of it, as water natur- 
ally flows out of an uncorked bottle, on its side. Hence, a skin kept clean by ju- 
dicious washings and frictions, helps, by its open pores, to unload the system of its 
surplus ; the bowels kept free by fruits, berries, coarse bread, and cold water, is 
another source of deliverance of excess. While these articles of food supply but a 
moderate amount of nourishment, in addition, active exercise still more rapidly 
works off the surplusage of the system, and the man is well; not as soon as by the 
Dleeding, but by a process more effective, more certain, more enduring, and with, 
out harm or danger. Hence, there is no form of mere neuralgia, which is not 
safely and permanently cured in a reasonable time by strict personal cleanliness, by 
cooling, loosening food, as named, and by breathing a pure air in resting in our 
chambers at night, and in moderate labor out of doors during the hours of day- 
light. Those who prefer uncertain physic or stimulants to these more natural rem- 
edies, are unwise, and ought to have neuralgia — a little. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 45. 



From " Sleep," by Dr. W. W. Hall, 42 Irving Place, New-York. $1.25. 

PEIYATE THINGS. 



If the urine is retained too long, the bladder becomes heated and inflamed, and loses its power ; 
the inflammation then becomes more and more intense, and death takes place in two or three 
days. Hence, children should be taught to urinate the last thing before going to bed at night, and 
before leaving home for several hours, or going on a journey. The modesty of persons riding in 
stages has repeatedly resulted in death in this connection. As persons grow older, the call to 
urinate becomes more and more frequent. As early as fifty, it is necessary to arise several times 
during the night for that purpose ; hence a vessel in the chamber of a guest is as indispensable as 
bed-clothing. The warmer the weather, the less the urine, and the more high colored, because so 
much of the water of the system escapes by perspiration through the pores of the skin ; hence, 
they who labor most, urinate less than the sedentary. The color and quantity of urine depend so 
much on the greater or less amount of exercise, on the relative amount of food and drink, the 
quantity and quality of the latter, and the temperature of the weather, that none but a physician 
should draw conclusioas therefrom as to the state of the health. Hence, do not inspect the urine ; 
and make it an imperative rule to give instant attention to a call. In males, attempts to urinate 
when the parts are turgid from any cause, rupture or stricture may result — a life-long calamity. 

STOOLING-. 

Every moment an even slight inclination to stool is resisted, the more watery particles begin to 
be absorbed into the blood again— a most filthy idea ; and going on, that which is left behind be- 
comes so dry and hard that it is impossible to void it, and the physician has to be called to spade 
it out with the handle of a spoon. The world-renowned surgeon, Dr. Valentine Mott, reports on 
one occasion having taken out eleven pounds from one individual. Costiveness is induced by 
deferring a call to stool to-day ; to-morrow it comes later and later, until it occurs only two or 
three times a week. By this time health is impaired, piles are induced, falling of the bowels comes 
apace, so that whenever a passage occurs the pain is so insufferable, that it is necessary to lie 
down for several hours ; or other ailments form, by which the excrements can not be con- 
trolled, and come away incessantly — a deplorable and disgusting condition ! 

These may be represented by cutting the rim of a purse, when the contents fall out of 
their own weight, often caused by straining too much, or remaining too long at stool, (five minutes 
are enough,) or by straining too suddenly when in a hurry. If a person finds, while on the privy- 
seat, that the excrements have begun to come, but there is reason to think that they are large and 
hard, it is infinitely best to introduce the finger carefully and take it out; there is nothing else 
you can do ; a knife or stick would endanger wounding, while to strain on, would end in fissure. 

The most consummate fools in nature are those who indulge outside of honorable wedlock, for 
lost self-respect and a blighted conscience to the end of life are inevitable results, while character 
is degraded, and in every case, even from a single fault, there is most imminent risk of a loathsome 
disease, which carries its baleful and degrading effects to generations yet unborn. The reflection 
is terrible. Self-indulgence brings on horrible bodily ailments, and destruction of the mind itself. 
See prevention and remedy in book above. 



HEALTH TRACT. No. 46. 



COFFEE-DRINKING. 

How strong should coffee be taken ? is an inquiry of much 
practical importance. How much should be taken at a meal ? 
is scarcely of less moment. Coffee, like any other beverage, may 
wholly ruin the health ; the very use of it tends to this ruin, as 
certainly as does the use of wine, cider, beer, or any other un- 
natural, stimulating drink. There is only one safe plan of 
using coffee, and that is, never, under any circumstances, except 
of an extraordinary character, exceed in quantity, frequency, or 
strength ; take only one cup at the regular meal, and of a given, 
unvarying strength. In this way it may be used every day for 
a lifetime, not only without injury but with greater advantage 
than an equal amount of cold water, and for the simple reason 
that nothing cold should be drank at a regular meal, except by 
persons in vigorous health. 

One pound of the bean should make sixty cups of the very 
best coffee. If a man takes coffee for breakfast only, one 
pound should last him two months, or six pounds a year. 

One pound of coffee should be made to last a family of ten 
persons, young and old, one week. Put about two ounces of 
ground coffee in a quart of water, or rather divide the pound 
into seven portions, one for each breakfast in the week, and 
make a quart of coffee out of it, which will be sixty-four table- 
spoons. Give the youngest one table-spoonful and the oldest 
a dozen ; the remainder of the one cup being filled up with 
boiled milk. This will give a cup of coffee sufficiently strong 
for all healthful purposes, for the respective ages ; and for various 
reasons, pecuniary as well as physical, some such systematic 
plan as this should be adopted in every family in the land. How 
to make the cup of good coffee ? is a third question. It is per- 
haps as good and as easy a plan as any to buy the coffee in the 
grain, pick out those that are imperfect, wash it, parch as much 
as will last a day or two, with your eye upon it all the time 
until it is of a rich brown, with no approach of black about 
it. Grind only enough for the day's use ; grind it fine, for the 
greater the surface exposed to the hot water the more of the 
essence you will have ; pour the boiling water on the coffee, 
close it up, boil it ten minutes, let it stand to clear ten minutes. 
Better still, pound it equally fine in a mortar with a wooden 
uestle. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 47. 



THE THREE FS. 

PROMPTITUDE, PERSEVERANCE, AND PAINSTAKING. 

At the close of the last century, a poor, awkward, uncouth 
boy entered London, but he was so long, lank, and ungainly, 
that he seemed fit only to be the drudge of a printing-office ; 
run errands, bring water, sweep the floor, and the like. Already 
had poverty and the hardness of the world made him sour, un- 
hopeful, and despondent. Under less discouragements, many a 
youth has abandoned himself to an aimless life, having no 
higher aim than to live bat for the day; or, worse still, has 
plunged headlong into all the extravagances and indulgences 
connected with thrift! essness and crime. But the boy had vig- 
orous health; this imparted to him a mental vim, a moral 
power, which soon showed itself to his employer. He was 
prompt, persevering, and painstaking ; and with these three 
qualities, in spite of the fact that he was good at nothing, in 
every thing tolerable only, he made his patient way, step by 
step, to the woolsack of England, and lately died, (worth a 
million of dollars,) among the most honored men of his nation 
and age — Lord Chief-Justice Campbell. In this case, vigorous 
health was a mine of wealth ; a better fortune than if he had 
been the heir of many thousands. And certain is it, that the 
world would be a happier world, and the men in it would 
be happier, better, and greater, if one tithe of the time, and 
care, and study which parents bestow on the accumulation of 
money to leave to their children, were devoted to the physi- 
cal education and training necessary to secure a vigorous consti- 
tution. Of any two young men starting on the race of life, one 
poor but healthy, the other rich and effeminate, other things 
being equal, the chances for usefulness, honor, and a well-re- 
membered name, are manifold in favor of the former. Who • 
that reads this article will lay it down and resolve : "I will do 
more to leave to my children a vigorous constitution ?" 

Another element in the success of Lord Chief Justice Camp- 
bell was, that his employer seeing his dull nature, but noticing 
at the same time that when he had any thing to do, he went at 
it promptly, and with great painstaking kept at it until the 
work in hand was done, although done painfully slow, he pat- 
ted -him on the shoulder, always spoke cheerfully to him, and 
thus stimulated him to greater activities. How many a youth 
at school, how many an apprentice in the shop, how many a 
child in the family, has gone out in the night of a blighted life, 
who, with humane encouragements, might have lived usefully 
and died famous, let the passionate teacher and master and 
parent inquire, and do a little more patting on the shoulder. 



HEALTH'TRACT, No. 48. 



A. WAENINa!!! 

To Parents, Guardians, and Youth. 

Hundreds of thousands of dollars have been made out of boys from 
fourteen to twenty, and bachelors, by the authors of books on physi- 
ology, with plates to stimulate prurient curiosity to an ungovernable 
pitch. Hundreds of thousands of these publications are sold and given 
away. Scarcely any youth can read one of them without imbibing the im- 
pression that he is the victim of certain things, which unless promptly 
corrected will soon and surely lead to results of the most appalling cha- 
racter. We are in the frequent receipt of letters from mere boys, who have 
spent from five to five hundred dollars, without having derived a " particle 
of benefit from the treatment," and in terms of the most abject self-abase- 
ment and almost utter hopelessness, inquiring if it is too late for them to 
be saved. Letters come in from all parts of the country, inquiring if we 
know any thing of this, that, and the other one who has written such a 
book, or of some "company," "association," or "society," with benevo- 
lent names, whose advertisements are found in village newspapers all over 
the land. Some of our exchanges have them, which would not insert them 
at any price, if their true nature were known. It may save us the trouble 
of answering divers letters, and the cost of divers postage-stamps, envel- 
opes, and sheets of paper, to state, that this subject is connected with the 
hours of sleep, and sixty pages are devoted to its consideration, and its 
only safe remedy, costing nothing but the exercise of a vigorous will, in 
the observance of certain specified habits and modes of life, in our book 
entitled " Sleep," $1.25, or sent post-paid for $1.37. In very many cases 
the fears and imaginations of youth are so wrought upon that they are led 
to steal the money requisite to fee the harpies who wrote the books. We 
know an individual who in a very few years has laid up a hundred and 
twenty-one thousand dollars in this connection. The main portion of our 
book, however, is devoted to sleep proper ; the importance of sleeping 
soundly, in a pure atmosphere, and how to do it ; the advantage to old 
and young of sleeping alone, on single beds in large rooms ; the injury to 
a family's thrift and happiness resulting from the mother having her rest 
broken by infant children, and how to remedy it, healthfully and happily, 
for all parties. We wish we were able to give one of these books on 
" Sleep " to every family in the nation, and place it on the shelf of all the 
libraries in Christendom, for certain are we that humanity would be hap- 
pier thereby, and years would be added to the average of life, if the sug- 
gestions were carried out as to 

1st. Securing sound, connected, and refreshing sleep every night. 

2d. As to the best means of ventilating a sleeping-room, in which full 
one third of our entire existence is passed. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 49. 



HYDROPHOBIA. 

Eminent Europeans have said that as many persons die 
of hydrophobia in winter as in summer. Persons frequently 
become hydrophobic after having been bitten by dogs 
and other animals, supposed to have been perfectly sound 
and well. In many cases the animal is killed instantly 
on having bitten a person, which person sometimes became 
hydrophobic, and sometimes not ; sometimes within a month, 
at others not until two years have passed away. See Jour- 
nal of Health for July, 1857, where a man had been bitten 
by a dog nine months before, and had forgotten all about it, 
until reminded of it accidentally on Tuesday, May 26 : on 
Friday following he died in horrible agonies from hydrophobia. 
From these statements important practical inferences should be 
drawn : First, never allude to hydrophobia in the presence of 
one who has been bitten by a dog ; second, if bitten by any 
dog, at any season of the year, under any circumstances, 
whether the skin be penetrated or imperceptibly grazed by the 
animal's tooth, let the part be cupped, or sucked an hour by 
one or a succession of persons, who are most perfectly certain 
that there is not the slightest sore or abrasion any where about 
the lips or tongue. Meanwhile, administer an enema, wash the 
parts freely in spirits of hartshorn every half-hour for three 
hours, and then every hour for the remainder of the day, put- 
ting fresh hartshorn in a clean saucer on each occasion ; if any 
thing at all is eaten, let it be of the lightest, simplest kind. 
The object of the hartshorn, which is the strongest alkali, is to 
neutralize the poison, which, like almost, if not all, bites, is 
acid. One of the objects in eating but little, is not to use the 
strength of the system in digesting the food, but rather let it be 
employed in repelling diseased influences. In the mean time, 

send for a physician. Eabid saliva has no effect whatever on unbroken skin. Mad 
dogs have perfectly lucid intervals. The great John Hunter knew twenty-one per- 
sons bitten, and only one became hydrophobic. Wasp and bee stings are generally 
innocuous, but occasionally are fatal in a few days, showing that some persons are 
insusceptible of the poison. Common-sense dictates an instant determination 
whether the dog is mad ; if so, one or more of the following symptoms are ex- 
hibited in a very exaggerated degree : fidgety ; sullen ; importunately affectionate ; 
hallucinated ; ardently thirsty ; scratches his ear violently ; paws the corners of his 
mouth, without its being permanently open ; misconducts himself, and partially re- 
covering, licks the corners ; refuses his natural food ; appetite is depraved ; is m - 
sensible to pain ; voice always strangely altered. If the dog is actually mad, or it 
can not be decided with satisfactory certainty, it is almost a madness not to cauter- 
ize the part instantly with a white-hot iron, as this hurts less than if only red-hot, 
and is the only infallible remedy. Mad stones, whisky, ash-leaf infusions, drank 
most freely, have all often failed, proving that when their use was not followed by 
hydrophobia it was because the dog was only thought to be mad, or the system at 
the time was insusceptible to the poison, or the skin was unbroken. Madness begins 
in from two to twelve weeks, averaging from four to seven, rarely later than eight 
weeks. 



HEALTH TRACT, Ho. 50. 



EHEUMATISM 

Affects the joints, the hinges of the body, in such a way, that 
the slightest motion of the ailing part gives pain. A creaking- 
hinge is dry, and turns hard. A single drop of oil to moisten 
it makes a wonderful change, and it instantly moves on itself 
with the utmost facility. Eheumatism is an inflammation 
of the surface of the joints. Inflammation is heat; this heat 
dries these surfaces ; hence, the very slightest effort at motion 
gives piercing pain. In a healthy condition of the parts, 
nature is constantly throwing out a lubricating oil, which 
keeps the joints in a perfectly smooth and easy-working condi- 
tion. Eheumatism is almost always caused — indeed, it may be 
nearer the truth to say, that it is always the result of a cold 
dampness. A dry cold, or a warm dampness, does not induce 
rheumatism. A garment, wetted by perspiration or rain, or 
water in any other form, about a joint, and allowed to dry 
while the person is in a state of rest, is the most common way 
of causing rheumatism. A partial wetting of a garment is 
more apt to induce an attack than if the entire clothing were 
wetted ; because, in the latter case, it would be certainly and 
speedily exchanged for dry garments. The very moment a 
garment is wetted in whole or in part, change it, or keep in mo- 
tion sufficient to maintain a very slight perspiration, until the 
clothing is perfectly dried. 

The failure to wear woolen flannel next the skin, is the most 
frequent cause of rheumatism ; for a common muslin or linen 
or silk shirt of a person in a perspiration, becomes clamp and 
cold the instant a puff of air strikes it, even in mid-summer. 
This is not the case when woolen flannel is worn next the skin. 

This troublesome affection is cured by keeping the joint affected 
wound around with several folds of woolen flannel; second, live 
entirely on the lightest kind of food, such as coarse breads, ripe 
fruits, berries, boiled turnips, stewed apples, and the like. If 
such things were eaten to the extent of keeping the system 
freely open, and exercise were taken, so that a slight moisture 
should be on the surface of the skin all the time ; or if, in 
bed, the same thing were accomplished by hot teas and plentiful 
bed-clothing, a grateful relief and an ultimate cure will very 
certainly result in a reasonably short time. Without these, the 
disease will continue to torture for weeks and months and years. 

Inflammatory rheumatism may, for all practical jyurposes, 
be regarded as an aggravated form of the common kind, ex- 
tended to all the joints of the body, instead of implicating only 
one or two. For all kinds, time, flannel, warmth, with a light 
and cooling diet, are the great remedies. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 51. 



AIR, SUNSHINE AND HEALTH. 

A New-York merchant noticed, in the progress of years, that 
each successive book-keeper gradually lost his health, and finally 
died of consumption, however vigorous and robust he was on 
entering his service. At length it occurred to him that the little 
rear-room where the books were kept opened in a back-yard, so 
surrounded by high walls, that no sunshine came into it from one 
year's end to another. An upper room, well lighted, was immedi- 
ately prepared, and his clerks had uniform good health ever after. 

A familiar case to general readers is derived from medical works, 
where an entire English family became ill, and all remedies seemed 
to fail of their usual results, when accidentally a window-glass of 
the family-room was broken, in cold weather. It was not rejmired, 
and forthwith there was a marked improvement in the health of 
the inmates. The physician at once traced the connection, discon- 
tinued his medicines, and ordered that the window-pane should 
not be replaced. 

A French lady became ill. The most eminent physicians of her 
time were called in, but failed to restore her. At length Dupey- 
tren, the Napoleon of physic, was consulted. He noticed that she 
lived in a dim room, into which the sun never shone ; the house 
being situated in one of the narrow streets, or rather lanes of 
Paris. He at once ordered more airy and cheerful apartments, and 
" all her complaints vanished." 

The lungs of a dog become tuberculated (consumptive) in a few 
weeks, if kept confined in a dark cellar. The most common plant 
grows spindly, pale, and scraggling, if no sunlight falls upon it. 
The greatest medical names in France, of the last century, re- 
garded sunshine and pure air as equal agents in restoring and 
maintaining health. 

From these facts, which can not be disputed, the most common 
mind should conclude that cellars, and rooms on the northern side 
of buildings, or apartments into which the sun does not immedi- 
ately shine, should never be occupied as family-rooms or chambers 
or as libraries or " studies." Such apartments are only fit for " stow- 
age," or purposes which never require persons to remain in them 
over a few minutes at a time. And every intelligent and humane pa- 
rent will arrange'that the family-room and the chambers shall be the 
most commodious, lightest and brightest apartments in his dwelling. 

This whole subject is treated at length in the book on " Sleep," by Dr, 
TF. W. Hall, 42 Irving Place, New- York. $1.25, or, post-paid, $1.37. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 52. 



CATARRH 



Is a name given by the Greeks to ailments which throw off fluids in unnatural 
quantities ; it means a " flowing from." These catarrhs are always originated by a 
cold taken in some way ; and upon whatever part of the system the cold " falls," 
it is called a " catarrh " of that part. Hence, " catarrh of the head " when the 
eyes water a great deal ; " nasal " catarrh when the " nose runs ;" " catarrh of the 
chest " when a cold settles on the lungs and a large expectoration follows. Some 
persons who have " weak bowels " always have diarrhea ; thin, watery, light-col- 
ored passages, or catarrh of the bowels, when a cold is taken. 

The action of a catarrh is curative, and should be let alone, for it is nature's ef- 
fort to carry off the disease ; to wash it away, as it were. If nature were only left 
to herself in these cases, an incredible amount of suffering would be prevented, 
especially if nothing were eaten until relieved but bread and water ; and if two or 
three hours in the forenoon and afternoon were spent in the open air, in bodily 
activities sufficient to promote and keep up a very gentle perspiration. But when 
there is a cough, or a troublesome running at the nose, or a watering of the eyes, 
with a fullness about the head and all over the body, indicating that a general cold 
has been taken, there is almost a mania for "taking something ;" or, if the person 
has some medical knowledge, and even a small amount of common-sense, leading 
him to wait on nature, while he endeavors to aid her as just indicated, every second 
person he meets, exclaims, " Why don't you do something for it?" and he is brave 
indeed who resists steadfastly to the end. 

A lady had a troublesome itching and running at the nose, and being advised to 
snuff up cold water freely, she did so and was "cured " in a day; but in twenty- 
four hours she nearly died of asthma; for, although the "flowing" from the nose 
was checked, the disease fell upon the lungs ; nature would have vent some where. 

In the diarrheas of children, summer complaints, etc., which so often arise from 
colds settling on the bowels, paregoric is given, and " soothing syrups," (in all 
cases made of molasses and laudanum, never made without sugar and opium.) The 
great effort of ignorance is to " stop the diarrhea." This is done ; the parents are 
charmed, write out a certificate in great gratitude ; this is published in the morn- 
ing papers of the same week, as also in another column the death of the "cured" 
child of "convulsions" or "water on the brain." 

The cough of consumption, and the large amount of glairy or multi-colored 
"matter" discharged from the lungs in bronchitis, are the curative "Sowings," 
catarrhs of nature, and the checking of them by cough-drops, lozenges, troches, 
syrups, snuffs, etc., always, always, ALWAYS makes death* more certain, more 
speedy, and more dreadful. In all catarrhs, in all flowings, keep the bowels free ; 
keep up a very general perspiration, and eat but very little for forty-eight hours, 
and if not better, send for a respectable physician. Annual sneezings and nose- 
runnings are of this nature, preventable by previous judicious depletions. 



HEALTH TKACT, No. 53. 



FIFTEEN" FOLLIES. 



1. To think that the more a man eats the fatter and stronger he will become. 

2. To believe that the more hours children study at school the faster they 
learn. 

3. To conclude that if exercise is good for the health, the more violent and ex- 
hausting it is, the more good is done. 

4. To imagine that every hour taken from sleep is an hour gained. 

5. To act on the presumption that the smallest room in the house is large enough 
to sleep in. 

6. To argue that whatever remedy causes one to feel immediately better, is 
11 good for " the system without regard to more ulterior effects. The " soothing 
syrup," for example, does stop the cough of children, and does arrest diarrhea, 
only to cause, a little later, alarming convulsions, or the more fatal inflammation of 
the brain, or water on the brain ; at least, always protracts the disease. 

V. To commit an act which is felt in itself to be prejudicial, hoping that some 
how or other it may be done in your case with impunity. 

8. To advise another to take a remedy which you have not tried on yourself, or 
without making special inquiry whether all the conditions are alike. 

9. To eat without an appetite, or continue to eat after it has been satiated, 
merely to gratify the taste. 

10. To eat a hearty supper for the pleasure experienced during the brief time it 
is passing down the throat, at the expense of a whole night of disturbed sleep, and 
a weary waking in the morning. 

11. To remove a portion of the clothing immediately after exercise, when the 
most stupid drayman in New-York knows that if he does not put a cover on his 
horse the moment he ceases work in winter, he will lose him in a few days by 
pneumonia. 

12. To contend that because the dirtiest children in the street, or on the high- 
way, are hearty and healthy, that, therefore, it is healthy to be dirty ; forgetting 
that continuous daily exposure to the pure out-door air, in joyous, unrestrained 
activities, is such a powerful agency for health that those who live thus are well, in 
spite of rags and filth. 

13. To presume to repeat, later in life, without injury, the indiscretions, expo- 
sures, and intemperances which in the flush of youth were practiced with impunity. 

14. To believe that warm air is necessarily impure, or that pure, cool air is ne- 
cessarily more healthy than the confined air of a close and crowded vehicle ; the 
latter, at most, can only cause fainting or nausea; while entering a conveyance after 
walking briskly, lowering a window, thus while still, exposed to a draught, will 
give a cold infallibly, or an attack of pleurisy or pneumonia, which will cause weeks 
and months of suffering, if not actual death within four days. 

15. To "Remember the Sabbath-day" by working harder and later on Saturday 
than on any other day in the week, with a view to sleeping late next morning, and 
staying at home all day to rest, conscience being quieted by the plea of not " feel- 
ing very well." 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 54. 



DIET FOR INVALIDS. 

Many persons, while apparently recovering from sickness, suddenly become 
worse and die, in consequence of eating some improper article of food, or of eating 
too much or too often ; others have perished in eating against their inclination, 
merely to please their friends, or to get rid of their solicitations. 

If persons are able to be out of bed, or on their feet, the intervals of eating 
should be about four hours during day-light. Only those confined to bed should 
eat oftener, or during the night. As a general rule, that is best for the patient for 
which there is the greatest craving. But a lady recovering from an attack of 
typhod fever had a strong desire to eat a sweet potato. She did so, and died next 
day. Hence, a very small amount of what is craved should be taken at a time ; 
and if no discomfort follows within four hours, a little more may be ventured. 

If a patient wakes up in the morning thirsty, or the mouth is dry, no solid 
aliment should be taken, however great the hunger. Liquid food only can be safely 
used, at least until near noon. 

The very best restorative an invalid can swallow, when thirsty or " faint," is the 
very best green or black tea that money can purchase, made in the best manner ; 
the strength to be adapted to the circumstances. If feeble, the patient should 
have the food as soon as possible after it is called for. If there is no appetite, re- 
move it instantly ; instead of letting it remain, in the hope of its being soon wanted. 
Never, under any circumstances, give one single spoonful more than the patient 
can take with a relish, with satisfaction. A teaspoonful every twenty minutes, 
taken with a will, does more good than a dozen times the amount every hour or 
two, when such an amount can not be taken without distaste. 

Beef-Tea. Liebig's. — Chop a pound of lean meat as fine as for sausage ; mix 
it with a pint of cold water ; put it over a slow fire ; when it has boiled five minutes, 
strain through a coarse cloth ; salt to suit. 

Broth, quickly made. — Take a bono of loin or neck of mutton; remove skin and 
fat ; beat or cut fine the meat ; cover it with water in a sauce-pan, with a cover ; 
season it ; boil quickly for half an hour. 

Panada, in five minutes. — To water and white wine, seasoned with sugar, nut- 
meg, and lemon-pell, grate in some bread as soon as it boils ; boil fast until thick 
enough to drink. 

Sweet Buttermilk. — In ten minutes after milking, churn until flakes of butter 
swim about thickly. Good to drink while eating crackers, rusk, ripe or dried fruits. 

Flour Caudle. — Rub a tablespoonful of fine flour into six of water ; add this to 
five spoonfuls of milk, while boiling ; stir twenty minutes over a slow fire. A 
nourishing astringent for weak bowels. 

Wine- Whet. — While a pint of milk is boiling, stir in eight tablespoonfuls of 
wine ; boil a minute ; when curd has settled, turn off the whey, which sweeten 
and drink, cold or warm. 

Toast- Water. — Toast slowly, until brown, a thin slice of the soft of stale bread ; 
put in a pitcher ; pour on boiling water, and set it to cool, covered. 

Water-Gruel. — Make two tablespoonfuls of Indian, or corn-meal, and one of 
flour, into a thick batter, with cold water ; stir in boiling water till suitably thick ; 
season with salt, and stir while boiling for six or eight minutes ; add a little butter, 
and pour it over toasted bread, cut in small pieces. 

Toasted Bread. — Hold a thin slice to the fire until it turns slowly of a straw 
color on both sicles. 

Flaxseed-Tea. — Boil whole flaxseed in water to a thick syrup. A dessert-spoon* 
ful to a glass of water ; strain, and add sugar and lemon T juice to suit. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 55. 



POISONS. 

From a Latin word, meaning " drink," as poisons are generally 
taken in that way ; and are either " corrosive," such as destroy or 
kill the texture of the part; or "constitutional," affecting the 
system, through the nerves and blood-vessels. Mineral and acid 
poisons, as lead, copper, arsenic, oxalic-acid, aqua-fortis, and the 
like, kill the living parts on the instant of touching, and death 
speedily results, from inflammation, swelling, and mortification. 

Alcohol, opium, prussic acid, strychnine, and the like, are consti- 
tutional, and affect the system through the nerves and blood- 
vessels. There are, besides the gases, over sixty solid substances, 
in nature, which destroy life in a day, an hour, a minute. An 
" antidote" is that which instantly renders a poison innocuous by 
removal or chemical combination. For corrosive poisons, such as 
mineral and acid, indicated certainly by the patient carrying the 
hand to the throat, swallow instantly sweet oil, train-oil, or any 
other simple oil or grease first at hand. This soothes, protects, 
and vomits ; or take magnesia, soap, or saleratus, in water. 

As to the constitutional poisons, instant removal is imperative ; 
and the very best thing in all nature, as well as most generally at 
hand, is a heaping teaspoonful each of common salt and ground 
mustard, stirred quickly in a glass of cool or warm water, and 
swallowed on the spot. This usually causes instantaneous vomit- 
ing. As soon as this ceases, as there may be some of the poison 
left in the stomach, swallow the white of an egg or two ; and to 
make assurance doubly sure, drink most freely of very strong 
coffee. The egg is best for corrosive poisons ; the coffee, for 
the constitutional. A quart of very strong cold coffee should be 
put away in a bottle in every family, for such uses ; especially as 
it is the antidote for a larger number of poisons than any other 
substance in nature. 

The above are intended as expedients, to be employed while a 
physician is being procured. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 56. 



ERYSIPELAS. 

From the two Greek words, meaning " to draw" and "neighboring;" from the 
nature of the disease to draw in or involve adjacent parts. The Scotch call it the 
"rose," from its color; others, St. Anthony's fire, from its burning heat. It is a 
diffused inflammation or redness of the skin of the face and head ; fever precedes 
the local inflammation, with sore-throat as an almost invariable attendant. The 
premonitory symptoms are : the patient feels ill, shivery, feeble or tired, languid, 
and often drowsy; sometimes there is nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. The actual 
attack begins with a chill ; then some part of the face, nose, one cheek, or rim of 
one ear, begins to feel hot, stiff, and tingling, and on close examination is found to 
be of a deep, continuous red color, swollen and hard ; this redness and swelling 
advances gradually, sometimes rapidly, with a distinct, elevated margin as of a 
wave, until the whole scalp and face are involved. No disease, except the small- 
pox, so obliterates and deforms the features ; for the cheeks enlarge, the lips thick- 
en enormously, and the eyes are completely closed by the swelling of the lids ; 
the mind begins to wander, especially at night ; then delirium, and in a few days, 
death ! In cases of recovery, the redness declines in three or four days, the swell- 
ing subsides, and the person gradually gets well. Erysipelas of the head and face 
is so generally fatal in three or four days, spreads with such rapidity, and by 
extending to the throat, which by its swelling closes up the passage of the air to 
the lungs, causing instant death, it is important to know the distinguishing symp- 
toms already enumerated, and to have some means at hand, by which families many 
miles distant from medical aid, may do something toward arresting its wave- 
like progress, until the physician arrives. This is, of late, claimed to be done by the 
very simple process of pounding raw cranberries, and covering the part affected 
with a poultice made of them. A more generally accessible remedy is, to paint 
the whole affected surface, and a little beyond, with" common white paint, laying it 
on with a feather ; add a fresh coat every two hours, until a thick layer is obtained, 
and thereafter, sufficiently often to keep the parts entirely and perfectly covered ; 
the object being to exclude the air, which is supposed to be the great irritant. This 
coating of white lead paint peels off in a week or ten days with the shed skin, and 
leaves the surface beneath clean, smooth, and healthy. To make assurance doubly 
sure, promptly unload the bowels by an injection of a pint of lukewarm water ; eat 
nothing but a crust of cold bread or toasted bread broken into some warm tea, 
every four hours during daylight, and occupy a clean, dry, well-aired room and bed. 
When the physician arrives, if you are not well, put the case implicitly and en- 
tirely into his hands. The almost universal cause of erysipelas is bad blood, arising, 
in nearly every instance, from constipation of the bowels ; that is, their failure to 
act every day. This is generally brought on by resisting the calls of nature ; by 
over-eating ; by neglect of exercise in the open air, or by cooling off too quickly 
after such exercise ; in such cases, the cold is apt to settle in the throat, and prove 
speedily fatal. If erysipelas sets in after a wound, it is because of the impure 
state of the blood from the same causes — the wound, in this case, being merely the 
excitant, the spark to the powder already there. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 57. 



[N-unsi^ra HINTS. 

To the nurse is intrusted a holy human life, and to fail of duty by inattention or ignorance, ia 
Cruelly criminal. 

1. The nurse should not eat, drink, or sleep in a sick-room. 

2. Nor fast longer than five hours, whether a day or night watcher. 

3. Always go into the room for day or night duty, with a full meal. 

4. A strong body and a wide-awake mind are equally essential to a capable and efficient 
nurse ; hence seven hours of consecutive sleep out of each twenty-four is a necessity. 

5. Do not sit between the bed and the fire, or on the other side of the patient from an open 
door or window. 

6. Clean your teeth, dress your hair, and wash your whole body well with soap and water after 
watching, so that you may sleep in clean linen, in no garment worn during your watching. 

7. Wear as few woolen or dark clothes as possible ; they hide dirt and harbor noxious 
exhalations. 

8. Never speak in a whisper or under-tone in the sick-room, unless the patient is asleep ; it 
engenders suspicions. 

9. Avoid all discomposure, flurry, and noise, especially sudden, harsh, or discordant, and 
wear no creaking shoes or rustling garments. 

10. Maintain at all times a countenance which is at once composed, self-possessed, cheerful, 
hopeful, kindly, confident, and sympathetic, else you are utterly unfit for the place. 

11. As far as possible, anticipate every want, without at the same time being officious. 
Avoid all unnecessary questionings, and do not be forever fixing things about the bed. 

12. Keep scrupulously out of sight every thing in the shape of druggery, such as bottles, vials, 
spoons, pill-boxes, etc. 

13. Do not allow any liquid thing to remain in the room one single moment longer than it ia 
in use, not even a glass of ice-water. 

14. Have no hanging garments in the sick-chamber, and as little woolen carpeting and bed- 
coverings as possible, and no bed or window-curtains. 

15. Keep the room in perfect order, and arrange things with an eye to taste, neatness and 
cheerfulness. 

16. If visitors are admitted, ask them to leave the room the moment conversation flags 
No patient can possibly desire to be gaped at in silenof. 

IT. Never allow a frown, or an angry word, or an impatient expression of countenance, what- 
ever may be the provocation. However " cross" the patient is, it is your business to be pro- 
pitiative. 

18. Guard against drafts of air and damp bed-clothes or garments. 

19. Always have the fire-place open, and a window or door, as nearly opposite as possible, a 
little raised and lowered, or ajar. If there is no fire, have a lamp or candle burning in the fire- 
place, to create a draft up the chimney. 

20. Let the room be as clean and as sunshiny as possible. 

21. If fire is needed in the chamber, a thermometer should hang about five feet from the floor, 
opposite the fire-place, and should range about sixty degrees. 

22. Let all kinds of impressive intelligence be communicated gradually, and as unimpressibly 
as possible. 

23. Sleep is the best agency of recovery in all nature ; hence never wake a sleeping patient, 
but promote sleep in all possible ways. 

24. Do all you can to inspire confidence in the physician ; never make a suggestion to him irj 
the presence of the patient, and be faithful to his instructions. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 58. 



CHECKING PEESPIEATION. 

If while perspiring, or while something warmer than usual, from exercise or a heated room, 
there is a sudden exposure in stillness to a still, cold air, or to a raw, damp atmosphere, or to a 
draft, whether at an open window or door or street-corner, an inevitable result is a violent and 
instantaneous closing of the pores of the skin, by which waste and impure matters, which were 
making their way out of the system, are compelled to seek an exit through some other channel, and 
break through some weaker part, not the natural one, and harm to that part is the result. The 
idea is presented by saying that the cold has settled in that part. To illustrate : 

A lady was about getting into a small boat to cross the Delaware ; but wishing first to get an 
orange at a fruit-stand, she ran up the bank of the river, and on her return to the boat found 
herself much heated, for it was summer, but there was a little wind on the water, and the clothing 
soon felt cold to her ; the next morning she had a severe cold, which settled on her lungs, and 
within the year she died of consumption. 

A stout, strong man was working in a garden in May ; feeling a little tired about noon, he sat 
down in the shade of the house and fell asleep ; he waked up chilly ; inflammation of the lungs 
followed, ending, after two years of great suffering, in consumption. On opening his chest, there 
was such an extensive decay, that the yellow matter was scooped out by the cupful. 

A Boston ship-owner, while on the deck of one of his vessels, thought he would " lend a 
hand" in some emergency ; and pulling off his coat, worked with a will, until he perspired freely, 
when he sat down to rest a while, enjoying the delicious breeze from the sea. On attempting to 
rise, he found himself unable, and was so stiff in his joints, that he had to be carried home and 
put to bed, which he did not leave until the end of two years, when he was barely able to hobble 
down to the wharf on crutches. 

A lady, after being unusually busy all day, found herself heated and tired toward sundown 
of a summer's day. She concluded she would rest herself by taking a drive to town in an open 
vehicle. The ride made her uncomfortably cool, but she warmed herself up by an hour's shopping, 
Avhen she turned homeward ; it being late in the evening, she found herself more decidedly chilly 
than before. At midnight she had pneumonia, (inflammation of the lungs,) and in three months 
had the ordinary symptoms of confirmed consumption. 

A lady of great energy of character lost her cook, and had to take her place for four days ; 
the kitchen was warm, and there was a draft of air through it. When the work was done, warm 
and weary, she went to her chamber, and laid down on the bed to rest herself. This operation waa 
repeated several times a day. On the fifth day she had an attack of lung fever ; at the end of six 
months she was barely able to leave her chamber, only to find herself suffering with all the more 
prominent symptoms of confirmed consumption ; such as quick pulse, night and morning cough, 
night-sweats, debility, short breath, and falling away. 

A young lady rose from her bed on a November night, and leaned her arm on the cold win- 
dow-sill to listen to a serenade. Next morning she had pneumonia, and suffered the horrors of 
asthma for the remainder of a long life. 

Multitudes of women lose health and life every year, in one of two ways ; by busying them- 
selves in a warm kitchen until weary, and then throwing themselves on a bed or sofa, without 
covering, and perhaps in a room without fire ; or by removing the outer clothing, and perhaps 
changing the dress for a more common one, as soon as they enter the house after a walk or a 
shopping. The rule should be invariable to go at once to a warm room and keep on all the cloth- 
ing at least for five or ten minutes, until the forehead is perfectly dry. In all weathers, if you 
have to walk and ride on any occasion, do the riding first. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 59. 



APPLES.— The apple is perhaps more useful than all the 
other fruits iu nature. Beyond them all, it is durable, prolific, 
easy of culture, and capable of such a variety, in its mode of 
preparation for the table, that a small volume might be written 
about it. The time required to digest a piece of roasted pork 
is five hours and a half; about equal to a piece of boiled 
tendon, (white leather,) which is almost leathery, or a lump of 
boiled beef-suet ; while a sweet, mellow, raw apple is digested, 
passed out of the stomach, and enters the circulation to nourish 
and strengthen, in an hour and a half, being exceeded in easi- 
ness of digestion only by boiled rice, pigs' feet or tripe soused, 
and whipped eggs, all of which are digested in one hour. 
Sweet apples are not valued as they ought to be, because they 
do not " cook well ;" but to be eaten raw, there is scarcely any 
thing more "delicate," that is, so easily received into the sys-' 
tern, requiring so little stomach power in appropriating it to 
the nourishment of the body. One good method of cooking 
apples, is to peel them and take out the core, without dividing 
the fruit ; put them in a dish, pour over them a few table- 
spoonfuls of water ; bake until delicately brown, and eat with 
cream and sugar, as a dessert, for dinner. This is incomparably 
preferable to the sodden dumpling or the greasy pie. Mrs. F. 
D. Gage, one of the most notable housewives in the "nation, 
says : " Pare the apples and quarter them, placing them in a 
tin plate with the core side up ; if dried apples, a little water is 
added ; they are then set in the oven, which is always hot at 
meal-time, and roasted ; when done, they are slid on a common 
plate, and sprinkled with sugar ; to be eaten warm, with bread 
and butter and cakes. It would require canned fruit of extra 
flavor to tempt me from the apple-dish, if thus prepared. 
Strawberries or half-ripe peaches are not to be talked of the 
same day." 

For lunches at school or at home, for convenience and clean- 
liness, to put in the pocket while traveling, or on an excursion, 
or when expecting to be absent from home over a meal, the 
apple is without an equal ; while as a dessert it might well 
supersede all the cakes, pies, jellies, dumplings, and "tarts" 
ever invented. If a tithe of the money expended in easily 
dispensable articles o/ apparel, or mere personal gratifications 
in the shape of snuff, cigars, chewing-tobacco, home-made 
wines and cordials, or of useless trinkets of jewelry, or unsub- 
stantial, unremunerative amusements, was devoted to the pur- 
chase of a bountiful supply of apples in the fall, for family use, 
without stint, there would be found a most welcome increment 
in family health in the spring, and a diminution of doctors' 
bills, especially gratifying to all prudent and calculating "pater- 
familias." To every householder we say, wear an old coat 
another year, do with one silk dress less, skimp yourself in 
pork, ham, bacon, and even roast beef, rather than fail to put 
half a dozen barrels of prime apples in your cellar this fall. 



HEALTH TRACT.-Wo. 60. 
TAKING MEDICINE. 

Let it be remembered that it is not the medicine advised 
by the educated physician which has done the world so much 
injury, but it is the physic which the people swallow on 
their own responsibility. When a narrow-minded person gets 
sick, he " calculates "the saving it will be to him to give twenty- 
five cents for a box of pills, instead of "employing a physician," 
besides avoiding the discomfort of "a course of medicine," as 
it is called. This answers for a while in many cases, but it is 
ultimately disastrous, and health and life are the fearful forfeit. 
A gentleman had been a dyspeptic, and hearing that a prepara- 
tion of soda was " good for dyspepsia," he " tried it ;" it acted 
"like a charm," and for the next six months he was so enrap- 
tured with its effects that he considered it a duty as well as a 
humanity to recommend it to every person who seemed to be 
affected as he had been. Not long thereafter, as he was stand- 
ing at the gate of his newly-married daughter, in London, in a 
passing call on his way to business, he dropped down dead. On 
examination, the cause was found in several ounces of soda im- 
pacted in the bowels. 

Not long ago, a young lady of wealth called for a prescrip- 
tion at a Quaker druggist's. Being a conscientious man, he said 
to her very kindly that if she continued to take it in such 
quantities, it would destroy her. It was a preparation of mor- 
phine, chloroform, and ether, which had an instantaneous and 
powerful effect on the whole system, and in her case excited 
the brain and kept it in that condition, requiring constantly in- 
creased doses. Within a month she was attacked with a very 
familiar disease, cured every day in its more peculiar seat. In 
her case, the brain having been so weakened by the continual 
over-excitement to which it had been subjected, became the 
point of metastasis. In familiar phrase, "it went to the brain." 
She was a model of unobtrusive, self-denying piety, so retiring, 
so pure, as to be the admiration of those who knew her inner 
life. In an hour the malady made a wreck of the mind. No 
man could hold her. Her profanity was shocking to every at- 
tendant. A day or two more and she died. We personally 
know that her sister perished a year earlier in consequence of 
a condition of the system induced by taking daily, for months 
a popular "cough-iozenge," or "troche." In these last two 
cases, economy was no object, for they had always been the 
pampered and petted children of lavish wealth. But it was so 
much easier to get rid of an ailment in this way than by the 
formality of calling in the family physician ; besides parental 
solicitudes need not be uselessly excited ; this, no doubt, was 
the ruling motive. The experienced practitioner well under- 
stands that the habitual takng of any efficient medicine is the 
certain road to a premature and very often a violent or agoniz* 
ing death.. 



HEALTH TRACT-NO. 61. 
FAILING EYESIGHT. 

The sight begins to fail from forty to fifty, by an instinctive preference of larger print ; u seat 
near the window for reading is unwittingly selected ; there is an effort to place the paper at a con- 
venient distance from the eye, or to turn it so as to get a particular reflection of the light ; next 
the finger begins to be placed under the line read, or there is a winking of the eye as if to clear it, 
or a looking away at some distant object to rest it ; or the fingers are pressed over the closed lids 
in the direction of the nose, to remove the surplus water caused by straining. When spectacles 
are first used, they should not be kept on steadily, only in the early morning, or cloudy day, cr 
dim light, or with fine print, or sewing. Favor the failing sight as much as possible : 

1st. By sitting in such a position as will allow the light to 
fall upon the page or sewing obliquely over the shoulder. 

2d. By not using the eyes for such purposes by any artificial 
light, or before sunrise, or after sunset. 

3d. By avoiding the special use of the eyes in the morning 
before breakfast. 

4th. By resting them for half a minute or so, while reading or 
sewing, or looking at small objects, by looking at things at a 
distance or up to the sky, relief is immediately felt by so doing. 

5th. Never pick any collected matter from the eye-lashes or 
corners of the eyes with the finger-nails ; rather moisten it with 
the saliva and rub it away with the ball of the finger. 

6th. Frequently pass the balls of the fingers over the closed 
eyelids, towards the nose ; this carries off any excess of water 
into the nose itself by means of the little canal which leads 
into the nostril from each inner corner of the eye, which canal 
tends to close up in consequence of the slight inflammation 
which attends weakness of eyes. 

7th. Keep the feet always dry and warm, so as to draw any 
excess of blood from the other end of the body. 

8th. Use eye-glasses at first, carried in the vest-pocket, at- 
tached to a guard, for they are instantly adjusted to the eye 
with very little trouble ; whereas, if common spectacles are 
used, such a process is required to get them ready, that to save 
trouble, the eyes are often strained to answer a purpose. 

9th. "Wash the eyes abundantly every morning. If cold 
water is used, let it be flapped against the closed eye with the 
fingers of the hand, not striking hard against the balls of the 
eyes. But it would seem a better plan to open the eyes in pure 
warm water, because warm water is more penetrating than 
cold ; it dissolves much more readily and rapidly any hardened 
matter that may be about the lids, and is more soothing and 
more natural. 

10th. The moment the eyes feel tired, the very moment you 
are conscious of an effort to read or sew, lay aside the book or 
needle, and take a walk for an hour, or employ yourself in some 
active exercise not requiring the close use of the eyes. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 62. 

Is generally not a disease in the head itself, but a sign or 
symptom that something is wrong in some other part of the 
body. In almost every case it is accompanied by cold feet, cos- 
tiveness, disordered stomach, or a derangement of the nervous 
system in general — this last induced by over-mental exercise or 
some local irritation in a distant part of the body. In all these 
cases, an application to the head itself is only palliative, eradicates 
nothing, cures nothing. If the feet are cold they must be made 
permanently dry and warm, thus drawing the excess of blood 
away from the head. If the bowels, are costive they must be 
made to act once every twenty -four hours, freely and habitually, 
without the use of any medicine. If headache comes on at 
regular times after eating, then indigestion is the cause, and 
such food should be used, both in quantity and quality, as will 
not be followed by this symptom. But if the feet are habitually 
warm and comfortable, if the bowels act once regularly every 
day, and if it is clear that the headache is not connected with 
the eating, then its cause must be found in some part of the 
system remote from the head itself, and it is safest and best to 
take competent medical advice, if trouble, anxiety, or over- 
mental exertion is not the palpable origin of the ailment. In 
most cases, very severe headaches will disappear within twenty- 
four hours, by giving the scalp, face, and whole body a most 
thorough cleansing with soap, warm water, and a rough scrub- 
bing-rag ; taking nothing but cold water and some kind of soup 
into which has been broken the crust of cold or toasted bread, 
and some out door activities for several hours in the forenoon 
and afternoon also. Headaches in children should always be 
promptly attended to, as they indicate the approach of serious 
diseases, as scarlet fever, small pox, measles, and other grave 
skin affections. Bilious headache is caused by the liver ab- 
stracting too much or too little bile from the blood, giving pain 
in the shoulder, sick stomach, loss of appetite, depression, pain 
in forehead. Hysteric headache gives pain in a small spot over the 
eye-brow, as if a nail or wedge were driven in. Pain on the top 
of the skull often arises from exhaustion or debility. A pain 
over the brow, coming on at a regular hour daily, not lasting 
long, is in the nature of fever and ague, and sometimes feels as 
if the skull was opening and shutting. The Megrims are of this 
nature, the pain beginning at the inner corner of the eye, mak- 
ing it tender and red, sometimes affecting half the head, per- 
fectly disappearing and returning at irregular intervals. Some- 
times hereditary. A dull aching or rather soreness, especially 
on pressure, at the back of the head, brow, or temples, is rheu- 
matic headache, caused by uncovering the head while perspir- 
ing ; cured by light diet, dry feet, warm clothing, free bowels, 
and moderate out-door exercise in clear, dry weather. 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 

Vol. IX.] MARCH, 1862. [No. 3. 

DRUNKENNESS. — 1 knew a man whose ships floated on 
every sea ; every thing he touched turned to gold ; through- 
out his whole mercantile career he never failed, never suspend- 
ed, never asked an extension. A large family of children 
survived him ; they were said to be the most beautiful in one 
of the largest cities of the nation. He himself was the hand- 
somest of men ; commanding in his appearance, courteous in 
his manner, affectionate in his domestic relations, indulgent to 
his children, devoted to his wife. During his life he furnished 
money in the most lavish profusion for family expenditure, 
never making inquiry as to its disposal. At his death he pro- 
vided for his wife a magnificent income, and left every child 
rich. In the settlement of his estate, scarcely a dollar 
was lost. He never was involved in a law-suit, and had but 
one partner in business, whom he left his sole executor. He 
had three drawbacks : he was a gourmand ; he was never 
drunk, but was always full of liquor ; he habitually made a 
butt of religion and its ministers. He died before he reached 
three-score years and ten, of chronic diarrhea, (as most persons 
do who habitually indulge in highly seasoned food and the 
finest wines and brandies,) about seven months before the time 
he had fixed on for retiring from business. The subsequent his- 
tory of that large family of highly favored children is suggest- 
ive. The eldest daughter, of queenly presence and beauty, 
died an exile from her father's house. Four others died on the 
very threshold of beauteous womanhood ; one of them in 
madness ; a fifth, by reason of bodily infirmity, is dead to the 
world ; and a son has long been in an asylum, a hopeless idiot. 
Another survives, a bankrupt, having no business capacity 
whatever. Another lives, of no promise, and the mother is 
dead. The lesson here taught, so terrible, is simply this : that 
the man who makes every day a feast of fat things, and sustains 
himself in this by never allowing the alcohol to die out of him, 
except for a few hours in the after part of the night, must per- 
ish prematurely, and can not beget healthy children.- Every 
child this man had was born with a rotten constitution, except 
the first two, when it may be reasonably supposed he had not 
completely fallen under the dominion of high-living. It may 
be remembered here that four fifths of the idiotic children-, in 



62 DRUNKENNESS. 

a well-conducted asylum for such, were known to be the child- 
ren of parents one or both of whom indulged in liquor-drink- 
ing. I saw a man in a lunatic asylum, an inmate for thirty 
years, the eldest son of one of the greatest men of our genera- 
tion, who, up to the time of his- marriage, and for a year or 
two after, indulged freely in whisky-drinking. 

A case in point is found in a recent statement of Dr. Hull, 
superintendent of the Ohio State Asylum : 

" A citizen of this State married an intelligent lady, who 
bore him ten children. After the birth of the first three, the 
father became intemperate, and during his career as an inebri- 
ate, four children were born unto him. He then reformed en- 
tirely, and had three others. 

"The first three were smart and intelligent, and became 
useful men and women, and so of the last three. Of the four 
born to him during his inebriety, two have died in the lunatic 
asylum, another is there, and the fourth is an idiot ! This is 
not an isolated case. The demonstration is complete and cer- 
tain, and there is no room left for doubt as to the cause of 
idiocy and insanity in these cases. Thus an intemperate man 
or woman transmits a depraved constitution, and an impaired 
intellect to children, and even to grand-children. The statis- 
tics in regard to the idiots of Massachusetts, published a few 
years since, furnished a volume of proofs to the same general 
statement. The more this subject is investigated, the more 
certain it will be shown, that the use of liquors is impairing 
the health and reason, and shortening the lives, not only of 
those who drink, but of their descendants." 

One of the most eminent politicians of the last thirty years 
died a sot lately. His son, a clergyman, died soon after, of de- 
lirium tremens, and his daughter, the wife of one of the first 
men of this city, (now dead,) was a slave to the bottle. 

Not a dozen years ago a man died who left his daughter a 
million of money. She shone in foreign courts ; but so be- 
sotted was she, that her husband was compelled to have an at- 
tendant who should never leave her side, for the very instant 
she was left alone, she would leave the house for the nearest 
grocery. 

An accomplished lady, the wife of one of our leading men, 



DRUNKENNESS. 63 

became so devoted to the use of stimulants, that a large part 
of her time was employed in devising expedients for obtaining 
any thing that would intoxicate. Finding argument of no 
avail, the husband, taking advantage of a lucid interval, 
placed before her the single alternative, either to be placed in 
a lunatic asylum, or abandon on the instant and forever all 
that could intoxicate. She chose the latter, and for the last 
five years has been an ornament to society. That she will yet 
die a sot is almost certain. 

A drunken man was sent to the penitentiary. The desire 
for drink was so overwhelming, that, snatching a hatchet, he 
severed his left wrist, and running to the keeper, called for a 
bowl of brandy to stanch the blood, and dipping the bleeding 
stump into the liquid in one instant, he frantically seized the 
bowl the next, and drank it to the dregs ! 

One of the most beautiful of women, from Albany, married 
a New-Yorker. Her wealth, her social position, and naturally 
fine mind, with genial manners and a large heart, enabled her 
to command every where, and at once, the respect, the love, 
and the admiration of all who came in contact with her. She 
lived but a few blocks away, and died lately, at twenty-two, of 
" heart disease," it was said, but the inner circle knew that 
her love for drink was desperate ; yet so closely was she 
watched, that the cologne-water of her toilet was the only 
thing she could have access to, and of which she consumed 
vast quantities. 

It is officially stated, that up to December 31st of the past 
year, the applications for admission to the Reformatory Inebriate 
Asylum of the State of New- York, at Binghampton, already ap- 
proaches very near five thousand names ; coming from all cir- 
cles of society, some from foreign lands. Nearly two thousand 
of these are women from the upper classes ; women who, by 
their position, refinement and culture, reached superior social 
distinction. And yet all these, by this very application, con- 
fess that they find themselves victims to an appetite which they 
are powerless to resist ; confessing that without assistance they 
feel assured they will sink remedilessly into the gutter, and a 
premature grave. 

In the light of these facts, the inquiry of a cotemporary be- 



64 DRUNKENNESS. 

comes most impressive : Could all the daughters of sorrow in 
our land, whose husbands are fixed inebriates, be gathered to- 
gether, it would surprise some to discover how many of them 
were ladies of great delicacy and refinement, brought up amid 
wealth and luxury, and even amid all the blessings of religion 
and piety. The common opinion, that drunkenness belongs to 
the poorer and more degraded of our population, and that it 
most abounds only in dens and garrets, is, indeed, a very mis- 
taken one. A lady of much intelligence and refinement, re- 
luctantly stated recently, that the wealth of her husband was 
his bane, as it drew around him a set of fascinating compan- 
ions, who drew on his purse for suppers and treats, and who 
would not let him off until his means were exhausted, and he 
himself was an unconscious and ruined sot. For weeks he 
would abstain and make great promise of reform, when he 
would again fall into their hands ; and this was repeated until 
all was lost. 

Nor does the habitual use of opium throw a less fatal spell 
over its helpless, hapless victim. The news comes across the 
water, that the man whose writings have led captive hundreds 
of thousands of entranced readers, whose words of burning 
eloquence have thrilled successive British Parliaments, and 
whose legal abilities made him chancellor of the greatest 
nation on earth — such a man, with such a mind, had not the 
moral power to break the chains of his enthrallment, and Dis- 
raeli, the younger, by the use of opium, has fallen into "bodily 
and mental imbecility," and is forever lost to himself, his coun. 
try, and the world. 

New-Yorkers who were in fashionable society twenty years 
ago, remember the advent, from a neighboring state, of one of 
the most accomplished and dazzling beauties of her time. She 
was followed from one salon to another by crowds of almost 
crazed admirers, for the brilliancy of her conversation charmed 
as many as her personal attractions, while her social position 
was undisputed. She married a person of high position, of 
great amiability of character, and " the handsomest man in 
New- York." He soon found that she was addicted to the use 
of opium — hopelessly so ; this so preyed upon his mind, that 
he committed suicide. Her progress downward became more 



DRUNKENNESS. 65 

appalling, and soon the grave claimed her, but not a living soul 
followed the cartman who conveyed her to her last resting- 
place. 

Within the easy memory of many a New-Yorker, the names 
of eight clergymen of this city, whose resistless eloquence in 
the pulpit made them, to many, almost demi-gods, stand to-day 
before the world as terrible mementoes of the devastative 
power of the social glass. 

The truth is, to be a great orator, a peerless beauty, or the 
star of the social circle, whether man or woman, is next door 
to being lost, and the reason of it is patent. They all feel that 
much is expected of them wherever they go, and a benevolent 
wish to please, combined with the pride of sustaining a reputa- 
tion for brilliancy, stimulate them to their highest efforts. 
But now and then it will happen that the animal spirits are not 
adequate to the occasion ; they feel it, and rather than there 
should be a failure, strong tea or coffee is resorted to, then the 
wine, and the brandy, and the pill. As time passes, these be- 
come more frequently necessary, and in larger quantities also, 
until, finally, no effort is made without them. Before they are 
aware of it, they are utterly helpless of resistance to the slavish 
appetite, and are waked up to their misfortune either by dis- 
honor or death. 

Within a year, a physician of large practice assured the 
writer, that although he was not yet forty, he found it abso- 
lutely necessary, before he went to see a patient, to bring his 
mind up to the prescribing point by taking opium. 

An eminent lawyer, in this street, not forty-five years old, 
could not go to his office of a morning, to attend to its ordinary 
duties, without half a glass of clear brandy. He was con- 
sidered a brilliant man. None but a very few who knew him 
intimately, not even his wife and children, ever had a suspicion, 
apparently, that he was a toper; and yet, a year later, he 
dropped down dead in an out-of-the-way drinking-saloon, "of 
disease of the heart," the coroner's jury said. 

It is thus clear that the professional man, whether physician, 
lawyer, or clergyman, as also those who are the charm of so- 
ciety, who are noted and courted for their brilliant powers of 
conversation, whether belle or beau, are at the very vestibule 



66 DRUNKENNESS. 

of ruin when they find themselves taking any stimulant what- 
ever, preparatory to the satisfactory performance of any public, 
professional, or social duty. 

The recently published Custom House tables show that three 
hundred thousand pounds of opium were imported into this 
country. Of this amount, reliable data show that only one- 
tenth is used for medicinal purposes. Druggists assure us that 
the habit of eating opium is rapidly extending among lawyers, 
physicians, literary men, and ladies, who move in. the higher 
circles of society; and that enormous quantities are used by 
the manufacturers of patent medicines, and those poisonous 
drinks in the saloons, restaurants, coffee-houses, and groggeries, 
which infest every city and villagean the land. 

That some means are needed for curtailment in the use of 
all that can intoxicate, hear what a late number of the Irish 
Quarterly Review says of the learned and eloquent Dr. Maginn, 
who might have been prosperous and eminently useful, but 
whose life was blasted by the wine-cup. 

'* He now turned for comfort and inspiration to the foul 
fiend, brandy, which has been the cause of misery and death 
to so many men of genius. We regret the errors of Addison 
and Steele ; we sigh at the recollection of poor Moreland, the 
painter, working at his last picture, with a brush in one hand 
and a glass of brandy in the other ; for he had arrived at that 
terrible condition, in which reason could only reach him 
through intoxication ; and Maginn, not so fallen as this, sunk 
deeply. The weary hours of lonely watching brought no re- 
sources but that which copious draughts of the liquid could 
supply. Health was fading away. The brightest years of 
life were past forever, and as the dim future lowered, he gazed 
upon it under the influence of the demon which enthralled the 
brilliant souls of Addison, of Sheridan, of Charles Lamb, and 
which sent the once stalwart form of Theodore Hook, a miser- 
able, wretched skeleton, to the grave." 

Says a writer in a late number of the JSTew- York Daily Times : 

11 Last Saturday night, in a walk from Nassau street to South 
Ferry, we had ample food for comment upon the fourth Com- 
mandment. ' Broadway was a perfect hell of drunkenness — a 
howling, staggering, pandemonium of beastalized men.' The 



MIND A MURDEEEE. 67 

sidewalks were traversed by men in every stage of intoxica- 
tion, reeling to and fro like ships in a storm. The air was 
ladened with snatches of drunken songs, fragments of filthy 
language, or incoherent shouts from those who were too drunk 
to articulate. Drunkenness in every dark lane and alley, only 
discovered by its disgusting ravings. Drunkenness in the wide 
lamp-lit streets, staggering along with swimming heads, para- 
lized limbs, and countenance of imbecile sensuality. Drunken- 
ness in the kennel, stentoriously respiring its fetid breath. 
Drunkenness clinging to the lamp-posts. Drunkenness coiled 
upon the door-steps, waiting to be robbed or murdered. 
Drunkenness screaming on the tops of solitary omnibuses, or 
hanging half out of the windows of belated hackney -cabs, and 
disturbing the night with incoherent melodies. Drunkenness 
walking apparently steady along, idiotically to itself, and thickly 
rehearsing the drunken jokes and drunken songs, the indecencies 
that adorn the convivial meeting it has just left. Drunkenness 
waiting at the ferries, snoring on benches, quarreling with its 
drunken company, or falling off the edge of the pier into the 
water, and being fished out half sober." 

With such facts before us, let every good citizen, let every 
man, woman, and child in the nation, feel that there is no cer- 
tain escape from the remorseless despotism of drunkenness, 
except in the practice of total abstinence from every thing 
which can intoxicate, whether it be a liquid, a solid, or a gas ; 
for the fumes of chloroform are becoming the resort of the 
nervous, the dyspeptic, and the hapless victim of ennui and 
idleness. As to the use of wines, beers, brandies, cider, opium, 
and tobacco, the only infallible guarantee from a wasted life 
an early death, the gutter, or the madhouse, is in obeying the 
counsel of the inspired volume : " TOUCH NOT, TASTE 
NOT." 

MIND A MURDERER. — It is not an unrepeated occur- 
rence in the experience of eminent physicians to be consulted 
where there is no tangible evidence of actual disease. The 
man does not look like an invalid ; on the contrary, he has the 
external, the physical appearance of good health, and yet he 
complains of a great variety of symptoms, and overshadowing 
them all is an exaggeration of actual sufferings with an oppress- 



68 MIND A MURDERER. 

ive foreboding of greater ones still to come. The appetite is 
good, but there is no elasticity of body and less of mind ; the 
muscles are plump and of a healthful hue ; or if lean and lank, 
there is no "lesion of parts," no inveterate disease of bone or 
blood ; the general system, too, is in the regular performance of 
its functions; still the patient persists in the statement that he 
is " miserable." 

There are similar cases in the religious world, in the experi- 
ence especially of city clergymen. A man is a church-member ; 
he stands well in his " society ;" he is prosperous in business, 
and is considered an honorable, high-minded citizen, still he 
does not " enjoy religion," he is not a blithe-hearted man, 
gladsome and sunshiny. The experienced physician looks with 
apprehension on such a state of things, because he knows that 
the next step is to waste away, to wither and to die, and that 
these results will come on apace unless the causes of the men- 
tal malady are removed. To do this requires a fearlessness, a 
degree of moral courage which not many men possess. The 
state of things described arises from the condition of the mind, 
from mortification, from remorse, or despair. A gentleman 
of great wealth, in the full vigor of health and mental ma- 
turity, was charged with perjury, with a view of extorting a 
sum of money. The charge was made in a manner so peculiar, 
and with such plausibility, by reason of some coincidences, 
wholly fortuitous, that there was no help for it but to go to 
jail and await a legal investigation. He was triumphantly ac- 
quitted, but the mortification was such that he sickened and 
died in a few days ; all the organs of the body being found, on 
a post-mortem examination, to be in a most perfect and health- 
ful condition. 

All know that remorse can eat out a man's life in a short 
time; and so can despair of pardoned sin. The physiology of 
such cases is, that great mental emotion of a depressing charac- 
ter greatly interferes with the depth of breathing. Every now 
and then nature makes a desperate effort for relief in the long- 
drawn sigh ; but in the intervals, the person scarcely breathes 
at all, perceptibly ; hence the blood is not supplied with its 
proper amount of air, which is the agent for relieving it of its 
impurities , hence also, the blood becomes thick, does not flow 



MIND A MURDERER. 69 

through the veins, becomes too abundant, distending the 
blood-vessels in every direction, oppressing and weighing down 
all the faculties — those of the brain in particular — and the 
hand is instinctively raised to the brow, as if to relieve it. A 
double illustration is found in the following well-authenticated 
fact. A man was sick ; he was, in truth, slowly dying. He 
occupied a high position, but had no light, no joy. He deplored 
his sins and sought forgiveness ; but there was no relief. His 
professional adviser became at length convinced that there was 
a malady of the mind which was at the foundation of all his 
trouble, and kindly but sternly said : " There is something 
undone, which you ought to do. God judge 'twixt you and 
it I" Fixing his eye intently on the speaker, the sick man arose 
in his bed and said : " Some years ago, I took passage for 
England. At the moment of sailing, a bag of money was 
handed to the captain for delivery ; it was carelessly laid down 
and rolled about on the locker from day to day. With the sole 
view of frightening him, I hid it. On reaching port, it wa s 
not missed. Months passed, and there was no inquiry for it. 
At length the captain was called on for the money. He re- 
membered having received it, but could give no further account 
of it. Meanwhile I became alarmed, lest my character should 
be implicated, and deliberately hid the money. The captain 
was thrown into prison, where he languished for two years and 
died. By this time I became hardened — strove to stifle con- 
science ; but the cares and strifes and amusements of the world 
were unavailing. Now I feel that there is no hope for me, and 
I must go down to the grave unpardoned." The troubled man 
was advised to hunt up the captain's widow, make restitution 
of principal and interest, and clear up the clouded reputation of 
her husband. This was -promptly done. After restitutio^ 
accompanied by repentance, he passed quietly and even happily 
into the grave. 

The lessons of the article are of great practical importance. 
First, it is a criminal weakness, because it endangers life, to 
allow the mind to be harassed by false reports and false 
charges. Go forward in doing right, knowing that God is 
your judge; that he is witness to your integrity, and that in 
due time, he will, with increased honor, place you in your true 



70 THE NAEEOW HOUSE. 

position before all men. Second, if you have done your 
fellow-man a wrong ; if you have unrightfully cast a stain on 
his character, even unwittingly ; if you are withholding from 
him what is his due, agains this consent, while you have ability 
to relieve yourself of the obligation, although the law may up- 
hold you in the same, and conscience twinges you in these 
regards, do not waste time in criminal delays ; do not deceit" 
fully excuse yourself in the resolution to do even-handed jus- 
tice at some future day, when you may be more able and 
would feel it less than now ; let not another sun go down upon 
your criminality, and hope not for the " peace which passeth 
knowledge," until, with the truth and fervor and sincerity of a 
returning prodigal, of an humbled Magdalene, of the repentant 
thief, you make a "clean breast" of every thing, and thus 
cast the eating, the accursed leprosy from your heart forever ; 
for an outraged conscience works death to the body as well as 
to the soul. Death was caused in the first case by mortified 
pride ; in the second by remorse. 

THE NARROW HOUSE— The promenader on glorious 
Broadway has many a time noticed a little, low, dingy-looking 
brick house, so contracted in front, that the show-window 
leaves so w strait" a door for entrance, that a " skeleton" must 
be compressed, or it could never cross its threshold. Yet 
very few half-hours pass in the day-time, in which some man 
or boy, woman or maid, does not seek admittance. The fact 
is, if the little old shanty had not been there so long, it would 
not have been noticed at all by the habitues of the street. 
Not one in a thousand would care to take a second look at it, 
unless in special search of something in the line of business 
to which it seems appropriated. That any one lived there at 
all, except the " man and boy," always on hand, or the bare 
conception that a family lived there beside, would certainly 
never enter the imagination of two in a million. And yet a 
family does live up-stairs, a family consisting of one old wo- 
man and the man in the shop ; they have lived there a quar- 
ter of a century; and more, they raised a family of children 
there, and all of them have been married long enough to have 
children of their own. More than this, the old man makes all 



THE NARROW HOUSE. 71 

his wares in the rear, then brings them in front, to expose for 
sale in the one window of his " narrow house." There were 
three children, daughters, who went o/ut, and returned from 
school, for a long series of years, and so did the music-teacher, 
for there was cultivation there; but there were no servants, no 
cooks, chambermaids, or waiters ; they never had any, never 
wanted any ; they did their own work, and do it now ; were 
always happy, and are happy now. They all waited on them- 
selves and on one another, and are, to-day, models of self- 
reliance and personal independence. The " girls" never kC went 
into society ;" society never knew them, never wanted to know 
them, and never invited them ; they lived in such a " narrow 
house." But it was their own, and had no mortgage on it, as 
had the '' forty-foot" mansion fronting on Union Park, which 
was sold for taxes last year. 

So, being excluded from society, by the simple process of 
omission, they made a society of themselves, and became 
wise, contented, and happy ; they had other things to do be- 
side laying plans to climb among those who never could see 
them. In this way, they grew up without the mortifications in- 
separable from both society and servants, as wide as they are 
apart ; as a consequence, there was so much of sunshine in 'the 
faces of these three girls, and such a native dignity and inde- 
pendence of manner, that three substantial young men, in their 
own sphere of life, found them out, without the use of a mi- 
croscope. And just look now, how the "old lady" manages 
it. A downright philosopher is the mistress of the " Narrow 
House." She insists upon it, that a large house for two old 
people is like an empty barn ; that big houses entail trouble, 
invite loungers, and keep things at a melancholy and freezing 
distance ; and that her own cozy, little, clean rooms, and 
"Hubby" beside her, when the day's work is done, have more 
comfort in them than a palace. She farther insists on it, that 
servants are more trouble than they are worth ; that their self- 
ishness eats out one's benevolence ; their reckless wastefulness 
and their little thieveries, their willful ignorance and their 
habitual blarney and deception, never can fail to sour the tem- 
per, ruffle the feelings, and be an everlasting source of annoy- 
ance to the household. Still, she insists that she is getting old 



72 THE NARROW HOUSE. 

now, and wants to consult her own ease and comfort, and that 
while she is always glad to know that her children and grand- 
children are well and happy, she does not want them to be 
popping in upon her at any and all times ; hence, one day in 
the week she allots to receiving her company, and on that one 
day in a week, rain or shine, the three daughters may be seen 
entering the " Narrow House," leading by the hand a sweet, 
chubby child or two ; and there, all at home, with no stranger 
eyes to mar the joy, and with mutual affection to warm the 
heart, there is an elysium below. At dusk, ''Father" comes up, 
and soon thereafter, the three sons-in-law, to make merry till 
the hour of retiring. It is remarked of the " old man," that 
he never made a note, never asked a bank accommodation, 
never failed, never suspended, never even solicited an exten- 
sion ; and more, he never joined any "society," except a 
Christian church ; he says that includes all societies which 
have good for their object, and that, to join any other, is an 
implication ; that being a Christian does not meet all the wants 
of humanity; hence, he can not practically make that admis- 
sion. He was never run for office ; he never entered a gro- 
cery, never "treats," never was treated. He takes no interest 
in politics, beyond that of making it his duty always to vote 
for reputable and educated men. The old man is rich. His 
sons-in-law are thrifty men, and do not want his aid. The 
manner in which he intends to dispose of his estate is rather 
peculiar ; but there is a ring of wisdom, humanity, and patriot- 
ism in it, which may well be imitated. The interest only of 
each share is to be used by the daughters ; the principal to 
fall to the grand-children at the mother's death ; if no grand- 
children survive, then it becomes the property of certain chari- 
table institutions. No interest can be drawn without the 
daughters' written order, and can never be drawn in advance. 
In this manner, he hopes to prevent any child of his coming 
to want, whatever may be the reverses of their husbands, the 
property being inalienable under any circumstances, and can 
not be jeopardized by any act of the daughter, making outside 
pressure wholly objectless. 

From this narration, the thoughtful reader may gather that 
there is great safety in a quiet, unpretending, and unostenta- 



WHEEE TO STUDY. 



73 



tious life ; that families who live to themselves, and depend on 
themselves and one another, may be useful, prosperous, and 
happy ; and that, although they may not become the ornaments 
of society, they are at once its pillars and its chief foundation- 
stone, while their influence for good passes to the second, and 
even third generation, even in their own lifetime. 

WHERE TO STUDY — The air of a cellar is close, damp, 
musty, and vitiated ; that of the house-top is clear, pure, and 
bracing. On the surface of the earth the atmosphere is cold, 
raw, and impure ; on the mountains it is dry, rarified, and 
health-giving. The purer the air is, the more life does it im- 
part to the blood, the more perfectly is the brain nourished, 
and the more vigorously does the mind work and the body 
move. Hence the "study" of the clergyman, the " office" of 
the physician and the lawyer, the "library" of the family, the 
" sitting-room" of the household, and the " chamber" of every 
sleeper, should always be in the upper stories, not merely for 
the greater purity of the air, but for a reason seldom thought 
of, and yet of very great sanitary value. The higher we 
ascend, the more rarified is the air, the greater bulk is required 
to impart a given amount of nourishment to the system ; this 
greater rarity excites the instinct of our nature to deeper, 
fuller breathing, without any effort on our part, and this kind 
of breathing, as the reflecting must know, is antagonistic of 
consumption, that fell scourge of civilized society, which de- 
stroys full one sixth of the adult population. Hence the very 
suggestive remark of the distinguished naturalist Buffon : 
"All animals inhabiting high altitudes have larger lungs and 
more capacious chests than those which live in the valleys." 
In the same direction is the suggestive statement that in the 
city of Mexico, situated nine thousand feet above the level 
of the sea, only three persons out of a hundred die annually 
of consumption ; while in our larger cities, but a few feet 
above the level of the sea, eighteen out of every hundred 
perish from that disease. It should, therefore, be the aim of 
every student, of every sedentary person, of every invalid, to 
have the room in which a very large portion of the inactive 
part of life is spent, as far above the ground-floor as practic- 



74 A NEW DISPENSARY. 

able, and in such a situation as will allow the sun to shine into 
it for the largest portion of each day, for this rarities the air 
still more, and still more aids in developing and expanding 
the lungs by the greater depth and fullness of breathing which 
the increased atmospheric rarity induces. 

A NEW " DISPENSARY."— To " poor white folks," and 
folks of every color, caste, and condition ; to strangers who 
may be in New- York on any Sunday, who have no acquaint- 
ances, no friends, no money, nor any thing ; to those who 
are kept here, expecting a remittance, which comes never*; to 
all such who would like to " go to meeting," without the 
chance of having to stand half an hour, waiting for some slow 
or impertinent sexton to show him a seat up in the gallery, or 
under the gallery, on hard boards and without books ; or that 
other chance, if placed in an eligible pew, of being invited out 
two or three times in the course of the service ; or the still 
other chance of walking a mile or two up-town, on a scorching 
day, in search of an open church, without finding one, as if 
there were no religion in " dog-days," and the " old boy" had 
ceased hostilities for a spell, or was " out of town ;" to all such 
it may be comforting to know that an elegant house of religious 
worship has been erected opposite the Fourteenth street front 
of the Academy of Music, where the Gospel is preached 
" without money and without price ;" absolutely free to all ; 
every pew-door is hewn away ; and any unoccupied seat is as 
much yours as any millionaire's in the land ; nobody has a 
right to bow you out of it. Services are held at half-past ten 
o'clock on Sunday mornings, and at half-past seven, Sunday 
and Wednesday nights, the year round ; also on Sunday after- 
noons, at about four in summer, and three in winter. Every 
pew is plentifully supplied with books, in large print and small, 
with cushioned seats, and stools, and carpeted floor ; it is the 
coolest, best lighted, and best ventilated church we have seen 
in this city, for its size and object. The minister neither 
whispers nor lisps, nor mumbles his words as if his mouth 
were filled with hot mush ; nor are his tones so sleepy or so 
terribly solemn as to keep you in mind of a dungeon or a 
graveyard ; nor is he a half-fledged divinity -student, practicing 
on the poor ; nor is he an infirm or " weak brother," just put 



I 



WHEN BEGAN. ' 75 

in to fill up the place ; nor is he so painfully meek as to be 
unable to charge your sins upon you, or to stumble at such 
words as u hell" and "damnation;" but he is an educated, 
earnest, fearless, practical preacher ; a man who does his work 
with a will ; he speaks as by " authority," and not " by your 
leave, sir." Blessing and honor be to the hearts which devised, 
and to the purses that caused to be executed, the enterprise on 
Fourteenth street, near Irving Place. Now let some of our 
rich city subscribers complete the work, by founding a sexton- 
ship and a pastorship ; and let their names be graven on the 
portals of the church, to be lisped with grateful memories by 
the poor, the friendless, and the stranger, for all time to come. 
And thus will the great and liberal city of New- York, while 
she has a number of medical " Dispensaries," where the penni- 
less can have all the medicines they need for themselves 
and families, merely for the asking, may have at least one 
spiritual dispensary, where remedies for a mind diseased are 
administered absolutely free ; where the struggling children of 
poverty may be fed with " the bread which cometh down 
from heaven," and drink from that fountain opened in the side 
of Him who bled on Calvary ; where there will be found " a 
balm for every wound, a cordial for every fear;" and where 
the forsaken and the despondent, the weary and the struggling, 
may find and feel that there is one to be heard of who " stick- 
eth closer than a brother," and that on application to Him for 
relief, adapted to their various situations, they " shall ' in no 
wise be cast out." 

WHEN BEGAN WE ?— We end never ! for the soul is 
immortal, and can not die. When the soul's existence com- 
mences is as yet a conjecture. Nor can we tell when the im- 
material first takes up its dwelling with the material ; when 
the soul enters the body. But this we do know, that, at a 
point when the man that is to be is so minute as to require 
the microscope to determine whether it exists or not, the first 
faint outlines of the new being are defined to be a nervous 
system. The very first step cognizable' to us, which nature 
takes to make a man a living soul, is to prepare the machinery, 
so to speak, through which that soul is to manifest itself. It 



76 WHEN BEGAN. 

is the nervous system which first begins to live, and to appro- 
priate to itself those materials of growth which eventually be- 
come the human body and make a man. Nothing can be 
clearer than that the nervous system of the new being is con- 
nected with and is dependent on that of the parent, and that 
the hues, the impressions of the young, depend on the charac- 
ter of those of the parent. If, at this time, the parent is in 
perfect health, and so remains, it is fair to presume that the 
child will be born in perfect health, body and mind. These 
statements make the strongest possible appeal to all who may 
become mothers, to make it their constant study, their steady 
aim and effort, to secure a healthful condition of the body and 
a state of mind which shall be uniformly all that the mother 
desires the child to possess — piety, integrity, dignity, and an 
elevation of soul, which proves relationship to the Infinite. If 
the mother that is to be, wishes her child to possess vigorous 
manly health, she must cultivate the strictest personal cleanli- 
ness, extending to the most minute item pertaining to the hu- 
man body ; she must eat with regularity, not oftener than thrice 
a day; she must keep her feet, by all possible means, always 
dry and warm ; her sleep must be early, and of the greatest 
abundance that nature can possibly take, out of daylight ; one 
half of each day should be spent in open air activities ; and 
nearly all the time of in-doors should be employed in cheerful, 
interesting, active work, constantly diversified, so as not to 
overtax one set of muscles, and leave others comparatively 
idle. The very best course to pursue is, to take a part in every 
thing going on, in fact, " every thing by turns, but nothing 
long." One of the most important items of advice that can be 
given in this connection is, that an hour or two should be 
spent in walking in the open air, at two or three different 
times, until the very last. Nothing so certainly, so safely, and 
so pleasantly contributes to an easy deliverance. A volume 
could be given of the most strikingly illustrative facts ; but 
the single sentence must suffice. Let it be pondered well ; let 
the father insist upon it, encourage it, and -do all he can to 
make its performance easy and agreeable. These, with regular, 
daily, bodily habits, would add incalculably to the sum total 
of human happiness ; whilst, by their neglect, by simply pass 



WHEN BEGAN. 77 

ing the time in eating, lounging, and listlessness, in the wear- 
ing, irritating inactivities of a boarding-house, or hotel life, 
monsters in bodily shape, and imbeciles in mind ; are constantly 
thrown out on society, to be disgusted by their presence, or to 
be taxed by their confinement in some insane retreat, or some 
friendly asylum. 

As certainly as one end of a telegraph-wire is answered at 
the other, so certainly do the nervous conditions of the new 
being and the parent answer to one another, only with this 
difference : the telegraph responds from either end ; in the case 
in hand, influences go out from the parent only. What kind 
of a character, then, shall be impressed on the coming man de- 
pends upon the abiding states of mind of the mother. The ma- 
terial was made to'her hand; it is her part to mold it; to her 
are the destinies of this coming man committed, and the respons- 
ibilities are fearful. She gives the hues to an existence which 
is immortal and which it must bear for good or ill all along 
the way of that immortality, saving the modifications which 
Divinity may make. The true mother, then, will not at such 
an interesting, such a momentous period of her existence, allow 
her mind to be absorbed in questions of what she shall eat and! 
what she shall drink, and thus give a gourmand to the world ; 
she will not luxuriate in the frivolities of dress, in the study 
of the fashions, the dissipations of society, nor yield herself to 
the seductions of the courtier, the flatterer, and the ladies' 
man, and thus add another to the throng of the giddy-minded, 
the empty-headed, and the inane ; nor let her not pine in pet- 
tishness and anger for what is now beyond her reach ; for a 
position in circles and sets above her present sphere ; let her 
not call in question the wisdom, the benevolence, or the justice 
of the wise and kind Father of all for her allotment in life ; let 
her not employ the mind in irritating and wearing envies and 
jealousies, in carping criticisms, in wearing, wasting com- 
plaints, in oppressive forebodings of ills to come ; let her, on 
the contrary, war against all these with the whole energy of 
her nature, regarding them as her worst enemies and the bane 
of domestic life. Let her constantly look at the sunshine 
and the sky, the leaf and the flower ; let her take the first step 
toward all true elevation, the contemplation of individual un- 



78 COOKEKY. 

worthiness of any blessing the merciful One could bestow; 
then look around upon the innumerable ones enjoyed; and 
next wake up in gladsome gratitude, that such a profusion of 
goodness should come to one so insignificant, from the generous 
hand of Omnipotence. Then there will begin to flow in upon 
the heart all the time, a perfect flood of elevating emotions ; 
there will be joy and gladness; there will be life and light; 
there will be mirth and song ; there will be mercy and magna- 
nimity ; there will be sympathy and beneficence ; and purity 
and truth, generosity and nobleness of nature will color the 
whole character, to be perpetuated in a long line of generations 
to come. A mother's responsibility ! who can measure it ? 
She has the moldiug of the race, for good or ill, in a measure 
only second to the God who made her ! And honored far, far 
above kings and conquerers and potentates be she, however 
lowly may be her position among the millions of earth, who 
most deeply feels these responsibilities, and who most humbly 
endeavors to perform them according to her ability, leaning, 
meanwhile and always on Him, whose kingdom ruleth over 
all. 

COOKERY.— There can be no doubt that health iss ometimes 
undermined, and life itself lost, by bad cookery. The follow- 
ing items, gathered from reliable exchanges, are well worthy 
of attention. 

BREAD WITHOUT YEAST OR DRUGS— Bread can be 
made light, wholesome, and palatable to the unperverted taste, 
without rotting by fermentation, or 'poisoning with saleratus, 
cream of tartar, etc., in the following manner: Take cold 
water, the colder the better — ice-water is the best — stir in un- 
sifted wheat-meal, enough to make a batter not very stiff; stir 
quickly while adding the meal, so as to introduce all the air 
possible. Put it in small patty-pans (cake-tins) — these are 
better than large dishes — and bake in a hot oven, hotter than 
for any other bread. Bake it half an hour or more. A little 
experience in making and baking will convince any one that 
bread can be made light without yeast or " lightening" of any 
kind, except air and water; and those who regard good bread 
as the staff of life will ask no better. If any should not sue- 



COOKERY. 79 

ceed the first time, try again, for it can be done. The baking 
is the nost important part of the operation ; the oven must be 
hot. 

The following directions for making bread were given by 
the ladies to whom premiums were awarded for the best samples 
shown at the Presque Isle (Me.) Agricultural Exhibition. Mrs. 
C. P. Bean says : " I take one and a half cupfuls of new milk, 
and the same amount of boiling water, and add flour to this to 
make yeast, and let it set till it rises ; then add flour until the 
dough is thick enough for baking. Then let it rise one half 
hour ; then bake it." 

Mrs. Sarah A. Emerson's method: "Take one pint of boil- 
ing water, one half tea-spoonful of salt ; when it is lukewarm, 
stir in flour until it becomes thick batter ; set the dish in warm 
water, in a warm place, until the batter rises. Then mix with 
it one quart of sweet milk or water ; stir in flour until it forms 
a thick batter ; set it in a warm place until it rises ; add flour 
until is hard enough to knead; then let it set until it rises 
again, and bake it by a gradual fire until done." 

BAKED BEANS.— Few people know the luxury of baked 
beans, simply because few cooks properly prepare them. 
Beans, generally, are not cooked half long enough. This is 
our method : Two quarts of middling-sized white beans, two 
pounds salt pork, and one spoonful of molasses. Pick the 
beans over carefully, wash, and add a gallon of boiling hot soft 
water ; let them soak in it over night. In the morning put 
them in fresh water, and boil them gently till the skin is very 
tender and about to break. Take them up dry, and pat them 
in your dish; stir in your molasses, gash the pork, and put 
it down in the dish, so as to have the beans cover all but the 
upper surface ; turn in boiling water till the top is just cov- 
ered ; bake with a steady fire four or five hours % Watch them, 
and add more water from time to time as it dries away. The 
molasses may be omitted. 

BUCKWHEAT-CAKES.— Take about two quarts of water 
and one pint of milk, mixing in the buckwheat-meal, and about 
half a pint of brown flour, (the " middlings" of wheat.) This, 
we think, makes them much better than all buckwheat. Stir 
in two table-spoonfuls of salt, two large table-spoonfuls of good 



80 COOKERY. 

hop-yeast, beat well, and when of the desired thickness, cover 
and set the batter in a warm place, if in cold weather, to rise, 
and by breakfast-time, next morning, they will be up to the 
top of the kettle. We leave from a pint to a quart of the 
batter in the kettle after each baking, to raise the next one — it 
not being necessary to make them with fresh yeast more than 
two or three times during the winter. To this batter we pour 
the water, milk, and meal, as before, for the next batch. When 
we do not wish to have them for tea, we pour cold water over 
the batter remaining in the kettle, and set it away in a cool 
place, to keep it from becoming sour, and pour the water off 
when we wish to mix them again. Too much milk would have a 
tendency to sour them, and also makes them more difficult to 
bake ; but used in moderate quantities, it is a great improve- 
ment to them, both in taste and appearance. 

RICE-PUDDING WITHOUT EGGS.— Wash a half pound 
of rice, and put it in a broad, shallow tin-pan holding four 
quarts, ( we have a large family,) with a large tea-cupful of 
sugar, and a half tea-spoonful of salt. Fill the pan np with 
milk, fresh from the cow is best, and set in the oven or stove 
to bake, stirring it occasionally and trying the rice. When the 
latter is soft and begins to thicken the milk, the puddiug is 
done. If it boils too long, or there is too much rice in it, it 
will be too thick to be good. 

BEEFSTEAK — Should be cut nearly an inch in thickness, 
and divided, by the natural divisions where practicable, into 
pieces the size of your hand, or thereabouts. Cut away the 
most of the fat. 

The best gridiron is the double one of wire, which you can 
shut your meat into and turn without a fork to let the juice 
out; but any gridiron will do if it is clean. The outside of a 
broiled piece of meat must be crisp, and (turn it) the inside 
juicy, to make it the most palatable and {turn it) nourishing. 
If you allow it to rest long with one side to the fire, {turn it,) 
the juice and flavor rise to* the surface and is lost. The great 
art {turn it) is to expose the meat at the start, for a moment, to 
such an intense heat, that {turn it) the several fibers may be 
seared in such a manner as to seal up — so to speak — the moist- 
ure. {Turn it) Steak can be cooked in this way until it will 



COOKERY. 81 

not look bloody when cut, and {turn it) will satisfy fully those 
who like "rare" beef, without offending {turn it) such as prefer 
it " well done." Butter is worse than wasted — of course {turn 
it) you'll have it on the table for such as wish to disguise the 
taste of beef, as well as pepper and salt. {Turn it.) Your 
motto is, beef and fire. If your fire is a hot one, the steak is 
nearly done. Give the steak your entire attention, and turn it 
constantly. 

BEEF-STB W.— A very economical and most savory and 
delicious dish can be made with two or three pounds of chuck, 
steak, (a cheap part of beef,) which infinitely surpasses the 
tasteless, insipid, common eating-house stuff called "beef d la 
mode." Cut the steak into pieces about two inches square ; 
put them into a sauce-pan, with a large breakfast-cup of cold 
water ; put it on the fire ; as soon as it boils up, stand it on 
the hole to simmer for two hours until perfectly tender. While 
simmering, tie up, with a bit of thread or cotton, a bunch of 
herbs, composed of knotted marjoram, winter savory, and a 
little thyme; take it out just before the dish is served. Of 
course the stew must be occasionally shaken, as all others are ; 
remember, however, the fat must not be skimmed off; the 
more fat there is the better is the stew. This dish is of Italian 
origin, and in that country is eaten with plain, boiled macca- 
roni and Parmesan cheese, or with salad ; and with either it is 
a " dainty dish to set before a king." Any girl from a charity- 
school could cook it, while an alderman of Portsoken ward, 
and a three-stone man, or a cripple from the work-house, would 
equally enjoy it, and wish he could eat more. 

HOMINY. — After the hominy is well washed, instead of 
putting it into an open pot or kettle to boil, as is the usual 
practice, get a tin kettle of the size wanted, put the same into 
a common iron pot that will hold about one third more, which 
will leave a space around the tin to be filled with water. Then 
put the hominy into the tin kettle, with a suitable quantity of 
water, fill the pot pretty full of water, put the lids on the kettle 
and the pot, and let the hominy boil upon the stove, stirring it 
two or three times while boiling. By so doing, it will be found 
that the quality of the article will be much; improved ; more 
than half the usual work of stirring and tending will be saved, 



82 COOKL'RY. 

together 'with a large part of the work in cleaning the kettle 
after using, which has heretofore been the chief objection to 
cooking this dish. The tin kettle should be kept from touch- 
ing the bottom of the pot, by means of a large wire, crooked 
for the purpose, and laid in the bottom, so as not to have the 
tin and iron come in contact while boiling. By this means, 
none burns to the kettle, and the burnt flavor, which is so no- 
ticeable in that cooked in the old-fashioned way, is entirely 
avoided. 

"WATER-PROOF GLUE.— Fine shreds of India-rubber, dis- 
solved in warm copal varnish, make a water-proof cement for 
wood and leather. Take glue, twelve ounces, and water suffi- 
cient to dissolve it ; then add three ounces of resin, and melt 
them together, after which add four parts of turpentine. This 
should be done in a water-bath or in a carpenter's glue-pot. 
This also makes a very good water-proof glue. 

" SPAULDING'S GLUE SUPERSEDED."— The American 
Agriculturist recommends the following preparation for mend- 
ing almost all articles that can be " stuck" together. It is 
named ''Diamond Cement," and is often sold under that name 
at twenty-five cents for a two-ounce vial : Take one pound 
white glue ; one quarter pound white lead, (dry ;) one quart 
rain-water; one half pint alcohol. Place the first three ingre- 
dients in a kettle, and set the kettle in a dish of water. Boil 
it until the glue is dissolved ; then add the alcohol, and boil 
again until all is well mixed. Keep it in well-stopped bottles. 
Use it in the same manner as glue. Should it be a little hard- 
ened when wanted for use, soften it by placing the bottle in 
warm water. 

MUSH BISCUIT. — Make about a quart of Indian-meal 
mush»or stirabout ; while hot, add a piece of butter, about the 
size of an egg, thin it with milk, adding a little salt ; then add 
some flour, thin it with a tea-cup of yeast, then add as much 
more flour as will make it the consistence of dough ; knead it 
well, set it to rise, and bake with a hot fire. The meal makes 
the bread light, and thus removes the objection to the un- 
healthfulness of hot bread. 



HALL'S JOURNAL- OF HEALTH. 



Our Legitimate Scope is almost boundless : for whatever begets pleasurable 
and harmless feelings, promotes Health ; and whatever induces 
disagreeable sensations, engenders Disease. 



WE AIM TO SHOW HOW DISEASE MAT BE AVOIDED, AND THAT IT IS BEST, WHEN SICKNESS COMES, 
TAKE NO MEDICINE WITHOUT CONSULTING A PHYSICIAN. 



Vol. IX.] APRIL, 1862. [No. 4. 

TO PARENTS, TEACHERS, AND YOUTH. 

11 I had rather see him in his grave," is the instinctive ex- 
clamation of a parent, in contemplating the choice for a child 
between death and a life-long confinement in a lunatic asylum ; 
and yet, according to the uniform testimony of educated medi- 
cal men at home and abroad, whose office it is to superintend 
those establishments founded for the restoration of the insane, 
thousands of persons languish every year in those institutions, 
and finally die in drivelling idiocy in consequence of practices 
fallen into unwittingly, and eventually habits formed in early 
youth, without the slightest idea of their being immoral or 
physically destructive. There are parents born, bred, and 
brought up in a pure, moral atmosphere, who are themselves 
profoundly ignorant of the existence of the things in question, 
and who, on the perusal of the following pages, will wisely 
and thankfully wake up, as if to the discovery of an unsus- 
pected danger. The article is taken bodily from the Editor's 
book on " Sleep," already within the year passed to a second 
edition. 



CHILDREN SLEEPING TOGETHER. 

As soon as children reach their seventh year, various good pur- 
poses would be subserved by their sleeping apart j indeed the 




-a 
© 

CD 

•6 



© 

a 

CD 

bo 

I 



© 

o ° 

© 

_^ © 

OQ 

© 



-b 
© 



.d CD 

rd ^4 



-r= 
o 

CD 

CD 
d 



03 

rd 



bo 

.9 
■"© 



CD 



O 
CD 

rd 



13 

a 

O 

rQ 

CD 



8 

d 

CD 

O 
to 
CD 

""o 
Hi 

c5 






id 

<3 



c3 
CD 

rd 



CD 

02 
r-l 

c5 
CD 



O 
O 
CD 



£ 
a 



c3 
CD 



C3 

# © 
"Sa 



3 



* rd 



02 



© 

o 

Pi 

a 

rH 
CD 

© 

© 

o 
© 

© 



»2 

PI 

CD 

Ph 

O 



f 



© 



© 



■I 
B 






d 

o 

1 

bO 
. t— i 
+3 
m 
CD 
r» 

C3 -iH 



-3 * W 



tin 

O 



H3 

© 

cd 



C3 rrj 



&1 '» 



<3 



S pf 



r=! 

© 

rd 






© 



o 

in 



© 

rd 



CD 

"S 

g 



© 

rd 



a 

o 

t/2 



d 

^ CD 

% a 

J rd° 

o d 

P.. "-> 



d 
© 

02 
© 

d 

0< 



O 



s 

1 

«2 



h3 



1 



CO 

© 

© 
rd 



^ ^ & 



o 

© 

d 
o 

9 



CO 

o 
© 



d 
© 

a 
© 



r^ r-. 



bD 



02 
© 
rd 



© 

bo bo 



d 

m 



"6 



© 

rd 



O 



& '5b 

c3 O 



© 

rd 



© 
r-l 

bD 

© 

ft 

d 

d 
o 



*s 



© 
P- r5 



© 

c5 



'■5 

© (D 

•r-l .+J 

,_Q ^ 

d 
P-i © 

© £ 

rd 



© 
rQ 



O 



IS 



O 



02 

P< rd 



bD 

.2 

*rH 

d 



d D 



bD 

1 

i 

rb 
© 

© 

rd 



CO 



bo 

.S 
'h 

s§ 

P 
to 

O 

d 



rQ 



g rM, 

ft rd 



B 

o 



o 
d 



^3 

*d 

d 

c3 



ft 



O 

rQ 









o 

CD 
O 

d 

cd 



rd 



be 

g 

ft 

o 

rd 

c3 

r^ 

CD 



rd 

d 
o3 



O 
CD 

o 

pi 

CO 



CD d 
03 



O 



CD 

rd 



CD 

03 CD 

^ rd 



J-H 

CD 

CD 



CD 



CD 

bO 

03 



cm 

C 

DO 

CD 
O 

d 

CD 

d 

5 



b0 

.9 

"-r= 

C3 
> 

o 
a 

8 

CD 



rH 

CD 

O 03 

ft rd 



CD Tl 

t> d 



bJD 

I 

CD 

rd 



T5 

03 
"o3 



o J 



CD ,_- 



r^ _CD 
P^ CD 



d 
o 

•-£ 

d 
o 
o 



rH H 

3 £ 



m> 


bQ 




s 


d 


c3 


H 

ft 


"i 




CO 


o 


O 




o 


-M 


bJO 


CD 






£ 


d 
o 



CD 

■3 



r-l 
O 

CD 

to 

§ 

rd 

I 

03 



CD 



tO 

CD 
CO 
CO 

C3 

ft 



ft o 

03 4 s 

CD 



Cm 
O 



CD 



U 

CD 

*d 



d 

CD 

bo <d 

rd 

r 5 CO 

CD d 

d o 

.M -M 
rH 

03 

*** /-s 



Cm f>> 
CD °3 

SP 9- 



bD 

.9 

d 

M 

03 
CD 



Cm 
O 



d 
o 



C3 

CD 

w 



CO 

rH 

o3 

CD 

rS 

d 

CD 
CD 

s 

CD 



d 9 

• d 03 

o3 

* & 

to * 

a .3 



cm 
O 

© 

d 
o 



o 

■a 



rd 

S 



bJO 

d 

o3 
CD 



rH 
O 

CO 

rd 



a 

rd 

o 



CD 

d 

s 

r> 

s 

03 

£3 

• rH 
rd 



03 H 

CD ft 

^ o 

s * 

^d' 

cd 
o 

03 
M 



W 



13 

CD 



bo 2 o 

d ""CD ""d 

a 

o 
o 



CD 




rH 


to 


CD 


03 


£ 


£ 


CO 


CD 


d 


-4-3 


CD 


-+-3 


a 


CO 

CD 



S 



-d 

"d 
o 

r^ 



t» 

d 
o 

CD 

s 

rd 



d 

E- 



<D 

d 
o 

CD 

T3 



bf 

CD 
rP 



C<1 



d 
d 
c2 

2 

+= 

to 
o 



bD 

s 

o 

rd 

CD 

to 

o 

■3 



CD 

sg 

CD 



CD 
CO 
O 



rQ 



-t-3 

g S 

rd 



CD 

rd 



,1 



CD rd 



bfl 



^ 



nd 

CD 

d 
o 

d 

c3 

rO 

c3 



o 

CD 

ft ^ 

to P 

>> to 

S -§ 

d 

O .13 



Pm © ft 

n rH p 



d CD 

tO f-i 

d c3 
d 

d ^ 

P CD 
O 



o 

rd 



o 

c3 
H 
ft 

O 

rd 



rd 

CD 
t> 
M 
CD 

to 

"§ 

CD 

rQ 



d 



d 

rd 



CD 
^d 

CD 

■5 

rH 
O 

d 



to 

-M 

o 

c3 
M 
ft 

CD 

rd 



CD 
> 

c3 

rd 

Ph 
CD 
> 
CD 

d 



^d 
d 



CD 

3 



CD 

d 

# d 

*-r=> 

d 
o 

CD 

H» 

CD 

rd 

CD 
CD 

d 

■ CD 
rd 



to 

•M 

o 

CD 
CD 

rd 



d >-d 

CD 

to S 

CD » 

rH 

ft J- 



CD 



© 



§ g § 

b r9 I 

r^ ft § 



CD 

d 
.2 



2 a 



o 



CD 

r* 
03 
rH += 

b£) d 

* B s 



tO H 

S | 

CD 

!>. d 



c3 



CD 

1 



1 



-d © 

H 

CD 

CD 

rd 



^^ 



IS 

1 

O 

d 

M 



^d 
d 

M 

CD 
O 

d 
o 

<3 

to 
CD 

a 
,<£ 

cm 



ft > 



rd d r^ 

■h3 § 'd 

03 ;£. 03 
of § 

CD rQ 
O 

rH ^ ft J 

J l rd l 



CD 

bo 
d 
cd 



d 
o 

CD 



3 M 

ft rQ 

CD B 

rd © 

+3 H 



CD 

rd 



CD 

rd 



-a 

CD 
CD 

d 
d 



CD CD 

<d rd 
_© rd 



'd 



■8 

CM- 



CD 

3 



."d d ^ 
CD 



CD 

rd 



r^ B 



CD 

•a 






o 

rP 



■a 

CD 



to 



CD 

d 

1 ^ 

o3 CD 
c^ ^ 

d Qj 

bD CD 

^d 

CD 

rd 03 

-M 

_ Cm 

o 



« rH 



fe^cS 



r p 



rQ 



S 

M 

d 



hi 

d 

o 

p 



p 

rQ 



tc 

CD 
P 
CD 
CD 

CD 
r5 



rP .K ft «JS 



Pi 

c3 
co 
d 
O 

rP 



bo 
d 



SS 



£3 PI 



CD 
l> 
CD 

CD 
rd 



c5 



CD 

!> 

CD 



PI 
O 

« 1 

CO CO 



Pi f-l 
O © 
© ^ 



B 

o3 
CD 
rS 



CO 
CD 



# <D 
'Ej 

PI 

c§ 

<H-H 
O 

■g 

CD 



CD 

I 

CD 



CD 

rd 

CD 
CO 

C3 


CO 



<D 
CD |> 

§ Ph 



CD 

§ 

Ph 
co 

rd 

s 

cd~ 

S 

CO 

.9 

CD 

a 

o 
o 

CD 



CD 



H3 

I 



rl H 

o -53 

a * 

5 rd 



rd 

a 

co 



1 

"Ph 
CD 

fad 



CD CD r^j 
N ^ CD 



11 

t>5 d 



to "3 

- 1 



C3 



o 
rd 



d 



CD 

■5 



is 



^rS | 

ft J ^ 

O 

d 



p CO 

E ^ 

o 

- 2 

r*> p_ 

r^ C8 

O 

d ® 

CD 3 



d 



CD 
Ph 

8 

CD 

"S 

r> 

a 

o 



a 

o 

o 

b 



_o 

*Ph 
CD 
>d 



rH 

c2 



S ST 

W CD 



CD 

bo 

o 

Ph 
CD 

CD 



d 

rd 

1 



bD 
P 

O 



CD 
CD 

d 

CD 

I 

O 
O 

CD 

U 

xn 

CD 
O 



CO 
CD 

•S 

Eh 

CD 

•a 






CO 

CD 



§ 

CD 
CD 

a 

d 
o 

d 

CD 

rd 



H 

d 
o 
d 

rd 



3 

rd 

s 

CD 

■8 

d 

CD 

& 

d 
d 

9 

CD 

a 

o 
o 

CD 



rH 

CD 
> 
CD 

O 

r^H 
<D~ 

CD 

r-l 

CD 

Eh 



r P 



d 

CD 
CD 

rO 



CD 

rd 

o 



T3 

rS 

d 



bo K 

d © 

2 * 



B 

CD 



CD 



"53 © 

+3 



be 
d 



rd CO 

m s 

o 

Is M 



■8 o 

co O 
c3 co 
<D 
Ph 

Ph © 
ci 






a ""cd 



1 



H-3 
Ph 
© O 
£ rM 



c 






CD ^ 

5 



tH 



d 

CD 
CD 
r^ 

rd 

rd 

CD 

rd 

'i 

o 

-r= 

a 



CO 

CD 

o 



r>* 

s 

o 

d 



^S 



r^ 



d 

CD 

rd 
Pi 
CD 



CD 
rd 



bO © 

d >" 



a 

rH 
O 

d 

bD 



w 



© 



CO 

g 
■a 

CD 



I 



CD 

a 

O 

CD 
rQ 

CO 

d 
o 



CD M 

Ph d 
O 

© 
CD 

rd C8 



rd 

CD 

d 

.a 

d 
o 

CD 
rd 

d 
as 



co _0 
© © 



o 

Ph 



CD 

^3 



o 

CD 
O 
03 
1 — 1 
Ph 



TO 

d 

o 

fe- 
ci 

d 

1 



d 

rd 



rd 

d 

03 



o 

CD 
rd 

rd 

CD 



rH ,Q 

rd 

CD W) 

g * 

bD cd 

^ d 

05 © 

'© rH 



8 

d 
o 

rd 
© 

id 



CD 
<D 

rH 

b/; 

CD 



>^ 



r3 rQ 

O gS 

rQ rd 

CO © 

'd rd 



d 
o 

d 

o3 

CO 

d 
o 

O 



rd 



-9 

rM 



r-t 

c3 

-a 



^ © 

r3 T3 



<D 
rd 



o 

CO 
CO 

CD 

d 

CO 

CD 



a £ 






s 

CD 



c3 

rd 



8 w? 



CO 
CO 

rd 
rd 



r?3 
CD 



■^ a 



o 

•6 

d 

o3 



d 

g 

CD 

Ph 



<HH 

o 



<D 
CD 
rd 

<HH 

o 

CD 
o3 



d 
o 

&• 

rd 

CD 
N 



d 
.2 

*co 
co 

CD 
?-< 



03 
CD 

bO 

CD 

rd 



^ H rH □ 



^ 



o 

a 
I 

CD 

CD 

> rd 

c © 

S rf! 

© a 

'co 

3 ^3 
3 > 

CO rd 
CO ^-5 

O 

Ph -d 

• rH 03 



CD 

rQ 



o 

rd 



<HH 

o 

r-l 
CD 

o 

Ph 
CD 

rd 



s 

d rM 
1 — I 

CO 

B -E 

03 * 

CD 



bo 

>~s o3 

d 



CD 

^3 

rH 

co 

% 

o 

o3 

rH 



rH 

O 

d 

u 



4* 

8 42 

Ph If 

CO d 



CO 
•rH 

8 

d 

rd" 

f-l 
o 

CD 

I 5 



£ 8 







c3 .S 

•8 - 

Pi "g 



1 

r^ 



d 

N 

CD 

Ph 



CD 

i 

cd 



p 
eg 



c3 

bo 

02 



m 

•r-t -1-3 

J? s 






o 

3 

o 

^> 

fir 

o 

*3 

o 



I 

(D 

O 
<hh 

o 
d 

03 



<a 



r-3 



£ 



l 

H 



■a 



rd © 



"4-1 
o 






5h 

o 



'D 

•g ° 

c3 
^ lb 



Ph 



5=1 
O 

'•+3 

rH 

o 



© bJD 



c3 

rd 
rH 

CD 
P* 

CD 

a 



CD 02 

03 CD 

b» Eh 

g rd 

a ° 

O rG 

CD O 
Pi 



CD 

r^ 



d 

c3 



mh ,<« 775 



d 


o 


CD 


tin 


J-< 




tj 


d 


rd 


CD 


rd 


> 


3 


CD 



be a 



o 



"o 

Ph 

CD 



CD 
-1-3 
CD 
CD 
Sh 



CD 



B 

d 

CD 

CD 

r^ 



bJD ^ 

d rd 

d 

CO rt 

CD ^ 

| £ 

CD 
t> 
O 

I 

o3 
rd 
CD 
> 
o3 

rd 



1 



r^5 rH 

B J 

o d 



CD 
O 

d 

CD 

1 

o 
o 



CD 



s 

CD 

o 

d 

^d 

o 

u 



d 

CD 
CD 

r^ 

CD 

1 

rd 



P-l rt 
CD ^ 
© _I 

d ^ 
o g 

CD 



i 
■s 

o 



rd 

CD 



fe> 



d 

CD 

d 

• rH 

r> 

c3 

rd 

r-l 
CD 
!> 

CD 

CD 
O 

d 

CD 
CD 



=8 



02 



-3 



1 ° 

CD H 

d « 

CD Ph 

* 3 



To cd 

CD O 

U g 

i w 

CD 

rd © 



Cm 
O 



CD 
CD 

b€ 
O 



^ d 



CD 



c3 r rt 



d l 

.d d 



d 
o 

■■a 

d 



Ph 
CD 
CD 



t 



& bD 



d 



rd 

CD 

r^ 



M 

d 






d 

O 



CD 
CD 



CD 
TO 

■§ 



Ph Ph 

o nd 






CD 
o3 
cS 



CD 
CD 
r^ 

CD 
t> 
o3 

rd 

rd 

a 

o 



a. 

a 






. 


fe> 


PH 

4-3 


c3 


I 

o 


& 


o 


CD 




> 


o 


© 


p 







CD 



1 P 



cq 



GO 

rP 

CD 
4-3 
CD 

i •* 

•73 

h 8 

^ 03 



CD 
O 

a 

o 

mP 



rd P 
CD O 

03 £ 

b£ 

CD 



CD 

rP 



.a 



o3 

rP 



CD 
CD 

m 

© 



CD 
O 



rS fS +D 
► P Ph" 



rP 

o 
P 

CQ 

CQ~ 
CQ 
CD 

a 



o 

-a 



CD 



© 
rP 






s 

Ph © 

1 

CD © 

rX P-l 

-p o 

© o3 

ph i 

CQ fr 

© 



1 



?H 
HH 



© 

rP 



© 
4 



13 

d 

© 

■73 

P 
O 



CQ 
© 
© 

© 

•73 
<P 



© 

rP 



© 



•73 

p 

c3 



03 

I* 






© 
rP 



?H 
© 

I 



© 

P 
P 

© 



© Ph 



rP 
© 

t3 

p 

o3 

CQ 
P 

o3 
Ph 

P 
© 
© 

© 



•73 

© 



p 
o 

s 

rP 
© 

rP 

P 



CQ 
CQ 
© 
P 

. © 

rP 



■73 

P 



M CQ 

© 



c3 

rP 



h3 
P 
P 



© 
4-3 
© 

| 



CQ 
4-3 

P 
| 

03 
Ph 

© 

CQ 

!> 
•73 
o3 



© rM 

* 8 

Ph ^ 
© 

PH =+H 

2 P 

Ph *, 



a g 

H © 

,4 



•73 

p 



© 

PH 
© 

o 

CQ 

© 

03 
2 

T3 

i 

I 

03 
© 
CQ 

© 
Ph 

03 

rP 
© 

^P 



PH CD 

S rP 



c3 
PS 
© 
P 
© 

bo 



© 

4 



P 
.*° 

*CQ 
© 

■73 



CQ 
rS 

rP 

Ph 

© 

bD 

P 



© 
I 

CO 

p 

O 



© 
3 



© O 
P *H 



i 

© 



P 



03 
P 

CQ 
P 

o 

1 

i> 

Ph 
© 

P 
P 



•73 

© 

CQ 
P 



• 3 



o 



CQ 

rP 

Ph 



Ph 



o 

© 

CQ 
P 
© 
4-3 

t 
Ph 

© 

^P 



o3 
Ph 

© 

rP 



f-i 

© C*H 

n3 O 

I b 

P be 



"^ rP 

&s © 

© 

•+i CQ 00 

c3 © t-4 

p 03 

I ^ 

CQ H3 

© £ 

CQ 

•I 5 | 

CQ * rt 

.2 Ph 

ra "d 

P © 

© CQ 



^p 



p 

CQ 
© 

© 
00 * 

^H C4H 

rH O 



CQ 

P 

.2 

CQ 
P 

o3 

■a 

© 



© 
pp 

4-» 



o 

c3 

f-H 

Ph 



© 

a 



© 

^d 



CQ 
© 
© 
P 

c3 

CQ 

.a 

«H 

o 

CQ 

© 

P 



9 

s 



© 



© p +2 

rP O 

*= rP .2 



© 
© 

P 
© 
rP 

-t3 

P 

c3 



© 
P 
c3 
P 

Em 

O 



© 

© 
P 

^H 
© 

© 



o 
© 

p 

CQ 



~ © 
SR rP 



6H 

o 



p 
o 



© 

4-3 



© 

% 

©- 



© 
© 

o 



© 

r3 



© 

B 

03 
CQ 

© 



© 

a 

• © 

^p 



CQ 
P 
o3 
© 

n 

© 
P 
CQ 



P 
© 

^P 



© 
rd 



§^ 



© 

P 



© 

© 

CQ 

o3 

© 
© 

'4J 

o3 

o3 
Ph 

a 

O 
© 



P 

o 



CQ 
CQ 

bo © 



Pt rP 

© ^ 
pP rl 



© 

S o 



Ph 
O 

03 



.a - 

CQ 
© 

© 



rQ © 

P 



^S 



Ph £ 



o3 

I 

© 



© 



o 

s 

O 

a 
© 

rP 



^P 
© 



-73 

p 

03 



© 



.a « 
*© p" 

r3 03 



-73 
© 
CQ 

o 

§• 

Ph 

© 



^4 

c3 

P4 



^ 2 * .2 3 



<^ ri pP 
Ph * Ph 



P 



P 
O 

■8 

CQ 

O 
© 

a 

©" 
I 

(SD 

.a 

*CQ 
P 



Ph rH 
O Ph 

a > 



P 
*o3 
Ph 



© 
© 

CQ 



O j£k 



CQ iV3 

o3 "73 

© 



T3 

3 



rH 
03 

3 

.2 
"4-3 

I 

Ph 



© 
Ph 

CQ 



© 

o3 
+3 



© 

CQ o 

P° 1 

P © 

I I 

© — , 
Pi 



n3 

Ph 
03 

b0 

o 

p 



?H 

.a «fc 

I o 
bJO 

P 



s a 



rP ^ 



CO 



o3 

rP 
H-3 

o 

-a 

o 
+3 



P 

CQ 
© 

Ph 

© 

■3 

CQ 

03 

tuo 

p 

I 

© 

T3 



o3 cd 

M j 

4-3 © 

P rP 

& o 



o 

p 

© 

c3 

rP 



P-H 

=2 



'S 



© 
© 

P 

© 

© 



a 
8 
rd 

1 



CO 

1 

«d 
^d 

S 



eg 
CD 

o 

CD 



!> 

»d 
OS 

PI 

c3 



c3 
CD 

& 

Cm 
O 
co 

P 

O 

•d 

CO 

<v 

M 

M 

CD 

bO 

d 



bO 
Pi 

'& 

cS 
O 



CD 
> 
CD 



03 



rd rO 

2 B 



pi 

CO 

CD 
M 

^d 

9 

CD 

g 

CD 
Pi 

Pi 



CD 

3 



I 



o 

■3 



•5 



'd ,o. 

CD ^ 

^ Pi 

S .2 

1 * 



r^ rM 



>> "S r~7 



rd o 



o cd 

H g 

*o cq 

, ^ 

M -M 

cS 5 

Ph cS 

OS CQ 



■ <D 

O ^ 



P 

r^ 



rH 

eg 

CD 

M 

"I 



m CP! 

H 

o 



£ Ph 



9 if 

© pi 

rd cd 

+3 oo 



bX) 

PI 

$.% 

CD Pi 
<D rj3 

-r= 

© c3 

rd rd 



p 



pi 

o 

Ph 
P 



"S _§ 

P. ^ 

pT 

o 



c3 



to 
g 
"So 

"pc; m 

Ph o3 

CO 

cd cd 



8 03 

r£ £ 

c5 cd 



d 

cd" 

CO 

cS 

o 

CD 

cm 
O 






H 

c3 

CO 
CO 

D 
CD 
D 
P! 

F3 



o 

rd 






5H 
o 

<D 



co 
P 
O 

H 

<D 

bO r^ 



rd 

pi 

03 rM. 

H 

"S ^ 

§1 £ 

8 3 

Ph 



o 

M 

c3 

co 
PI 
e8 

*o 
•53 



c3 



CD 

2 
> 

o3 

M 

ctt 

l4 
P 

O 



p? 
o 

s 



CO 

co 
CD 

M 

p^ 

X 
CD 

M 

CD 



CO 



fe 5 



CD O 
.m" ."** 

'3 ® 

P O 
CD ed 
Ph <E 



<D UjI i— i 



M JJ 

CD ^3 

> rf 

CD 



CD 

■M 

u 



CO 

CD 
&X) 

P 
O 

M 



CD 



o3 

H 

CD 
P 
CD 

<D 

EH 



p 
.2 

cd 

cd 

*-M 

o 

CD 
of 

E .^ 
^ ,±f 

t> ^ 

•M -M 

* 8 
1 a 

P CO 

H c3 

CD r^ 

ci o3 
"+3" eft 



CD p 
O 

bJD co 

.2 ^ 
% § 



a -a 

M 



^ 1 

• M 03 



CO 

p 
.2 

'co 

CQ 

cS 

p 
o 

CD 

& 

O 
1* 

CO 

p 1 

o 

O 
03 



I 



cm 



CD 
-M 

CD 

p 

CD 
P^ 



,7; o3 



'CO 
C 

'5 

M 

o 

P 

o 

(D 
BQ 

D 

CD 
> 



o 

M^ 

p 



rM 



CD 



8 5 

CD -53 

P 'd 

cd ^ 

.2 - 



CD 
rd 



6h 

o 



o 

O 

Ph 

s 

'A 



l>> SO 

I 1 

o, bD 

*^ CD 

^ rd 

o 

d 03 

d t* 

03 p 



O 

'00 cti 
rj CD 



.a -9 



o 



H 

CD 

o3 
CD 
H 

CD 

HP 



CD 



CO 

■a 

c 



bo a 



o 



p 



t3 



--d 



bDH © 

d o ^ 

"■d bo EH 

Ph P 

M T5 r-4 

b * 'C 

O CD P- 

O m CD 



-d 

p 



CD 

M^ 



CD CD 

.M rd 

d fe 

bo ^ 



o 

•M 

CO 
• M 

CD 

d 

<D 
O 



CD 

I 

d 
d 

i 

Cm 
<D 

rd 



n3 



M 

o 
u 

CD 
-M 

• M 

"ki 

d 

CO 



-s 



+= -t-= 

D c£3 

I 3 

cd h- 3 
CD 



d 

O H3 

Ph d 

d 03 



d 

§ 1 

CD 
03 M 

<D ^ 
to ^ 
O 02 

F^ I 

O c3 

Pi o 

Ph 



Ph O 

.2 b0 

p, -3 

CD 



o3 

d 

•M 

d 

I 

<D 



fo ^ 

| 'I 



r 3 Ph 



-d 

d 



CD 
O 

d 

CD 

'd 

<D 
Ph 

M 

<D 
03 
"(D 



^d 

rP 
CO 

03 

rd 

M 
CD 

*d 

CD 

rd 



o5 

■3 



d 

•M 

o 

-M 

| 

rd 

^d 

CD 



bo 

P 

c8 

rd 



-d 
d 



co 
co 
<D 
O 
O 

d 

03 

*d 

d 

o3 



co 
CD 

•d 

CD 
03 



d 
o 
•d 
p 

CD 
CD 
CO 

8 o 

-M 

d 

CD 

-d 



CD 
O 
03 

CD 

"03 
P 

d 

-M 

r-i 

c2 



rd 
CD 



H3 
03 

d 
o 

13 

• M 

co 
CD 
> 



s 

CD^ 

d 
Is 



d d © 

M CD ^S 






D 



d 

d 

-t-3 

M 
CO 



CD 

rP 



C3 rH 

O o 

d «fi 



Cm 
O 



d 

CD 

03 

CD 

H 

P. 

CO 

o3 

rd 



c2 

CD 
02 

d 

bo 

P 



t 

r^ 



Cm 
O 



cm 
O 

O 



rd -. 

+=> c+_; 

bo 1 

g ; « 

O h3 



o 

m 



a 

rd 

CO 

<D 



CD 

a 

o 
CO 



O rM 

d d 
• m° rS 

CO 

© rM 

o3 



P 

3 



M 

CD 

rd 



M 

CD 

-d 
P 
P 



d 

w 



d 

CD 

"o 

CD 

d 

CD 






T3 
P 

CD 

I 



£ .3 



o 

© 



ft 8 

O c3 



CD 
*8 



e 
.a 

CD 



CD 

o 
.: o* 

s-3 

o 
d 



© rd 
P r£ 

P^ o 

-t-3 

o 

d 



CD 

rd 



> 

2 d 

d CD 

CD Cj 

CQ d 



CD 
CD 

H 

g 

O 

ft 

<D 

O rd 



d 



bo 
d 



CQ 
CD 

o 

CD 

T3 



gq o3 



GQ 

d 

c3 
CD 



m r-H. 
CD 5 



s 

d 



o 



4-3 
o 

ft 



CD 

-rd 



■a 

d 

o3 



CD 



o 

d 

CD 

!> 

o3 

rd 

o 

rd 



o3 

rd 



CQ 
CD 



-§ 



d 
o 

■a 



rH 
O 

cq~ 

d 
o 

% 

+3 

d 

CD 
CQ 
CD 

rH 
ft 

CD 
U 



03 



'd 

CD 



d 



a .a 



8 

CD 



b a rt ~ 



rd 

d 
d 



O Ph 
03 

d 



CD 

-d 



cm 

O 



•s 



8 

P 

d 
o 



CD 
in 
P 

CQ 
P 

'© 

P 
T" 5 
CD 

rd 



CD 
© 

d 

CD 

tn 



CD 
CQ 



cd d 
ft «H 



CD 
CQ 

CD 

O 
CQ 

d 
o 



O o3 



o3 .d 



CQ 
P 
&° 

bo 

d 

CQ 

CD 

<HH 
O 



P 

o 

03 © 

&'* 

CD ^ 

|> Cw 

o3 O 

M +3 

a o3 

c3 -i-3 



I .a 

■4-3 03 

§ i 



1 



o 



o 

r^ 
CQ 

P 

•§ 



5 ■?. 



CD 
ft 

CD 
CQ 
CD 

rd 

EH 



to 

vT 

CQ 

CD 

d 

r^ 

d 

OS 

<HH 



CD 

rO 



^ s 



CD 

r^ 



h3 

CD 



d 

o 

d 



CD 


rd 


,__, 


CQ 

CD 

rd 


B 


^ 


H-3 


, 


CQ 


-+3 


H-3 


CD 


d 

rO 


f-4 


CQ 

o3 

© 



© 

rd 



1 & 

ft £ 

+3 ©" 

CQ rj 

8 § 



"6 

i 

© 

rd 
© 
rP 



© 

d 
o 

© 

rQ 

I 

© 



s 

of 

g 

CQ 

o 

ft 
M 
© 

8 

el 
•1 

CQ 
<4H 

d 
o 
© 



•a 



g rS 

©^ g 
H <4H 



o 

rH 

03 



rd S 

+a CD 

03 a 







$ * 



n3 
© 

d 
© 



I 

rd 



© 

r3 

ft 

H-=> 

"6 

cd 



d 

o3 



O 

© 
o 

rd 



bJO 

C 

N 

O 

© 
© 

03 



S 3 



rd 



OS 
© 

© 

co 

© 



C3 



© 

rQ 



rd © 

a g 



o 

rQ 



93 
Hi 



£ 



n3 



o3 

d 
© 

o 

O 
o3 

■a 

© 

bD 



rN 



•73 

Pi 

c3 



© 



Fh 
CD 



O 

n3 

3 

CD 
CO 

3 
© 

CO 
d 

o 

'§ 



o 



o 
t3 



c 
.ft 



CD 

o 

d 

CD 

"i> 

CD 

PJ 
03 



CD 



CO 
QQ 

a 

CD 

•5 

O 



QD 
O 

rd 



CO 
© 

bO 
c3 



■+3 

CO 

03 

CD 

CO 

d 

CD 



,5 I 

TJ < rH 



^ r^ 



CD 

d 

CD 
CD 



S 

CO 

g 
O 
CD 

o 

CO 

CD 

bJO 

o3 

-1-3 

co 

h-= 

co 

o3 



a 

o 

-t-3 

ft 



^ 



d 
'co 



co 
bD 

pa 



CD 



CO 

CD 
CO 
c3 
O 

Sh 
CD 

■3 

o 



£ 



CD 
> 

'■+3 

I 1 

co 
d 
O 
CD 



O 

CD 
Ph 

o3 

CO 

be 
d 

© 
rd 

d 

CD 

CD 

co 

o3 
CD 






S 

o 

CO 

CD 



co 

CD 
CD 

CD 
Ph 

o 
o 

o 

CD 

rd 

En 



•s 

O 



o3 

"Eh 

J 

'co 

CO 
CD 

la 

CO 

I 

CD 

•S 

o 

CD 
rH 

03 



1 I 

8 ^ 

rd 



03 ^~ 



co 

d 

rd 



d 

03 



CD 

CO 
CD 

I 

s 

ft 



CD rO 

bX) CD 

o3 rj 
O 

s 



t»s 



HP 

o3 

2 (D 



bD 



d 

rQ 



r£* rd 
TD +5 
O 

d 

03 



co 

CD TS 

O «rH 



t3 

d 

03 



I 

CD 

rd 



co 

CO 

o 

rH 
ft 

CD 

o 

co 

CD 
O 

d 

CD 
Sh 
Ph 

d 
o 
o 
o 



to 

d 



d 
o 

rd 



b Dr B 



Ph 


'•+3 


CD 


03 


o3 


JjJ 


£ 


Ph 


-f3 


Ph 


d 


CD 


cS 

y 


CD 

o 

d 


_ l-j 




o 


CO 


o 




i>1, 




oT 


o3 


C+-4 


co 


nd 


O 


CD 

.a 

'co 


d 


0. 


CD 


3 


d 


;> 


o3 


rQ 


CD 


ft 






ci 


r^ 


T3 


CD 

d 

•rH 


d 


fj 


c3 



d 



rH 

ft 



o 

rd 



PI 

o 

rd 

r= 



■a 

rH 

o 



H-3 

d 
o 



r a 



A "2 
o d 

fe o3 

CD 



M 

CD 

P3 

CD 



rO 

CO 

ft 

CO 

S 

CD 

d 



d o 



bJD 
CD 
03 

?? 

o 

> 



CD 

rd 



CD 

H-3 

d 

CD 

d 
o< 

CD 
CO 

■s 

CO 

o 



r d 

CD CO 
o O 



ct bC 03 

^ I J 



*"• 1JS CD *C0 ^ 



^ 

2 



CD 

rH 

CD 

CD 
CD 

1 

CD 



H-r 

CO 

I 

d 
H 

o 



CD O 

c+_i .d 

. H-=> 

rd CQ 

.'d° ^ 

03 ,X5 

a h^ 



e 

CD 

rd 



+= 

c3 

CD 



CD 
CD 
o3 



rd 
ft 

a 

CD 

rd 



co 

CO 

rH 



P^ 05 i — l 



13 

r^ 
rT~ 

CD 



rd 03 



rd 



rt 


1° 


CD 


CD 


1 


a 

CD 


d 


S 


rH 


CD 


<HH 
O 


CD 

a 


^ 




o 




H-3 


CO 


*o 


rH 




CO 


O 


CD 


-5 


rd 




c3 


co 


c3 



CO 

CO 
CD 
O 
CD 

d 

CD 

rd 



d 

o3 

d 

rH 

d 



u 

nd 

d 

03 

pT 1 

8 H 

c3 CD 

"" rS 

CD d 

a 2 

CD CD 

rd rd 



T5 
d 



CD 
CD 

"P 

o3 

rH 

eg 

CO 

d 
o 



co 

d 
o 

IS 

o 
-p 

M 

CD 

CD 
CD 



"d ® 

ft rd 

ft *» 



T3 

CD 
CD 

d 
g 

CO 
U CD 

c2 ^3 



d 

c3 



CD 

rd 



rO 

r& 

CD 
CO 

d 

CD 

rQ 

CD 

!> 

CD 



s 3 

d 

o 



rS -9 



CD 

a 

o 

rH 



Tj 


K 


2 


rd 


d 


rQ 


M 

CD 

1 


© 

d 

CO 


s 


CD 
CO 


cd" 


rb 


a 

bD 


03 

CD 

rQ 

CD- 


o 

d 

CD 


d 
o 


d 
d 
o 


w 

d 

o3 


CO 

© 
bD 

o3 
ft 


3 


|o 


CD 






"co 


CO 


'CD 

d 
o 


2 

"d 
o 


ft 


CD 

rd 
H-3 


■a 


CD 


.a 


co" 
CD 


rH 

o 


13 

o 

d 


h3 


j> 


d 


© 
co 


'OD 


• r^ 


Tj 


o 


CO 




CD 


ft 



a 
© 

CO 

d 

© 
ft 



>> 



I 



^5 

© 

O 



© 
rQ 

s 



2 1 

p, 03 



13 © 



© 



TJ © 

8 ^ 
60 o 

r5 "^ 
rQ bjQ 

Si d 



n3 

rH 
O 
© 
© 

o3 



d 

c3 



© 

© 

ft 



n3 
© 

© 

© 

-d 

CO 

CO 

© 






JO 



CD 



C+H 

O 



o 



o 

TO 
TO 
CD 

s=i 

rd 

TO 



^1 
CD 

■s 

CD 

rd 



HH 

o 



o 
o 
bo 

Is 

PH 

d 



TO 

bD 

a 

"fH 

rQ 
rd 

o 



^ rd 



P-H 

^ CD 

bD eg 

rd ^ 
^ 03 



a 

CD 

c3 
Ph 
CD 



d 
o 

CD 
TO 

d 

CD 

N 

CD 
CD 



a 

o 

CD 
CD 

Ph b 

CD ►>. 

rH l> 

TO H-j 

T? d 



1 

TO 

d 
o 

rd 
I 1 



fH 

CD 



CD 

rd 



<i bo 

d 



o 

rd 



-"d 

CD 
CD 

rH 

bo 



d 
o 

TO 

oS 

s 

B 

o 

TO 
'-+3 

03 
TO 



b0 
O 

~o 

eg 

d 

c3 



CD 

■2 



bD d 
d o 






CD 

rd 



bJO 
d 
"o 

c3 



o 



CD 

rH 

bD 

CD 



CD 



TO jj 

8 ^ 

O. rd 

CD 



TO 

o3 

rd 

TO 
rH 
CD 
+3 

"rH 



c3 
O 

CD 

a 



-a 

c8. 

a 

CD 
FH 



I 

d 


rH 

CD 


o 


rd 


o 


-M 




o3 


of 


FH 


TO 




CD 
rH 

Ph 


CD 

'a 


"oil 

o 


M 

CD 



CD 



CD 

rd 



nd i> 

.^ rd 



>§ 



rd 



rd 

CD 



a r§ 



& if 

TO 03 

.2 rd 



d 



CD 

rd 



rd 



1 



CD 

rd 



ki 



2 

cd 

.CD 

"o 

TO 

d 
d 



TO f-i 

d Ph 

Ph ^ 

fe d 

Ph § 



CD 

rd 



TO 

TO 

CD 

PH 

Ph 

CD 

fH 



d 

c3 

rd 



bD 



o3 



TO 



TJ 



bD r^ 

o3 TS 
CD 03 



I* § J 



CD 
fH 

d 

03 



cd ,-d 

Q. TO 

o3 
c3 „ 

d 2 

d rd 



d >rH 



CD 

rd 



CD 

TO 

rH 

d 
d 

CD 

h5 



bD 

_d 

"CD 

rQ 



CD 

rd 



c3 
O 

TO 

CD 

^d 



Ph ^ ^ 



Ph += 



<H_, 

o 



MH 

o 

o 

CD 
O 

| 

bD 

d 



CD 



CD 

rd 



TO 
CD 

H-3 

o3 

CD 
fH 



+3 

02 bf 

CD ri 

rd .9 

bD M 



o3 



CD 
CD 

o 

fH 



•3 

O 

% 

CD 



"o3 ««* 

bD 



Id 

S 



■S 



d 

CD 

a 



m 



d 

o3 

fH 
■4-3 

1 



CD 

rQ 



CD 
O 

"rH 

o 

c3 

TO 



^ <^ 



CD 



o 

TO 

-8 



rd 

o 

rd 



O 

d 

CD 

rd 
H^> 

o 

d 



CD 
rd 



Ph -£ 
8^ 



CD 



CD 

rd 

Eh 



CD 



r^ 
rQ 

^d 

CD 

r> 

CD 

• i— i 

1) 
hO 

CD 

o^ 

cd" 

'to 

TO 

CD 

fH 

Ph 

CD 

rH 



>s CD 

"O rd 

CD O 



rd 



CD O 

* s2 



CD 
TO 

d 



§ ^ 

bD P 

■ rH *' — 5 

— ! d 



CO 

>^ d 
o & 



rH 

d 



PH a rd r^ 



CD 

CD 

rd 



5 



bD 
O 



rb 

bD 

fH 

o3 



TO 



d 

o3 



d 

CD 

a 

o 

TO 



CD 

a 

f-H 

CD 

d 
o 



© rH ^ 

^ Hj ^ 

fH 2 ^ 

Od.ro 

.2 ^ fe 



kc IS 

rH CD 



d 
o 



o3 

rd 



cd 



HH 
O 

CD 

"S 
o3 



r? 



^ 



o 

o3 
O 

d 



rQ 



if 'S 

CD . — I 



fH 

d 

rd 

CD 

rd 



MH 

o 



d 

CD 
t> 
CD 

CD 

rd 



CD 



o3 



-a 

d 
o 
d 

CD 
CD 



^ 

§ 



d 

CD 
CD 

rQ 

CD 
> 

o3 

rd 



CD 
FH 

d 
o 

Ch 

O 
TO 

d 

o3 
CD 



CD 



rd 

o 

rd 

d 
o 



% 



-8 



bD 
d 

o3 
CD 



'S 



CD 

rd 



<H-H 

o 



d 

c3 
TO 

d 
o 



d 

c3 



rQ 

O 

d 



o3 

o 

O 

cd 



o3 



2 <D H 



'S 



% M 



rS 

"d 
o 



^d 

d 



CD 

rb 

^d 

CD 

s 

bD 

i 

o 

rd 

nd 



CD 

rd 



o 

M 

CD 
CD 

rd 



•s 



d " 

Ph ri 
O +2 



8 3 

d o 

Ph rd 



CD 

-d 

CD 

rd 



3 

TO 

o 
d 



^ r-l 



§ 

O 

o 






CD 
CD 

a 
■s 

to 



go 

p. >-cs 



to 

.2 
3 



c3 
CD 

rd 



«r-l 

o 

r-l 
Pi 

c 



CD 

rd 



r>> 2 



o fa 



Pi 

c5 



O 

02 

CD 

a 

rd 

o 

d 



bJO 

03 
r-i 



bC 
pi 

o 

rd 



1 

CD 



bO 
d 

d 
to 

Pi 

03 

& 

O 

rH 

o 

TO 

O 



CD 

bo 

rH 

o 



CD 

rS 

""cd 

1 

bJO 

o 

CD 



E 

CD 

bo 
Pi 

03 
T5 



CD 



CD 
rd 



t3 

CD 

to 

Pi 

O 
CD 



EG 
r-l 

C3 ^ 
CD <4h 
>* O 



> 
c5 



CD 



CD 

3 



H3 
CD 



H3 
CD 



to 

CD 

Pi 

03 

TO 
TO 
CD 

d 

TO 



i — i 03 

** JP 

CD q3 

■d M 

S nd 

d d 

d cd 



•rH <D 

CD PJ 

* a 

° '•§ 



CD 

rd 



CD 
rH 

d 

CD 
O 

a 

CD 



C3 

rH 

CD 



CD 



d 

CO 
CD 
H 

CD 

rd 



CD 



CD 

PI 

d 



c3 
rd 



O 

rd 



CD 

u 

C3 

-I 

rd 



<3 



CD 

"C 
o 

TO 



CD 

^ rd 



TO 

SP 



r-H CD 

rH rd 

CD += 



>-> -d 

-r=> O 

® r 

h3 O 

.3 3 

.5 -I 



T3 

CD 



TO 

CD 

d 

CD 



b0 r£ 

.9 ^ 

M 'a 

CD 1 



d 

03 



d 


o 




i— i 

o 


o 


Ph 


J 


•■£ 


rH 


CD 




c3 

r-l 


CD 


-(-= 


o 


!>> 


b.D 
bD 


fc 


d 


d 

o3 


o3 


o 


d 

c3 


t>^ 


CD 


rM 


CD 


rQ 



5 a 
"8 e 



rj ^ 

e3 53 d, 



00 



02 

S 

c3 
bD 

o 
o 

cd 



bJO 

d 

'I 

P. 

o 

o 

rd 



d 
_o 

CD 
CD 

rl 

• 1—1 

rd 



CD TO rr- 

•r-t >-i 

c3 



- 

0Q 



CD 

■3 

I 

Is 

> 

c3 

CD 

d 



PI CD 
C3 r£ 



I 

bb 

CD 

E 

O 



CD 






CD 



09 

^ 1 

.si 

rd r-l 



5 

o 



CD m 

.a cd 

02 rt 



O .CD 

t 1 



P^ rn <4H 



bo -d 
d ^ 



CD 



CD 
CD 

rQ 

02 
03 

rd 



CD 

rd 



TO fe 

CD f 5 ^ 

TO „ 

C3 TO 

O CD 



c3 

s 



rd c3 



rH 

d 

r^ 



o 



CD 
O 

d 
o 

CD 



C3 
CD 

d 



r~ CD 

o rd 

O r-l 



o 

rd 



CD 

rd 



be 
d 

1 1—1 

§ 

TO 

'o 



C3 

bD 

03 
-(J 

d 
o 

03 
CD 

r-l 



d 

C3 



TO 

CD 

rd 



CD 
02 

O 



C3 

rd 



TO 
CD 

r-l 

CD. 

rH 

CD 



-S 



to" r d 

CD SP 

g ^ 

rd 

CD CD* 

+= d 

-1-3 

,-> r-l 

S o 

CD -t-= 

d 

bD ? 

p 3 d 

•a I 

« g 



o 

H 

6? 

-a 

CD 

rd 



a cd _d 
. .d 



T3 
03 

r-1 

CD 

bD 



CD 

f-H 

CD 

r^ 



CD 
CD 

rO 

TO 

03 

rd 

a ^ 

CD ' r- ' 
-)-3 ^. 

TO TO 

>> P. 

TO # ^j 

CD V 

rd 



rd 

TO 
CD 
TO 
03 
O 



CD 

rd 

CD 

■3 



"d © 

d ^ 

03 -rJ 



rS 



r2 



T3 

d 
bD 

CD 

rH 



bD 

d 



O 
CD 



CD 

-1-3 

03 

B 

CD 

& 

CD 
CD 

r-l 

03 
TO 

■8 

CD 



03 TO 

rd TO 



<4h 

O 



o 
o 

rH 
CD 
rd 



CD 
On 

r-l 
CD 

CD 

r^ Sg 

O <D 

* o 

O ^2 



1 



03 
CD 

rd 



o 



CD 

-r3 

TO 
CD 

rd 



O 

rO 

cd 

CD 
> 
CD 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 64. 



INVERTED TOE-KAIL 

Is excruciatingly painful, and has repeatedly destroyed life, by mortification or 
lock-jaw. The nail does not grow into the flesh, but the flesh being irritated by a 
tight shoe, inflames and swells, crowding itself up against the sharp and unyielding 
edge of the nail, until it ulcerates, when the slightest touch is agonizing. 

1. The old remedy was to drag out the entire nail with pincers, but even this was 
not always successful, terrible as it was. 

2. Cut a notch in the nail down to the quick, along the center of the arch, from 
the root outward, or scrape it with a glass ; this breaks the arch, and the pressure 
at the sides tends to close it up, and thus relieves, because the nail changes its 
curvature, and the outer edges turn up, instead of down. 

3. Take equal quantities of blue vitriol (sulphate of copper) and common alum 
burnt ; reduce them to a fine powder, mixing them together most thoroughly ; then 
sift it through muslin ; next, wash the parts well with Castile soap-suds, and apply 
the powder ; repeat this four times every twenty-four hours. 

4. Scrape the whole nail moderately with a piece of glass, so as to diminish its 
thickness considerably ; then rub it all over well with a piece of solid nitrate of 
silver, moistened with a little water ; then apply a hot poultice of linseed-meal, to 
remain until next morning, when the whole nail will be loosened, and may be re- 
moved without any pain ; if not entirely loosened, make another but milder appli- 
cation of the caustic. 

5. Scrape the toe-nail to the quick with a piece of glass, from the root outward, 
as near as possible to the ailing edge ; then, with a pair of pincers, catch hold of 
the edge of the nail farthest from the sore spot, and gently draw the nail away 
from it toward the center, and repeat daily. 

6. Freeze the parts ; scrape the nail longitudinally to the quick, the eighth of 
an inch from the ailing edge ; then with tweezers draw out the offending part ; 
this is done without pain. 

*7. Spread an ointment of per-chloride of iron on some lint, and lay it over the 
excrescence ; renew it twice daily, and in four days the excrescence becomes dry, 
is easily detached, and in a week all is well. 

8. When there is " proud flesh " or ulceration, drop two or three drops of melted 
tallow between the nail and the granulations. One application usually gives imme- 
diate relief, by the hot tallow insinuating itself in every interstice under the nail, 
acting as a liquid cautery, the parts drying up in a few days. 

9. The editor's plan is simply to insinuate, with a bodkin or silver teaspoon- 
handle, a small amount of lint or cotton between the edge of the nail and flesh, in 
the gentlest manner, and let it remain there until next day, when more is to be 
insinuated, and so on, until, by the absorption caused by the pressure, the swelling 
or proud flesh entirely disappears. If this is done when attention is first directed 
unpleasantly to the toe, it gets well in a day or two. If neglected until there is 
great pain and swelling, or ulceration, it is better to go to bed and keep the toe 
poulticed with bread and milk or linseed-flour, put on hot and renewed every four 
hours ; then scrape the nail to the quick at the center, from the root outward, and 
proceed as above. Eemember that it is best, in trimming both finger and toe-nails, 
not to trim down to the corners, but let the nail grow out rather more square, not 
rounding off at the angle. It will hasten the cure, if the cotton, after being put in, 
is moistened with liquid nitrate of silver, forty grains to the ounce. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 65. 



PHYSIOLOQICAL APHORISMS. 

1. The foundation of three fourths of all cases of consumption is laid before the 
age of twenty-five years ; in women, during their teens. 

2. The hereditary element is not of special account as a cause of consumption, as 
less than twenty-five per cent of cases are clearly of consumptive parentage. 

3. One of the ruling causes of disease and premature death, in large cities, is 
found in that exhausting strain of the mental energies in the struggle for subsist- 
ence — a death-race for bread. 

4. Insanity runs in families ; but, as in the case of family likeness, it sometimes 
overleaps a generation or more. 

5. Personal resemblance entails like characteristics of mind and disposition. 

6. A current of the purest air from the poles, for half an hour, on a person sleep- 
ing, sitting still, or overheated, is a thousand-fold more destructive of health and 
fatal to life than the noisomeness of a crowded room or vehicle, or the stench of a 
pig-stye for thrice the time. 

7. To exercise in weariness, increased by every step, is not only not beneficial, it 
is useless and worse than useless ; it is positively destructive. 

8. As no good traveler, after having fed his horse, renews his journey in a trot, 
but with a slow walk, gradually increasing his pace, so in getting up to address an 
assembly for a continued effort, the first few sentences should be uttered in a low, 
slow tone, gradually intensified, otherwise the voice will break down in a very few 
minutes, with coughing or hoarseness. 

9. A growing inability to sleep in sickness is ominous of a fatal result ; in appa- 
rent health, it indicates the failure of the mind and madness ; so, on the other hand, 
in disease or dementia, a very slight improvement in the sleeping should be hailed 
as the harbinger of restoration. 

10. No one can possibly sink if the head is thrust entirely under water, and in this 
position a novice can swim as easily as walk, and get to shore readily by lifting the 
head at intervals, for breath. 

11. Intense thirst is satiated by wading in water, or by keeping the clothing satu- 
rated with water, even if it is taken from the sea. 

12. Water can not satisfy the thirst which attends cholera, dysentery, diarrhea, 
and some other forms of disease ; in fact, drinking cold water seems to increase the 
thirst, and induce other disagreeable sensations ; but this thirst will be perfectly 
and pleasantly subdued, by eating a comparatively small amount of ice, swallowing 
it in as large pieces as practicable, and as much as is wanted. 

13. Inflammations are more safely and far more agreeably subdued by the appli- 
cation of warm water than of cold. 

14. Very excessive effort in a short space of time, as in running, or jumping a 
rope, etc., has repeatedly caused instant death, by apoplexy of the lungs, the exer- 
cise sending the blood there faster than it can be forwarded to the heart, and faster 
than it can be purified by the more infrequent breathing on such occasions. 

15. No disease ever comes without a cause or without a warning; hence endeavor 
to think back for the cause, with a view to avoid it in future, and on the instant of 
any unpleasant bodily sensation, cease eating absolutely until it has entirely disap- 
peared, at least for twenty-four hours ; if still remaining, consult a physician. 

16. The more clothes a man wears, the more bed-covering he uses, the closer he 
keeps his chamber, whether warm or cold, the more he confines himself to the 
house, the more numerous and warm his night-garments, the more readily will he 
take cold, under all circumstances, as the more a thriftless youth is helped, the less 
able does he become to help himself. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 66. 



TJEIFATION". 

Oaeefully conducted and reliable experiments show, that when the thermome- 
ter is at seventy, and the air is fine, dry, and clear, a healthy adult will pass some- 
thing less than three pints of urine in twenty-four hours ; but he will pass six 
pints if the day is raw and windy, the atmosphere saturated with dampness, and is 
several degrees cooler. 

On the other hand, it is found, that on a beautiful, clear day, six pints of 
fluid are passed from the skin and lungs, and but four pints on a damp, raw day. 
That is, on fair days, thirty-eight per cent of the fluids passed from the system is 
in the shape of urine ; and sixty-two per cent by skin and lungs. On damp, raw 
days, seventy-one per cent is in urine, and twenty-nine per cent in perspiration. 
Every observant person knows that he does not feel as lively, cheerful, and buoy- 
ant in raw, damp weather, as when it is clear and dry. The reason of this is, that 
counting a pint a pound, there is in a damp day, one or more pounds of matter in 
the system than there ought to be : it is then no wonder that on such days we feel 
heavy, depressed, dispirited, and gloomy. In fine weather, this matter, for which 
the system has no further use, passes steadily from the body as fast as it accumu 
lates, and we feel elastic in body and in mind, buoyant, and cheerful. In damp, 
raw, windy, and cooler weather, the pores of the skin are closed by these four 
agencies ; the waste fluids can not pass in this direction, but must find exit, in 
greater part, through the bladder, to be emptied at varying intervals. It follows 
then : 

First. The warmer the weather, the greater the perspiration, and the less the 
urine. C 

Second. As exercise promotes perspiration, the more exercise, the less urina- 
tion. 

Third. Hence, unequal amounts of urination from day to day, do not neces- 
sarily indicate disease; for it is Nature regulating the "waste ways" of the 
system. 

Fourth. As persons feel best when the pores of the skin are open, free and soft, 
as in perspiration, the surface of the body should be kept soft, warm, and clean, as 
a means of health and that general feeling of wellness which happifies the heart. 

Fifth. If, in dull, damp weather, the system is burdened by a pound or more of 
fluid substances which ought to be out of it, almost the entire amount of discomfort 
engendered by it could be readily avoided, by eating and drinking one half less 
on such days than on others ; that is, about a pound and a half, instead of three 
pounds, in twenty-four hours. 

Sixth. As we naturally perspire less in damp, raw, cold, windy weather, it is the 
dictate of wisdom to excite perspiration artificially by steady labor, or active exer- 
cise in the open air. 

But the great misfortune is, that instead of eating less, and exercising more in 
bad weather than usual, we exercise less, because we are afraid of the weather, 
and we eat more because we have nothing else to do, and being the only source of 
pleasure, we yield ourselves more completely to it. The same reasoning is appli- 
cable to the Sabbath-day— to wit, exercising but little, we should eat but little. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 67 



PAIN 

Is a blessing, being Nature's admonition that something is wrong, and impels to its 
rectification. If, for example, there were no feeling in the fingers or feet, they 
might any night be frozen or burnt off, and we would wake in the morning to a 
life-long deformity. 

The immediate cause of all pain is in the condition of the blood acting on the 
nerves, it being too thick, too abundant, or too poor. If too poor ,it must be en- 
riched by the introduction of iron into the system. When too abundant, it must 
be lessened in quantity by working it off in exercise, and by diminishing its supply, 
which is furnished by the food eaten. When too thick, which is the same as being 
impure, it must be remedied by a large and daily exposure to the fresh, pure, out- 
door air, because every breath goes in pure, and as it were empty, but comes out 
loaded with impurity. Hence animals, being out of doors all the time, remain 
still, and without exercise get well, because, breathing a pure air, every breath is 
directly remedial. 

The more fixed and severe a pain is, the more dangerous it is, as it will soon cause 
destruction of the parts. When pain is shifting, it is only functional, and arises 
merely from a surplus of blood in the veins or arteries, pressing against the nerves 
of the part. In some cases, accumulations of wind or gases cause pain. Pain 
being the result of too much blood in a part, as a very general rule, the remedy, 
in severe and pressing cases, is to apply a mustard-plaster near that part, which 
draws the blood away, as is seen by the reddening of the skin. 

The most agonizing pains are often removed in the twinkling of an eye, by dip- 
ping a bit of cloth (woolen, flannel, or cotton) in a mixture of equal parts of sweet 
oil, chloroform, and strong spirits of hartshorn just shaken together, and spread 
over the spot, with a handkerchief wadded in the hand, and held over the cloth, so 
as to retain the more volatile ingredieDts ; to be removed the moment the pain 
ceases. 

The safest and most comfortable application in nature for the relief of all pain, 
especially that arising from inflammation, is a woolen cloth kept, very warm, even 
hot, by the steady addition of hot water, or a stream of warm water, where the 
painful part admits it. When pain is severe, sharp, or thrilling, there is inflam- 
mation, and arises from there being too much blood in the arteries ; if dull and 
heavy, it is caused from there being too much blood in the veins. 

The pain of inflammation gives heat ; hence, headache with a hot head, is from 
too much blood in the arteries, and there is throbbing ; draw it away by putting 
the feet in very hot water ; this often removes pain in any part of the body above 
the ankles. 

When there is too much blood in the veins of the head, there is a dull pain or 
great depression of spirits, and the feet are always cold. It is this excess of blood 
in the veins of the head or brain, which always induces the despondency which so 
frequently causes suicide. When this is attempted by cutting the throat, the relief 
is instantaneous, and the victim becomes anxious for the life he had just attempted to 
destroy. Hence, a good out-door walk, or a hot bath, a sudden fit of laughter, or 
a terrible burst of passion, by dispersing the blood to the surface from the centers, 
puts the Blues and Megrims to flight also. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 68. 

THE T E E T H . 

Natural teeth, clean, perfect, and sound, are essential to the comeliness of any 
face ; they not only add to the comfort and personal appearance, but contribute 
largely to the health of all ; hence, special and scrupulous attention should be paid 
to them daily, from the fifth year, each tooth being minutely examined by a skillful, 
intelligent, and conscientious dentist every third month, up to the age of twenty- 
five, when they may be considered safe, with a semi-annual inspection. Avoid cold 
and hot food and drinks most sedulously. If a " pick" is ever employed, let it be 
of wood or quill. Never use a dentrifice prepared by stranger hands. Tartar on 
the teeth is formed by animalcule, gome of which are instantly killed by soap ; 
others by table-salt ; hence wash the teeth with a wet brush, drawn across a piece 
of white soap every other night, at bed time, using the salt but once a week, which, 
perhaps, whitens the teeth as safely and as well as any thing else. Pure sugar 
melts without a residue, and passes into the stomach at once, hence can not possi- 
bly hurt the teeth by its adherence to them. Heat, and cold, and acids are the 
things which injure the teeth on the instant of touching them. Sugar can only act 
perniciously in so far as by its too free use, it causes Dyspepsia. A doughnut, 
daily, will sooner hurt the teeth than a lump of sugar. Roast beef and canvas-back 
ducks, oyster-suppers, and lobster-pies, pastries, and puddings, are a thousand-fold 
more destructive to the teeth than pure candies, because they are the direct agents 
of dyspeptic disease in the masses, and disorder the stomach, generate acid gases 
and a liquid so sour, that when it is belched into the mouth, it has been known to 
take the skin off of the throat and inner lips. Much harm has been done by propa- 
gating the notion that sugar and candies are hurtful to the teeth, by drawing atten- 
tion away from the general causes, such as gourmandizing hot foods, ice-cold drinks, 
and want of tooth and mouth cleanliness. Teeth hereditarily poor, may be kept 
in a good state of preservation for many years, if well watched, kept plugged in a 
finished style, cleaned as above, and the stomach is made to do its duty, by a tem- 
perate, active, and regular life. Great stress has been laid on the fact that a solid 
tooth becomes soft and pulpy if steeped in syrup for a few days, yet no apparent 
effect is produced on a tooth soaked for weeks in a solution of~calomel, which so 
many claim to be a most deadly agent to the teeth. Pure sugars and candies do 
not injure the teeth, except indirectly, by their injudicious use, exciting acidity of 
stomach or dyspepsia ; as will any other kind of food condiment, drink or beve- 
rage, even roast beef, brown bread, or Boston cracker, if extravagantly used. All 
infants and young children would die in a very few weeks, if not allowed to eat any 
thing containing sugar, because they need the carbon of the sugar to keep them 
warm ; their extravagant, their insatiable fondness for every thing sweet, is a wise 
instinct of nature. If candies were used as desserts in winter : and fruits and 
berries, in their natural state, ripe, raw, and perfect in summer, to the exclusion of 
pies, tarts, pastries, and puddings, human life would be extended, and many dentists 
would have to seek other occupations. 

The teeth should be washed with a stiff brash on rising, and with an old, used 
brush immediately after each meal, always employing lukewarm water, or holding 
cold water in the back part of the mouth until it is warmed. Never eat an atom 
after the teeth have been washed for the night. Always use the brush slowly, lest 
by a slip, a tooth may be scaled or broken. After meals, let the bristles of the 
brush be moved up and down by a twisting motion, making each one a tooth-pick. 
A yellowish tint to a tooth is proof of its soundness ; hence do not seek to keep 
them of a pearly whiteness ; it destroys them. 



THE MANSE. 



THE MANSE 



is another name for the "Parsonage," and is understood to 
mean a dwelling-house belonging to a church, congregation, or 
society, used as a residence for its minister. The advantages of 
such an arrangement are numerous and important, both to the 
clergyman and to his people. 

1st. No time need be lost, when getting a new minister, in 
hunting a suitable honse for his family. The Manse being- 
paid for. 

2d. The pastor would be always sure of a shelter and a 
home, whatever might be the scarcity of houses, or however 
great the pecuniary inflation ; he would be also exempt from 
any inconvenience resulting from the change of landlords, from 
their death, from their failure, or from their impositions and 
exactions ; while his people would have a personal and pecu- 
niary interest in keeping it always in full repair, which would 
be done, in most instances, without the direct expenditure of 
money, and thus not be felt ; as almost every society would 
number among its members the carpenter, the painter, the 
mason, the plasterer, etc., etc. In this way the manse system 
obviates one of the chief items of expenditure, and removes 
one of the greatest sources of annoyance. 

3d. No man of culture, intelligence, and liberality, and 
especially no Bible Christian, will fail to feel in reference to his 
minister, that " the laborer is worthy of his hire ;" and it is 
quite as evident, that the less a society feels the tax for support- 
ing a preached Gospel, the better. Thoughtful men also know, 
that a large majority of the clergy of all religious denomina- 
tions, are inadequately paid. In no department of business-life, 
is the pecuniary compensation so small, so disproportion ed to 
the talent, the capacity, the mental power, and the moral worth, 
as in reference to ministers of the Gospel. The same intelli- 
gence, the same probity, the same industry, the same conscien- 
tiousness, would not in any other direction fail to realize a 
multifold greater compensation, as far as mere money is con- 
cerned. If, then, every society had its manse, the chief item of 
the minister's expenditure would be at once canceled, and thus 
his adequate support would be less likely to be felt as a burden ; 
there would also be less necessity for dependence on the contri- 
butions of those who were not members of the church ; and a 



THE MANSE. 

greater feeling of independence on the part of the minister in 
the discharge of his duty as a faithful and fearless servant of 
Christ, would inevitably ensue. 

4th. If the manse were paid for, it would be equivalent to 
an increase of perhaps twenty-five per cent to the minister's 
salary, in the great majority of cases; for the "house-rent,' 
costing the people nothing, in the present, would gradually be 
lost sight of as an item, while the "old figure" for the minister's 
support would be the sum which the people would feel ought 
to be raised ; thus, the house-rent thrown in, would inure to 
the benefit of the whole congregation in a greatly increased 
degree ; in that the minister would have more time to devote 
to the members of his charge ; his mind would be less diverted 
from his great and more appropriate work, by the uncongenial 
pressure of worldly matters ; by the chilling study of how to 
meet necessary expenditures ; by devising annoying and per- 
plexing and humiliating expedients and mtike-shifts ; and by 
the hard necessity of turning a deaf ear, and a cold eye, and a 
heartless denial, upon the mendicant, the fallen and the unfor- 
tunate at the door, while at the same instant of time, he was 
penning in his study an appeal to his people for the habitual 
exercise of godlike charity. 

That society is greatly and unwisely derelict, which, in its 
pastor's salary, allows no margin for benevolent deeds ; because 
not only does that heart grow warmer and better and more 
divine as it practices good-doing to the desolate, but it infuses 
its spirit into every page written, into every sermon spoken, 
and into every prayer uttered, to kindle up other hearts, to 
warm up other benevolences, and thus wake a whole commu- 
nity to godlike practices ; and never since the world began did 
any such community ever fail of a largely -increased worldly 
thrift, to say nothing of the promise of the life that is to come ; 
because he who "considereth the poor, lendeth to the Lord," 
who promises to repay with a heaping measure, running over 
in this life, and in the world to come, life everlasting. 

5th. The amount paid by clergymen for rent, in any one 
year, as to the larger denominations, will run from fifty to 
eighty thousand dollars, which, as it were, goes out of the 
family, out of the church, and hence is equivalent to that 
much absolutely sunk ; it is that much paid annually as inter- 



THE MANSE. 101 

est, and is that much lost to the great fund for the promotion 
of the Eedeemer's kingdom, and must be thought of with 
regret by every practical, thinking, working Christian. 

6th. This is but the half. The ultimate working of the 
manse system, would, without taking up space to write out the 
argument, be to these two ends. 

(1st.) The salaries of the clergy would eventually average 
what they do now, with the rent thrown in. 

(2d.) This fifty to eighty thousand dollars a year would not 
only be that much saved, but an equal amountf'would be paid 
in addition ; for the minister would not only not have to pay 
out a hundred dollars for rent, but would have his rent thrown 
in ; thus it would be equivalent to two hundred dollars to him ; 
to a hundred, or a hundred and sixty thousand dollars a year 
to any large denomination. 

7th. If the manse scheme were proposed to-morrow, the 
people would at once begin to think and talk about it ; and 
inevitably a growing interest would be felt in it, in every 
society where there were any true piety and zeal for the cause 
of Christ ; and gradually, sums smaller or larger, would be left 
by will by the members ; for it would be something tangible : 
something permanent ; something connected with the material 
interest of the community, to say nothing of the more important 
spiritual benefits, and the mothers in Israel and the patriarchs 
in the church, and the Dorcases of each society, would, as they 
passed away, leave tokens of remembrance in this direction, so 
that eventually the price of every manse would, in reality, be 
that much saved to the church, since but for the manse, it would 
have gone into other channels. 

8th. Further : in villages and small towns, half an acre of 
ground, or one or two or three acres, would very naturally 
surround the manse as a part of it, and in the country five or 
ten acres. Benevolent persons would say in life, or at death : "I 
will give this lot of ground for a manse, if the people will build 
the house." In many cases this house could be erected by the 
mechanics, lumber and hardware merchants of the place, with- 
out their "feeling it ;" and thus a generous emulation in liber- 
ality would be engendered, without the people feeling that they 
were giving their money directly to the minister ; in fact, they 
would be only improving their own property, with benefits. 



THE MANSE. 

pecuniary and otherwise, resulting directly to- themselves, to 
their children, and their children's children ; and with a bit of 
land attached to each manse, each conscientious clergyman 
would feel it to be his pleasure and interest, as well as his 
duty to do somewhat for its improvement and embellishment ; 
and in time, the manse would, by reason of the intelligence and 
taste necessarily belonging to cultivated minds, become the 
beauty and the pride of the community round about ; and the 
young of the congregation or parish would have associations 
connected with their minister of the sweetest character ; asso- 
ciations of green trees, and flowers ; of bowers and of graveled 
walks ; of the dew-drops and the singing-birds ; of the early 
morning, with the sunshine and the cloud of showery April ; 
the perfumes of leafy June, as well as of the sweet sadness of 
autumn; and through it all would run the more hallowed 
associations of the pastor of one's youth ; his unvarying smiles 
of welcome ; his sympathizing tear at the funeral ; that merry 
twinkle of the eye which comes from heart-gladness at the wed- 
ding ; and the tremulous utterances from the sacred desk, 
which well up from a heart in deep concern for the soul's best 
interest of those who are listeners to the preached word. Each 
of these will leave an impress on the mind of childhood ; 
together, they would make it so vivid that its memories 
would not fade from the heart or the affections to the latest 
hour of the longest life, while they all would have a tran- 
quillizing, a soothing, a restraining and a sanctifying influ- 
ence even, of no small importance. Contrast this with the 
clergyman living in some unrepaired, dilapidated dwelling, or 
on some bald situation where not a tree or bush is to be seen, 
with that stereotype sadness which soon enshrouds the face 
which answers to a mind habitually disturbed by painful econo- 
mies, by pressing pecuniary obligations or scanty payments, 
long past due, and can a child fail to attach " desagrements" to 
the religion which that minister professes, and thus be unfa- 
vorably affected towards it? There is much, very much, in 
this thought which may be profitably matured in any Christian 
mind. 

9th. Another benefit is, that on a very small piece of land, 
intelligent industry may raise enough to meet a considerable 
portion of a minister's expenditure, and thus, as his family 



THE MA^SE. 103 

grows larger, his salary remaining the same, he may have some 
resource for this increased cost of living, and thus avoid that 
wearing harassment which attends the inquiries : How am I to 
educate my children ; how am I to meet the greater cost of 
dressing them as they grow older ? 

10th. In weak congregations, whether from their just strug- 
gling into existence, or from emigration, deaths, failures, mone- 
tary crises, colonization, or the like, the manse, with* a small 
amount of land, would be something to fall back upon ; for 
by cultivating it more rigidly, money would, as it were, be 
created; it would be a "mine" of considerable value, and 
whether much or little, it could never be exhausted. From a 
single acre of good soil, scientific cultivation will cause an 
annual yield of from one to two hundred dollars ; and with no 
house -rent to pay, this would go very far toward supporting a 
family in very many parts of the country ; at least, it would be 
the means of keeping up the stated ordinances of God's house, 
without intermission, until better times came. 

11th. The minister could make more out of a small piece of 
land, with less outlay of money, than almost any other person, 
because he could do it without hired help ; without horse, 
wagon, plow, or seed ; for one member of his parish could plow 
half a day for him; another could chop wood half a day; 
another haul half a day ; another furnish a little seed of one 
kind ; another of another kind, and so on ; and all these 
" without missing it," while the very fact of the kindness done, 
(too small to make an obligation of it, as against the minister, 
yet large enough to draw out his kindly feelings,) does but 
afford the giver an opportunity of a good turn without cost, to 
the one who, of all the persons of his acquaintance, has the 
most claims upon him ; and toward whom a good turn done, 
gives the most unalloyed satisfaction. And if the minister's, 
wife had a little of any thing to sell, of a surplus, or which 
she might think she could not so well afford to use herself, it 
may reasonably be supposed that almost any member of the 
society would prefer the purchase, and even embrace the 
opportunity of giving a higher price, as a means of a little 
donation, without its being felt as such. That such inter- 
changes as these, in connection with the manse scheme, would 
have a happy social influence, in every bearing, will scarcely 
be denied. 



104 



THE MANSE. 



12th. Last, not least, with a little land to cultivate as a means 
of that exercise, without which vigorous health is an absolute 
impossibility, the manse scheme is of incalculable value. On a 
single acre of land, a man can expend two hours a day, for 
every day in the year, in which the ground is not frozen, or 
there is no rain ; this would save the expense of a horse to 
ride for exercise ; or that most intolerable of all tasks, to an 
educated, active mind, an aimless, monotonous walk of a mile 
or two, and back. To be sure, a walk or ride is better than 
nothing ; but the same amount of time spent in doing some- 
thing which is profitable, interesting, and agreeable, is not only 
of treble value as regards its healthful influence, but it is that 
much time saved to the man, to his people, and to the world ; 
for that hour has not only secured a variety of healthful influ- 
ences, but it is an hour saved, and there is the result in work to 
show for it. 

The want of facilities for exercise, is the great trouble with 
clergymen. The manse scheme -not only gives them exercise, 
except in cities and large towns, but gives them remunerative 
exercise ; and gives more time for study, by relieving them 
from pecuniary pressure ; and also by increased health, enables 
them to study to greater advantage in the same space of time ; 
thus in its reflex influences again blessing the giver, the church 
to which he belongs, the community in which he lives, and 
society at large. In view of the whole subject, what lover of 
the Lord Eedeemer is there, who might not do the Church 
a large service by determining to take the initiative in founding 
a manse for his church, which shall be an enduring source of 
pecuniary and spiritual good to the congregation long after the 
Master has called him to go up higher, and thus have his work 
to " follow" him, till time shall be no more ? 



THREE IMPOSSIBILITIES.— To overestimate the greatness of 
redeeming love. To overestimate the joys which God hath prepared for 
those who love him. To overestimate the obligation under which we are 
laid to consecrate our time, our talents, our fortunes, and all that we have 
and are, to the promotion of God's glory, and the happiness of our fellow- 
men. With such a consecration, no man has ever avowed, or ever can 
say, on a dying-bed, that if he had his life to live over again, he would 
serve his Maker less zealously, and would do less for his country and his 
kind. 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 



Our Legitimate Scope is almost boundless : for whatever begets pleasurable 
and harmless feelings, promotes Health ; and whatever induces 
disagreeable sensations, engenders Disease. 



WE AIM TO SHOW HOW DISEASE MAT BE AVOIDED, AND THAT IT IS BEST, WHEN SICKNESS COMBS, TO 
TAKE NO MEDICINE WITHOUT CONSULTING A PHYSICIAN. 



Vol. IX.] MAY, 1862. [No. 5. 

SCHOOL-CHILDREN. 

Many an industrious, frugal, hopeful, ambitious, and honor- 
able young man begins life with a wife, and a buoyant determi- 
nation to build up for himself a character and a fortune. But 
within ten years he has become a careless, indolent, and shift- 
less lounger. Physicians have peculiar facilities for observing 
the inner life and histories of the families in which they prac- 
tice, and know that the downfall of some of the most promising 
of them had its beginnings in a sickly wife, the secret of her un- 
healthfulness not having developed itself until after marriage. 
In this country, the mass of families set out in life with the cal- 
culation to make their own fortunes. Nine tenths of those who 
are rich to-day, began married life poor, relying on themselves 
alone, while their coevals who leaned on " rich relations," or 
married a wife whose " father" wasn't " in heaven" — hence lived 
to fail in business, leaving nothing behind him but his debts — 
have been civilly and socially, if not physically dead many 
years. 

One of the first clouds to obscure the blue sky of many a 
steady and industrious young man's hopes and ambitions ; one 
of the very first things to open up to his mind the unanticipated 
fact that marriage is not always the thing it is cracked up to be, 
is that his wife is an invalid, or is at least often "complaining." 
If he loves her, this depresses him, makes him uneasy, and he 
remains at home to watch over her. The next step is to call in 
a physician ; then comes the drug-store ; not only involving 



106 hall's journal of health. 

the actual expenditure of money, but neglect of business. These 
things are repeated from time to time. Meanwhile the house- 
hold affairs go behindhand. A servant becomes necessary, or 
those already in the house very naturally grow more wasteful, in- 
different, idle, and impertinent, as soon as they perceive that there 
is no one to look after them. Home next becomes less inviting 
than it was. The young mechanic or merchant, wearied in body 
and mind, does not find that solace and comfort and rest in that 
home which he very naturally looks forward to, as the night 
comes on. His wife's want of health distresses him ; the want 
of tidiness about the house annoys him, while the evident waste 
is a downright discouragement ; and not a great while passes 
before he settles down in the conviction that it is not worth 
while for him to attempt to become a rich man. He then be- 
gins to feel that the most he can do is to make both ends meet ; 
and the very day a young man gives up all hope of laying up 
any thing, he is lost, as far as becoming a thrifty citizen is con- 
cerned. This is as certain a result, as that beginning to lay up 
something from his own exertions is the first step toward 
redeeming any man from thriftlessness and beggary. 

But to continue the above history. After a while it is found 
that not only is nothing accumulated, but there comes the neces- 
sity of getting things before the money has been earned to pay 
for them ; then follows the demon of debt, with its pall of black- 
ness of darkness, its secret eating out all man's sensibili- 
ties, its feeling of being beholden to others, its sense of depend- 
ence, of inferiority ; next, the cringings, the prevarications, 
the actual falsehoods, self-contempt, recklessness, desperation, 
liquor, the hospital, death ! — leaving behind a poor widow with 
fatherless children, and destitution staring them all in the face. 
Next there comes to that widow the fearful, life-long struggle 
for bread for her little ones ! She becomes prematurely old, 
and her whole existence is one of mental anguish, and bodily 
privation and toil. There are multitudes of such widows to-day, 
in all the larger cities of the, nation, and not a few in town, vil- 
lage, and country. Mother ! look at your sweet daughter of 
two, or ten, or fifteen years, and think if you would not rather 
see her dead this very hour, than that she should weave such a 
history for herself ! And now we come to the practical part of 
it, and urge you to do what you can to lessen the probabilities 



SCHOOL-CHILDREN. 107 

of such a record as to your darling child, by educating her to 
healihfulness ! And you can not begin too soon. Your daugh- 
ter has entered her sixth or seventh year, or more, and is going 
to school, leaving home before nine o'clock, not to return until 
after three. She will necessarily want something to eat about 
noon. There is nothing better, nothing half so good, as a sand- 
wich — a piece of lean meat of any kind between two pieces of 
light bread ; this is plain and nourishing, is quite enough to 
break the edge of hunger, without being enough to prevent a 
good appetite for a regular dinner between three and four 
o'clock, or later. Such a lunch may be alternated, occasionally, 
with two or three good, ripe, perfect, juicy apples. If a child 
is not hungry enough to relish a sandwich or an apple, nature 
does not really want any thing. If you provide them with what 
is more inviting, in the shape of nuts, cakes, pies, candies, and 
the like, they not only are tempted to eat more than is neces- 
sary, but are made thirsty. This " fills them up," and by caus- 
ing more or less a feeling of oppression, indisposes and incapac- 
itates for easy study, while their dinners at home are not so 
much enjoyed, if indeed the stomach has acquired, since 
"lunch," vigor enough to perform its duty thoroughly and 
well ; and in proportion as this is not the case, the system be- 
comes dyspeptic, no good blood is made, and the constitution 
begins to become impaired. If dinner is taken at home after- 
three o'clock, then the child should eat nothing later than din- 
ner, beyond a piece of cold bread and butter, and half a glass 
of water, or a bowl of milk and bread, or stirabout of Indian or 
oat-meal, or a piece of bread and butter, with a cup of hot water 
and milk, sweetened, called " cambrick tea." Such a supper 
will not be very inviting, and there may be exhibited some feel- 
ing of dissatisfaction, but it will have the invaluable effect of 
allowing them to sleep soundly, and of waking up with a keen 
appetite for a hearty breakfast, with the after exercise of the 
day to " grind it up " into perfect, healthful, life-giving bloody 
to say nothing of the greater ability to study to advantage dur- 
ing the evening and in the early morning. Every mother must 
have noticed that when a child has a good appetite for break- 
fast, there is more liveliness, activity, animation, and cheerful- 
ness in going to school ; in fact, it is an actual pleasure, when 
they are to meet kind, conscientious, patient, and considerate 



108 hall's journal of health. 

teachers — for example, such as Miss Adams, Miss Armitage, 
and some others in our Twelfth-street school. But suppose you 
spread a different " supper," and have on the table tea and cof- 
fee, and hot rolls or muffins, with nuts and pickles, or chipped 
beef, preserves and sweet-cakes — they will certainly over-eat, 
will certainly spend a more or less restless night, will w x ake up 
later than usual, more cross, irritable and snappish than is com- 
mon, will eat little or nothing for breakfast, and will start off to 
school in a moody, or at least an unlight frame of mind, only 
to worry the mother and keep her anxious the whole morning, 
and until the middle of the afternoon. And worse still, poor 
" hubby comes in for a share of the unwelcome spoils ; be- 
cause, when from any reason the wife becomes " uncomfortable," 
she will in too many cases reduce the whole household to a 
" sameness." Sensible wives are excepted herefrom, being as 
multitudinous proportionably as — four-leaved clover. 

Compel your children to be in bed by the time the clock 
strikes nine, summer and winter, except on Friday, Saturday, 
and Sunday nights, and occasionally at other times, in case of 
parties, weddings, and the like, for amusements and diversions 
are essential to the well-being of children ; besides, it is not well 
to bring them up to inflexible rules, as if they were machines, 
or to bring them under the tyranny of Medo-Persian laws, which 
admit of no repeal or change. This early retiring will do much 
toward preventing the early ruin of the eyes, by artificial light, 
and will also secure that liberally abundant sleep and rest to 
the brain essential to bodily health and mental integrity. It 
is an undeniable and often-observed fact, that a failure to get 
abundant sleep lays many a promising child in an early grave, 
by inflammation of the brain. Too little exercise and too con- 
tinuous study do the same thing ; and when lack of sleep, lack 
of exercise, lack of out-door air, are combined with insufferable 
drillings at school, and impossible lessons at home, we can not 
wonder at the multitude of deaths of children from convulsions, 
nervous and brain diseases, from debility and wasting away. 
Let it be remembered that the more sleep a child can get during 
the night-time, the more quickly and readily and easily will all 
the studies be comprehended; and to this end, if the child is 
put to bed at a regular, early hour, the rule should be impera- 
tive that it should never be waked up in the morning. Nature 



SCHOOL-CHILDKEN. 109 

will always do that with unerring certainty, just as soon as suf- 
ficient sleep has been had to repair the wastes of the preceding 
day, and provide a stock of strength to be drawn upon for -the 
day to come. This is a beautiful law of our nature, and ought 
not to be contravened, for it can never be interfered with, with 
impunity, especially as to the young. 

Next to eating and sleeping, the item of most universal appli- 
cation is the proper regulation of the bowels. We will feel a 
thousand times repaid for writing this article, if every mother 
who reads it will begin, without a day's delay, to impress upon 
the mind of every child she has, from four years old and up- 
ward, that the omission to go to the privy every day, will never 
fail to accompany or precede nine tenths of all the sickness of 
old and young. A good way of drawing a child's attention, 
and securing its reflection on this subject, is to give it a penny 
for every day during which it does not fail to go back at least 
once, explaining at the same time the reasons for it. Another 
way of deepening the impression is simply to notice the fact 
yourself, and to call the child's attention to it, how almost inva- 
riably when it is too sick to eat, the bowels have missed a day 
or two ; and the other quite as frequent an occurrence, that 
whatever may be the sickness, (unless in the nature of diarrhea,) 
when the bowels begin to move, that sickness begins to abate, 
and the appetite begins to return. By such a course, the child 
will soon see the connection between health and regularity, and 
will seldom fail to give proper notice. If a day is about to close 
and such notice is given, the wise, safe and efficient course is 
to put the child early to bed without any supper, or if any, a 
single cup of hot cambrick tea and a piece of dry bread ; let the 
mother sleep with the child, so as to keep its feet warm and the 
body well covered, which, by promoting perspiration, will aid 
in unloading the system of the impurities which cause the ail- 
ment. Let breakfast be the same as supper, and a dinner at 
noon of plain gruel or soup, with any kind of cold bread-crust 
broken into it, at intervals of not less than four hours. Such a 
course as this will forestall many an attack of sickness, not only 
as to children, but as to grown persons, because the lighter diet 
named, gives the system rest ; this in turn allows it to gather 
strength to throw out the commencing accumulations, with- 
out the necessity of losing an hour from school or business. It 



110 hall's journal of health. 

must strike the least thoughtful reader, that if the main outlet 
for the wastes and surplusage of the system is closed, and yet if 
the amount eaten is not materially less, there must be a clogging 
up of the whole machine, and some consequent disaster is as in- 
evitable as the blowing up of a locomotive if steam is kept con- 
stantly generating and the escape-valve is firmly closed. 

The plan suggested is immeasurably safer and surer than that 
of administering medicinal remedies to children, however " sim- 
ple " — that is, familiar — those remedies may seem to be. In four 
cases out of five, the foundations of life-long ailments, which 
embitter the whole existence, are laid in habits of constipation 
originating in the school-room — oftener, perhaps, in a late break- 
fast, which makes it necessary to hurry off to school, and in the 
excitement nature's calls are unnoticed, and may remain so 
until school is called, and time has been allowed for all to settle 
down quietly at their lessons. But then a recitation is called ; 
then the child "must " wait until the lesson is over ; after that 
the teacher may be too busy ; next the child begins to calculate 
that it will soon be time for dismission. Thus, in one way and 
another, nature is baffled, but not with impunity ; for just pre- 
cisely in this or similar ways, habits of constipation commence 
in multitudes, old and young, every day, paving the way for 
some of the most protracted, some of the most troublesome, some 
of the most painful ailments known to man. In the earlier 
stages, and most commonly, there is a complaint of cold feet, 
of headache, of chilliness, of want of appetite, of no inclination 
for breakfast of mornings, of dullness, of want of vigor, vivac- 
ity, animation ; and the child goes off to school, or the adult to 
business, " more dead than alive," and all creation looks as blue 
as indigo. The child is fickle, fretful, peevish ; the man sullen 
and groany ; the woman — my stars ! how she does make every 
body stand about ! The servants huddle together in the kitch- 
en, the children will be as mute as mice, and " father," if he has 
a mite of sense, will quietly edge himself off into all out-doors. 
If breakfast be taken at seven o'clock, or at seven and a half, 
during January and February, there need be no hurry for 
school, and there will be that leisure which allows of deliberate 
attention to nature's admonitions. 

It is well worth while to be at even greater pains to guard 
our children against falling into habits of constipation, when it 



SCHOOL-CHILDREN". Ill 

is known that such habits lead to dyspepsia, piles, fistula, bilious 
colic, sick headache, and that " nervousness or neuralgia " which 
makes life intolerable to so many wives and daughters. Two 
cases came within our notice in 1861, of an affection, the result 
of former constipation ; for although the bowels had become 
regular again, the effects remained. To give additional interest 
to the subject, it may be well to premise, that one was a gentle- 
man of distinction — the president of a college ; the other was 
that of a lady of high culture, of enviable social position, and of 
great personal attractions. The gentleman seemed worn down 
by. intense suffering. No one would suppose, by the lady's ap- 
pearance, that any thing was the matter with her ; but they do 
have such a way of hiding things. They may be dead in love 
with you, for example, and you wouldn't know a word about 
it ! They were both as regular as the morning's coming. But 
each morning was a martyrdom. The* pain attending each 
evacuation, and continuing for two or three hours afterward, 
was so intense as to produce utter prostration, and no position 
was endurable. There was no help for it, but to lie on a bed 
and agonize for two weary hours, when the sufferings would 
begin to subside, and finally disappear until the next morning. 
Such a condition of things as this is fearful to think of. We 
turned both these cases over to an accomplished surgeon, being 
out of our line of practice. The gentleman was perfectly cured 
in a few months ; of the lady nothing more was heard. 

Every rational woman who has a mother's heart, and who has a 
daughter at school, will make it a matter of affection and duty 
to do all that is possible to keep her uniformly and always 
in a cheerful and hopeful frame of mind, sympathizing with 
her in her difficulties, and sustaining her in her discourage- 
ments. The solicitudes of a child as to a recitation are scarcely 
less to it than the affairs of an empire to a minister of state. In 
both cases the whole mind is taken up in the subject. The 
considerate mother, then, will always send her child to school 
in the morning with a cheerful, affectionate, and an encouraging 
good-by ; will always give her a kindly greeting on her return, 
for she may be brought home deformed for life, or dead, or 
with a long or fatal sickness. Never fail to welcome their re- 
turn with a glad greeting, with some cheerful remark, or some 
sympathizing, or loving, or encouraging inquiry ; and when 



112 hall's journal of health. 

they are at home, study to do as little as possible to ruffle their 
minds in any way whatever, so that they may bring a buoyant 
helping cheerfulness to their studies. Thus will they literally 
"run and not weary, and walk and not faint," as to their les- 
sons. Let humane parents bring it home, and see to what little 
advantage they can study if the mind is ruffled, whether by 
anxiety or irritation. The aims and ambitions, the rivalries, 
the difficulties, the mishaps, the failures of the school-room, as 
completely fill the minds of children, and loom up into the vast, 
as those of a prime minister ; and shame and contempt be upon 
those parents who, under these circumstances, can be so lost to 
reflection and the commonest feelings of pity, as to place no re- 
straints upon their ugliness, and harrow up the feelings of their 
going-to-school children, by an incessant laying down of rules 
and regulations, by petulant fault-findings on the most trivial 
occasions, crossing them in matters contemptibly trifling, exhib- 
iting on the most frivolous occasions a petulance and an incon- 
sideration which, would disgrace an ignoramus. There is another 
item of vast, yet of every-day importance, and the necessity of 
specific attention to it is steadily recurring ; it is a thing for 
which a wise and just parent ought to be on a constant lookout. 
Do all that is possible to make your child see and feel and be- 
lieve that its teacher is its friend, and not its enemy. This is 
especially necessary as to the younger children. Explain to 
them, by a great variety of illustrations, that the object of the 
teacher is to benefit them ; that it would be a great deal easier 
to give them little or no attention, to take no notice of their ill- 
learned lessons, and to let them do pretty much as they liked ; 
but rather than be thus slack, that their teachers take a great 
deal of trouble to bring them on in their studies, because they 
know that it will add to the intelligence, respectability, and 
happiness of the child in after-life ; and that although they may 
not feel it now, they will hereafter, when their teachers are dead 
and gone, and will often think of their painstaking with affec- 
tionate remembrance, and vainly wish that they could be 
brought back again, that they might show them how thankful 
they were for their patient and conscientious fidelity, through 
all their own waywardness and thoughtlessness, in the sunnier 
days of childhood. There may be times when, from the repre- 
sentation? of your children, you may be led to feel that the 



GRAPES. 113 

teacher lias acted unjustly or inconsiderately, or even with de- 
liberate partiality or indiscretion. Never countenance represent- 
ations of this sort to the extent of allowing your child to see 
that you take sides against its teacher. If you do any thing, 
make a private application to the teacher, remembering, in the 
manner of the interview, that that teacher is your equal in posi- 
tion, in intelligence, and in moral worth, and not unlikely your 
superior when the results of a lifetime are summed up ; for there 
is not on this earth a higher responsibility than that of a child's 
teacher — no greater honor due, than that which belongs to one 
who performs that duty with patience, ability, and conscientious- 
ness. Special attention is called to this matter, because it is 
perfectly amazing to note how adroitly a child of even five 
years of age may " make out a case " against its teacher, by 
leaving out an item. here and there, in the narration. To re- 
capitulate, let any mother who truly loves her daughter, and 
wishes to educate her for a life of efficiency, happiness, and 
health, begin at the school-room, and bring up that daughter to 
regular and temperate modes of eating plain, nourishing food ; 
to regular bodily habits; to early, regular, and abundant sleep; 
and to cherish for its teachers a steady kindliness, confidence, 
and respect ; all the while religiously and persistently aiming 
to make home pleasant to your children, so that they may lend 
their minds to their various studies with greater concentration, 
cheerfulness, efficiency, and ease. 

GRAPES.— The grape is delicious to the taste and nutritious 
to the system ; its health-promoting and disease-dispersing 
powers are such as to have attracted the attention of medical 
men in different countries. "On the banks of the Blue Mo- 
zelle" its remedial virtues are considered to be of sufficient 
value to warrant the establishment of a " grape-cure," by Dr. 
Hezpin, of Metz. The treatment lasts from three to six weeks, 
and the amount to be taken is from two to four pounds every 
day. We certainly would prefer a " course of grapes" of this 
kind to any " course of medicine" ever heard of. It would do 
many a child more good than a u course of sprouts." There 
can not be the slightest doubt that many a patient who has ex. 
hausted all the " pathies" yet known, in the vain hope of re. 
gaining health, would get perfectly well, if compelled to live on 



114 

what grapes he could himself raise, using them as his only food 
and medicine for four months in the year. Let every one, 
then, who has the permanent control of one square yard of un- 
occupied ground, in city, in town, or country, plant a vine there- 
on, and dig about it, and dress it, and enrich it from time to 
time. It will be a delightful recreation for many an otherwise 
unoccupied hour, and will bring its full reward. Why so valu- 
able a product has not met with more attention in this country, 
arises most probably from the fact that — as our English cousins 
with too much truth have said of us — "Americans won't engage in 
any thing which can not be completed in twenty minutes." But 
although it requires several years for a grapery to produce a full 
yield, that product is so rich that it ought to encourage the 
planting of a vineyard, even if but a dozen vines, in every farm 
of an acre or over. It is very certain that the best varieties of 
grapes can be produced for two cents a pound, on land costing 
one hundred dollars an acre. Uncounted tons could be sold in 
New- York City any year at six cents a pound, by the hundred. 

A poor girl in California picked up the cutting of a grape-vine, 
thrown into the road, in order to drive her mule with. She 
carried it home, and though it was wilted and worn and ap- 
peared good for nothing, she stuck it into the ground. " It has 
a little life left," she said ; "I will try and save it." So she 
watered it, and watched it, and trained it, and took as much 
care of it as if it were the most promising shoot in the world. 
In one year, after it was six years old, it bore five thousand 
bunches of grapes, and each bunch weighed one pound ; these, 
on being sold, brought her the handsome sum of four thousand 
dollars. 

There is scarcely any product of the earth which exceeds in 
variety and value that of the grape for the amount of labor be- 
stowed upon it. As an esculent, it is perfectly delicious. 
Every table in the land should fairly groan under the liberal 
supply of an article of food so acceptable to the tastes of all 
people of all climes. Grapes require to ripen early in the au- 
tumn in the latitude of New- York City, and we gather them 
from our out-door vines until the first of December, up to which 
time they daily become sweeter. There seems to be a life 
within them when ripe which resists freezing when the weather 
is several degrees below the freezing-point. If properly packed 



GRAPES. 115 

and kept in a cool, dry place, they may be preserved in excel- 
lent condition until spring. Every family having a rear-yard 
of their own, of even twenty feet square, would find it profitable 
and healthful to cultivate half a dozen grape-vines, the fruit of 
which would make a healthful dessert for a family for several 
months of every year. For such a purpose it is not exceeded by 
any thing which can be placed upon our tables. The delicate 
acid of the grape, in common with all fruits and berries, is ascer- 
tained beyond doubt to be a most efficient agent in acting on 
' the liver and stimulating that secretion of bile without which, 
there can not be any health for twenty-four hours at a time. 
The grape, in consequence of the copiousness of its juice, is more 
beneficial in these respects than other fruits. If eaten without 
swallowing the pulp or seed, the juice immediately under the 
skin, being decidedly astringent in its nature, has a controlling 
effect in all cases of looseness of the bowels. 

To that incredible number of persons who suffer from consti- 
pation, the grape eaten and swallowed, pulp, seeds and all, as a 
dessert after breakfast and dinner, possesses an efficiency, with- 
out any injurious effect whatever, which makes it one of the 
most valuable boons of nature ; while, if the system is in a 
healthy condition, the combined effect of swallowing the entire 
fruit is to nourish, strengthen, and revive. 

The vine is long-lived and very productive ; that which Ka- 
cine planted in the Kue des Marais, Paris, in 1699, was covered 
with fruit in 1855, which was a hundred and fifty years later. 
The lamented Downing " saw one Isabella vine which produced 
in one season three thousand fine clusters of well-ripened fruit." 
The average retail price of good grapes, in the hight of the 
season in New- York, is fourteen cents a pound. One good 
vine, occupying a space of four by six feet, will yield fifty 
pounds, which, at even ten cents a pound, amounts to a liberal 
reward for the outlay of capital and labor bestowed. 

The cultivation of the grape invites the attention of farmers 
in general, while to the citizen, who spends his summer at his 
country-seat, returning, as such do, about the first of November, 
we think of no culture which combines so many advantages of 
pleasure, comfort, interest and health, as the cultivation of a 
vineyard, so immediately productive to himself, and promising 
increased benefits to his children and grandchildren after him. 



116 hall's journal of health. 



BATING AND DRINKING.— There is not, in all the bound- 
less realms of nature, a more beautiful exhibition of the wisdom 
and goodness of Grod, than is found in the mechanism of the hu- 
man body, and the means employed for its growth, its renovation, 
its preservation, and its well-being. All motion involves fric- 
tion, and friction necessitates waste and loss. "We can not walk 
a step, nor bend a finger, nor wink the eye, nor think a thought, 
without there being a less amount of solid matter belonging to 
the body, as a part of its living substance, than there was be- 
fore the process commenced; and unless the " wear and tear" 
is supplied, exhaustion inevitably follows. It is no trouble to 
understand that, if a man works hard for several hours, he 
feels weak and tired; and that a good, hearty meal marvel - 
ously removes the debility. Only hard students know fully 
how great is the exhaustion of the entire man, from eight, ten, 
or a dozen hours of intense thought, without any physical ex- 
ercise whatever. A good dinner, with an entire " abandon" of 
thought, renovates and renews both mind and body. This is 
a clear proof that thought produces waste, as well as physical 
exertion ; it also shows the fallacy, the mischievous fallacy, of 
a certain class of persons, who have forced themselves on the 
public as their teachers, that students do not require as sub- 
stantial food as do common workmen. If great thinkers do not 
eat and digest substantial beef and bread, they will soon cease 
to shine as lights in the world of mind. There is not a con- 
sistent vegetarian that lives whose name, and work, and memo- 
ry, for all that is truly good, will not rapidly rot, as certainly as 
did Jonah's gourd. If a man works or thinks hard for a day, 
without eating or drinking, he will weigh, at night, from two 
to five pounds less than he did twenty-four hours earlier. This 
waste is supplied by food-and drink ; the most considerable, 
in bulk and weight, being the latter. A man eats and drinks 
tor two reasons : to supply waste and to keep him warm. Hence 
the more waste there is, the more we work or think, the more 
we must eat ; the colder it is, also, the more must we eat and 
drink. In the hottest summer, in the treeless desert, the heat 
of the body is ninety-eight degrees ; on the top of an iceberg, 
in the Arctic sea, it is no colder, it is no warmer — it is just the 
same. The temperature of the body then being the same, in 



EATING AND DEINKING. 117 

health, under all circumstances, the amount of heat to be sup- 
plied, the food to be eaten, must be variable ; at the same time, 
it should be proportioned to the amount of heat needed— just 
as we make a larger or a smaller fire in our dwellings, to meet 
the temperature without. The man who would order the same 
amount of fuel to be consumed every day, from November to 
May, would be considered daft. The man who eats as much 
to day as he did yesterday, although it is thirty degrees warmer, 
is quite as unwise. Bat there. are greater fools than he; and 
they are those who, as the weather becomes warm, and finding 
they have not as keen an appetite for food as in the winter, be- 
gin to think that something is the matter with them ; that they 
are about to get sick ; and to prevent it, begin to " take some- 
thing," to "whet up the appetite," in the shape of tonics, bit- 
ters, whisky, gin, etc. For wise and benign purposes, it was 
not left to man's wisdom — seeing that few indeed have any in 
this regard — to daily alter the amount of food and drink taken, 
according to the variability of the weather and the work done ; 
but instead are appointed various instincts and appetites, self- 
operating, and beyond our control. In the first place, the ap- 
petite declines as the weather becomes warmer ; and secondly, 
it seeks for articles of a different quality. In winter, we love 
meats and fats, and starches and oily substances, and sweet- 
meats of every description, because from a half to four fifths of 
these articles are heat-producing, are fuel for the furnace of 
life. We not only eat them, but have an appetite for large 
quantities of them. When summer comes, we not only can 
not partake of them freely — we crave other things ; we want 
sweets no longer ; but are eager for the acid berries and fruits, 
and tomatoes, and melons. We no longer want heating, solid 
food, but the cooling and watery vegetable. Sugar and sago, 
and arrow-root and corn-starch, and fresh meats, have from 
thirty to forty per cent of solid, heat-producing substances ; 
while fats, suets, oils, and beans and rice, have nearly three 
times as much. But turning to the vegetables, and salads, and- 
greens, and fruits, and berries, and melons, of spring and sum- 
mer and autumn, which we so eagerly crave, and in whose 
consumption we luxuriate, there is a marked difference. Beans 
have eighty-eight per cent of solid substance, while of the po- 
tato seventy-four parts are water, and out of one hundred 



118 . hall's jouknal of health. 

pounds of berries, over ninety-nine pounds are water — not one 
single pound of solid heat-producing substance ! The mathe- 
matical proportions being for peaches nine tenths of one per 
cent; cherries, six tenths of one per cent; gooseberries and 
strawberries, about one per cent ; and all this is simply because 
the human body does not require fire to warm it in summer- 
but water to cool, water to supply the material for perspiration 
and evaporation. 

Such a large part of the foods which we crave in summer 
being water, these, together with the common beverages of 
coffee and tea, taken at breakfast and supper, supply as much 
water for the system as a healthy man requires in ordinary cir- 
cumstances. Hence a person in good health, and in the mod- 
erate pursuit of business, does not feel like drinking water, 
even, in summer-time ; is not very thirsty. In fact, great, hab- 
itual thirst in summer is the sign of a depraved appetite, re- 
sulting from bad habits ; or it is a proof of internal fever ; and 
the indulgence of even so simple a thing as drinking cold water 
largely in summer-time, especially in the early part of the daj r , 
will produce a disordered condition of the system. Most per- 
sons have experienced more or less discomfort from drinking 
largely of cold water. If we drink a great deal, we must per- 
spire a great deal ; this perspiration induces a greater evapora- 
tion of heat from the surface than some have to spare ; the 
result is a chill, then comes the reaction of fever. Many a per- 
son arises from the dinner or tea-table, in June, chilly, because 
too much cold fluids have been taken. From the whole sub- 
ject, several important, practical lessons are taught: 

1. It is unphilosophical to take tonics, bitters or stimulants, 
to whet up the appetite in warm weather ; it is fighting against 
nature, and can not be done with impunity. 

2. In warm weather, live mainly on vegetables, fruits, ber- 
ries, and coarse breads. 

3. Hard work, whether of body or mind, requires substantial 
and nourishing food. 

4. Those who drink little or nothing, even of cold water, in 
summer, until the afternoon, will be mdre vigorous, more full 
of health, and much more free from bodily discomfort, than 
those who place no restraint on their potations. 



HEALTH AND LONG LIFE. 119 



HEALTH AND LONG LIFE.— Louis Cornaro, an Italian, 
was born about the year fourteen hundred and sixty-six, and 
died in fifteen hundred and sixty-five. He was born a feeble, 
weakly child. As he grew up he " addicted himself to all kinds 
of intemperate living," and at the age of forty was about to die, 
his physicians having abandoned all hope of his restoration. 
By some means he was induced to make an effort to restore his 
health by restraining and regulating his immoderate appetites. 
To this end, he promptly laid down for his observance a system 
of sober living, to which he steadily adhered for sixty years, 
with the result of regaining his health, his fortune, and his social 
position, that of a nobleman. On two different occasions he 
was induced, by the solicitations of friends, to increase the 
amount of his daily food and drink by a few ounces, but on 
both he was thrown into a serious illness, and no argument 
thereafter could ever induce him to transcend his habits. 

This is a most instructive and encouraging narration to those 
who, at the age of forty years, find themselves in ill health. 
Naturally of a weak constitution, further impaired by long years 
of dissolute and drunken habits, poor and degraded, he seemed 
to have every thing to contend against ; and yet, by resolute, 
persistent self-denial, he regained health, and wealth, and a 
high position in the councils of his country, eventually dying, 
without a sigh or pain, a hundred years old ! It is instructive 
to know how these results were brought about, for doubtless 
they could be repeated an indefinite number of times by persons 
possessing the same elements of character, the most prominent 
of which were : 

A heroic self-denial. 

Indomitable industry. 

A genial nature. 

The last item is more properly a result of that vigorous health 
which uniformly attends a temperate, busy life. The good- 
hearted Italian denied himself the ordinary pleasures of eating 
and drinking. He drank nothing but the mild wine of the 
country, three quarters of a pint daily, (twelve ounces or twenty- 
four tablespoonfuls,) and ate three quarters of a pound of plain, 
solid food — such as bread, meats, vegetables, and fruits. He was 
active, energetic, and industrious. He went to work and be- 



120 hall's journal of health. 

came rich by agriculture. He possessed a generous nature. 
His heart was full of sympathy for others. Plence, when he 
became rich, he busied himself in improving the condition of 
those around him. In proof of which, he says in a letter to 
Cardinal C , a relative, dated April 2d, 1542 : 

" I was weakly at my birth, and of a very feeble constitution, 
which I further injured by great irregularities. Being con- 
vinced of my errors, I commenced by reforming myself as to 
those most hurtful to me, and continued to shun disorderly 
courses until I acquired the perfect health which I now enjoy. 
I then regained the rank of noble in my native country, and by 
my own exertions have made myself rich. My wealth has 
been drawn from agriculture, a laudable occupation. At the 
same time I have incurred large expenses, but have never de- 
nied myself the enjoyments and recreations which are suitable 
to the rank of a noble. These expenditures were for building a 
church dedicated to God, and for the means of draining stagnant 
waters, and dissipating the unwholesome vapors and exhala- 
tions which existed around my villa, and rendered it impossible 
to rear children. Thus I have not only enriched myself, but 
have contributed to enrich numbers who were my agents and 
tenants. I have also used my means to promote the liberal 
arts, and have expended thousands upon thousands of crowns 
in constructing splendid edifices, and laying out beautiful gar- 
dens. Have I not a right to term myself happy when I am in 
the possession of the three blessings, health, nobility, and wealth, 
with the added consolation that the latter has been acquired by 
the most honorable of pursuits, and used with a becoming lib- 
erality, especially as I have a good son-in-law attached to the 
Court, and who has brought me three grandchildren, little an- 
gels in miniature?" 

Another example of the power of temperance in eating was 
found in the history of a great name, of which there remain 
many loving recollections by some yet living in or near New- 
York City, who vividly remember the power of his eloquence, 
and what crowds flocked to hear him at the old Broadway 
Tabernacle, the building being filled to its utmost capacity, 
night after night, for weeks in succession. He had a herculean 
frame, and gave many a proof, before his embracing of Christ- 
ianity, of personal courage and fearlessness. But he was an epi- 



HEALTH AND LONG LIFE. 121 

leptic — that is, lie knew the tendencies of his system were in that 
direction, and that the only method of preventing the attacks 
was the most rigid control of the appetite. His medical know- 
ledge placed this truth so distinctly before his mind, and his 
self-control was so heroic, that, in speaking of it on one occasion 
to those very dear" to him, he said : "I have been hungry for 
two years." This was exhibiting % rational self-denial worthy 
of all admiration, and is a lesson to that vast multitude which 
no man can number, who have not enough force of character, 
of moral courage, to prevent their yielding to their appetites 
three times a day ; not merely to the extent of satiety, but of 
actual repletion ; really eating, and that habitually, more than 
nature needs. Man is like a pig : when he is hungry, he gets 
quarrelsome, ill-natured, snappish ; but in one respect he is un- 
like a pig — that animal, with all its love of filth, ceases to eat 
when it is no longer hungry. Eeader, did you never eat to 
make it even ? — take some more bread because you had a little 
butter on your plate? or take a little more sauce or gravy 
(called " essence" in the higher spheres) because a bit of bread 
was left, and you did not want to leave it? ' That was waste ; it 
was more than waste, because it not only did you no good, but 
a positive injury. The great name mentioned in this article, 
under the influence of the gnawings of hunger, voluntarily en- 
dured, was one of the loveliest of men in his disposition we ever 
encountered, for we once lived under the same roof with him ; 
yet to be hungry voluntarily for two years, and at the same 
time to have been so affectionate and so kind, that he has been 
known to give up his horse to a ragged, wayside traveler, who 
seemed less able to " foot it" than himself — this is the type of 
persistent and intelligent heroism which was manifested by the 
great author of the Cause and, Cure of Infidelity, and it is a 
powerful argument as to the efficiency of a properly regulated 
diet in controlling diseases. 

These histories are very suggestive. But let the reader bear 
in mind, that temperance in eating and drinking will not of 
themselves secure like results in any given case ; this must be 
conjoined with such out-door activities as involve mental inter- 
est and exhilaration. In plainer language, temperance must be 
accompanied with some highly remunerative open-air employ- 
ment, in which our* benevolences are brought largely into re- 
quisition. 



122 hall's journal of health. 



EIGHT Bs. — Who is Tie ? Of any ten men following each 
other on Broadway, there will be perhaps only one who has 
enough about him to induce you to either ask his name or his 
calling ; in fact, only one whom you would care to look at a 
second time. But there comes a quick-stepped, sunny -faced, 
compact-built, intent-looking man, of forty-five or so, who 
began life a poor boy • worked so hard that the flesh was 
worn from his bones ; the light of his countenance was gone ; 
and his youthful step became that of feebleness and age ; but 
the fire of life was still in his eye ; and an unconquerable will 
pervaded his whole moral nature. He ate too fast, worked too 
hard, slept too little, and life's lamp flickered ; he tottered on 
the very verge of an early grave. Then only did he wake up to 
a rational life ; a life of temperate, industrious, and plain, regu- 
lar habits. Going into his establishment the other day, where, 
in a six-storied building, a noiseless engine drives thirty power - 
presses, giving honorable and remunerative employment to 
three hundred willing and cheerful workers, there was posted 
on the walls : 

" Bead and Heed. 
The great object of Labor is Profit : to attain that, therefore,- 

Be Punctual, 

Be Industrious, 

Be Careful, 

Be Quiet, • 

Be Gentle in Speech, 

Be Clean, 

Be Obedient, 

Be Just." 
Whoever then of our young readers wishes to grow up 
moral, industrious, and successful, can accomplish all these, by 
putting into habitual and persistent practice the 

Eight Bs 
above. But they are enforced in language so pithy, expressive, 
and concise, and so quaintly are the moral sentiments appealed 
to, that there is reason to believe that a good preacher was 
spoiled when John A. Gray became a printer. And not will- 
ing that a composition so suggestive and eminently practical 
should perish in a hand-bill, we have in another page made our 
69th Health Tract of it, by adding some Cs to the Bs. 



EDUCATION. 123 



CONSTIPATION AND CORN. — A table- spoonful of coarse 
corn-meal (Indian) stirred in a glass of cold water, and drank 
quickly, on rising in the morning, has frequently had an excel- 
lent effect in keeping the system healthful and free. Living 
for a week wholly on sweet, fresh, pure milk, with corn- meal 
mush, has a most wholesome effect where there is headache, 
dullness, cold feet, and an indifferent appetite. It would be 
well for dyspeptic persons to use corn-meal more freely in their 
diet, preparing it in a great variety of ways, so that it may not 
pall on the taste. A delightful corn griddle-cake is thus made : 
Scald at night half the quantity of meal you are going to use, 
mix the other with cold water, having it the consistency of 
thick batter ; add a little salt, and set it to rise ; it will need no 
yeast. In the morning the cakes will be light and crisp. 
Skimmings, where meat has been boiled, is best for frying 
them with. Fry slowly. 

The American Agriculturist says, that of a multitude of compe^ 
titors, Mrs. James O'Brien, of Garrick, Pennsylvania, makes the 
best corn-bread thus : To two quarts of meal add one pint of 
bread-sponge ; water sufficient to wet the whole ; add half a 
pint of flour and a table-spoonful of salt ; let it rise ; then 
knead well for the second time, and place the dough in the 
oven, and allow it to bake an hour and a half. 

EDUCATION is literally " a leading from ;" it may be from 
ignorance to knowledge ; from vice to virtue. This is education 
in a good sense. But we may be educated, " led from" virtue 
to vice ; from truth to error ; so that in its largest acceptation, 
education is the being "led from" an old state or habit of 
thought, feeling, and action, into some other state of thought, 
feeling, and action. But we may educate the body as well as 
the mind and heart ; we may educate it from a sickly, diseased 
condition into robust health and manly vigor; we may also 
bring it from these down to rottenness and imbecility. A true 
and comprehensive education, in reference especially to our 
children, is that which leads out the bodily powers to greater 
strength ; the mental to greater activities ; the moral to greater 
purity, beneficence, and nobility — all these should be done at 
the same time, although in different degrees ; all should be at- 



124 hall's journal of health. 

tended to during the period of youth. The moral teachings 
should commence with the earliest infancy; the physical, as 
soon as there is bodily locomotion ; the mental, meaning there- 
by the literary, not earlier than the completion of the sixth 
year, not even to the extent of learning the alphabet, or repeat- 
ing by "rote;" mere mechanical memorizing. This brain edu- 
cation is specially advised in reference only to children whose 
situation in life allows them to study until they are twenty-one. 
The children of the poor — those who must go to work and earn 
something — can with safety begin at the age of three or four 
years, for three reasons ; 

First. They are out in the open air nearly all the time during 
daylight. 

Second. Their food is plain and not over-abundant. 

Third. The early necessity that they should do something 
for a living does not allow time for special brain disturbance ; 
and any slight tendencies in that direction would be counter- 
acted and repaired by the constant muscular activities necessary 
to their condition. But those children who will have nothing 
to do but "get their education," up to the day of entering their 
twenty-first year, ought to do nothing for the first third of that 
period, but to eat and sleep and play out of doors from morn- 
ing till night all the year round, except when rain, sleet, or 
snow are falling. It is the exercise daily, "regardless of the 
weather," which works so many, almost miracles, in the reno- 
vation of human health. 

The vanity of parents is fed by the " smartness" of their 
children ; but early ripe, early ruined, may be said of all pre- 
cocities. If not actually ruined, there is almost in all cases a 
sudden "giving out" of the mental powers, and the prodigy of 
yesterday is the mediocre of to-day, and the non compos mentis 
of to-morrow. 

CHLOROFORM, to cause insensibility while undergoing painful 
operations, can never be used with perfect safety. In any given case, the 
most skillful and experienced administrator can not vouch that the patient 
will not be dead in ten minutes. No well-attested case has ever come to 
our notice where fatal results have followed the use of " sulphuric ether " 
for the same purpose. It has a bad smell, and a large quantity has to be 
used ; but these objections are trifling when the difference is between per- 
fect safety and possible death within a dozen minutes. 



A PARALLEL. 125 



WHAT IS HEALTH? — "Mens sana, in corpore sano" is the 
most philosophical and most comprehensive definition of health 
ever given — a sound mind in a sound body. It has been recog- 
nized as a truth ever since it was first uttered, seventeen hundred 
years ago, by the satirical poet Juvenal ; and as if lie were to 
demonstrate in his own person the correctness of his definition, 
he died of mortification in his eighty -first year — died of a 
mental malady. Physiologists have generally settled down on 
the fact that the mind of itself is always sound, is never origin- 
ally diseased; that it becomes so in every single case, in conse- 
quence of its connection with the body ; that no form of insan- 
ity can exist except as caused by a diseased condition of some 
part of the corporeal frame. Such being the case, it is the 
dictate of wisdom, it is the paramount duty of man to study 
how continuous and vigorous health may be secured and pre- 
served to a serene old age. 

A PARALLEL The history of all past times does not 

afford a single, solitary example of a man's repenting that he 
had had too much practical faith in the Christian religion, but 
multitudes that they had too little ; so, no man who has lived 
a regular, temperate life to a good old age has ever professed a 
regret that he had not lived differently. And as the mistaken 
advocates of false religious systems have bitterly regretted their 
delusions in the searching ordeal of a dying hour, so, on the 
other hand, do the victims of animal appetites and propensities 
and unmatured notions, pertaining to human well-being, de- 
plore the folly which led them into plausible, untested, untried 
ways of living healthfully, happily, and long. Therefore, not 
more surely will that man attain "immortality and eternal 
life" who walks in the "old paths" of love to God and love 
to man, practically carried out in every day of his pilgrimage 
toward the tomb, than that those who " use this world as not 
abusing it" and its good things, will find a sweet satisfaction in 
the same as long as they live. Hence, they are wisest who live 
in the temperate use and rational enjoyment of all the good 
things of this life. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 69. 



READ AND HEED 



" The great object of labor is profit ; and to attain that, system and care are indispensable. 
Therefore, 

1. Be Punctual. — Every man has a right to demand his salary to the last cent, and the employer 
a right to the time agreed upon to the last minute*. The man who fails to fulfill his agreement in 
this particular, is no less dishonest than he who gives short change, weight, or measure. 

2. Be Industrious. — You have been engaged to do all you can during ten hours of each day ; and 
your employer has a right to a hearty, ungrudged service. If your regular work is for a time 
stopped, look for something else to do ; keep steadily and regularly busy. 

3. Be Careful. — Never lose sight of the fact, that the employer is as dependent for a living upon 
his profits as you are upon your salary. Every loss of type, paper, plates, ink, or time, caused by 
carelessness or waste, amounts, practically, to a reduction of his salary, without his consent. 

4. Be Quiet. — This large building was erected for work, not play. If you have to wait for any 
thing, do so quietly. Damage is sure to result from ' sky-larking,' either to type, cases, forms, 
paper, plates, presses, or yourself ; for an habitual trifler, or noisy person, will certainly be 
discharged. 

5. Be G-entle in Speech. — Swearing will not correct an error, mend a batter, clean a roller, or 
make a press work well ; patience and oil will do much more, and be every way better. Cursing 
may make your fellow-workmen angry, and prevent them helping you, when gentle words would 
have commanded ready help. 

6. Be Clean. — If you like to be dirty yourself, you can not be allowed to inconvenience your fel- 
low-workmen, soil the office, and spoil the work, by habitual filthiness. Soap, lye, water, and 
towels have been provided ; so there is no reason why you should not be clean. It is easier to keep 
clean than to make clean. 

7. Be Obedient. — Those who have direction of your work have responsibilities you know nothing 
of. Even if they should be harsh or abrupt in their commands, nothing can be allowed to excuse 
disobedience. Obey, or leave the office, must be the inevitable rule. The employer 'will judge 
fairly of any complaint of an unjust command, bub not until it has been obeyed. In short, 

8. Be Just — To yourself, your fellow-workmen, and your employer ; and in the intelligent appli- 
cation of this rule you will find and give perfect satisfaction, and prove that cleanliness, honesty, 
industry, obedience, and carefulness for others' feelings, mark the demeanor of a printer, or press- 
man, not less than that of a gentleman. 

The acceptance of a situation or of temporary employment in this office, will be regarded as a 
pledge of obedience to these rules." — D. M. Cole. 

But while a careful, systematic, and just industry will uniformly be attended with pecuniary 
success, the more ultimate object of life, a quiet, peaceful and happy old age, can never be at- 
tained without bodily health. 

To that end 
We append 
Eight Cs 
To as many Bs. 

1. See to it that you eat regularly, slowly, temperately. 

2. See to it that you sleep early and abundantly. 

3. See to it that cold water is your great stand-by beverage. 

4. See to it that you never work to exhaustion. 

5. See to it that the bodily habits are as regular as the day. 

6. See to it that you never work or rest in chilliness. 

7. See to it that you cool off very slowly after all forms of exercise. 

8. See to it that you place your head upon your pillow every night with a view to speedy, sound^ 
connected and invigorating sleep, with " a conscience void of offense toward God and toward . 
men ;" and strive steadfastly and heroically to maintain the same, from the early morning of each 
succeeding day. Thus you will infallibly, because God has said it, secure the fruition, as well as 
" the promise of the life that now is, and of that which is to come." A reward how ample ! — how 
magnificent ! — in quality glorious ; in extent infinite ! 

\ 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 70. 



DEAFNESS 

Is sometimes hereditary, and runs in families ; at others, the result of violent 
strains, as in the retching of vomiting. It often succeeds ill-cured or ill-managed 
attacks of scarlet-fever, measles, chicken-pox, and the like ; it sometimes arises from 
inanition, a gradual withering away of the parts. In almost all cases, the only 
really useful and safe plan of treatment is to keep up the general health, and wear 
in the ailing ear a bit of cotton, moistened with glycerine ; or let fall a drop or two 
in the ear ; then put the cotton in ; the whole object being to keep the parts moist. 
Glycerine is the best substance known for that object, because it is as perfectly 
mild and safe as milk and water, while it retains its moisture longer than any other 
substance known in nature ; hence, if hardened " wax " causes the deafness, it will 
certainly be softened and brought away. Auricles, or other " aids" to hearing, im 
prove for a time, but only to bring ultimate deafness the sooner and more cer- 
tainly, as well as more completely. In ninety-nine cases out of a hundred of deaf- 
ness, in the ordinary walks of life, all tinkering with the ear is worse than useless — 
it is pernicious ; and quite as often will it be found that whatever general good 
health, and the constant (once daily) moistening with pure glycerine does not ac- 
complish in the way of an improved hearing, nothing else will. The safest general 
rule for all is, never allow any thing to touch the eye or ear stronger than luke- 
warm rain-water or glycerine, (which is really oil and water,) unless by the special 
advice of an educated physician, whom you have long known. After all, deafness 
is not an unmixed evil. Multitudes would be happier if they did not hear quite so 
much ; besides, it is a source of fun sometimes. For example : 

In a town in New-Hampshire lived old Farmer P , who was very deaf. On 

his farm, near the road, stood a very large tree, and thirty feet from the ground on 
this tree was a large knot. 

As Farmer P was passing by one day, he thought he would cut it down to 

make a mill-post of. He had been at work some time, when he thought some 
stranger would come along and ask him the following questions, and he would 
make the following answers : 

" What is that tree for ?" asks the stranger. 

" A mill-post," replies the farmer. 

" How long are you going to cut it?" 

" Up to that knot." 

" How much do you ask for it?" 

"Five dollars." 

" I won't give it." 

"Well, if you don't, somebody else will." 

As old Farmer P was working away, sure enough a stranger did come along, 

and the following dialogue ensued : 

" Good morning, sir," said the stranger. 

" A mill-post," replied the farmer. 

" How far is it down to the corner ?" 

"Up to that knot." 

"You dqn't understand me ; how far is it down to that corner?" 

"Five dollars." 

" You old scamp ! I have a good mind to give you a whipping !" 

" Well, if you don't, somebody else will." 



HEALTH TRACT, NO. 75. 



HOUSEKEEPING. 

It may interest general readers to know the cost of housekeeping in New- York, 
among families in "moderate" or "easy" circumstances, exclusive of house-rent, 
dress, teachers' bills, and " summerings." 

A family near Union Square, of nine persons, (five grown and four children under 
fifteen,) footed up the bills on the last day of 1861, as follows : 

Green-grocer, (vegetables, fruits, poultry, etc.,) $256 

Grocer, (coffee, tea, sugar, etc.,) 96 

Cook, . 96 

Housemaid, 75 

Coal and wood, 77 

Milk, 76 

Meats, 59 

Gas, 36 

Sundries, of ice, repairs to range, etc., 29 

$800 

This family lived in their own house ; purchased all their supplies by the small 
quantity, excepting apples, flour, and fuel ; as leaving less margin for waste, pur- 
loining and losses from decay of provisions ; thus having every thing good and 
fresh of its kind. As to style and quality of the table : seven barrels of apples 
were provided in autumn ; the flour always exceeded eight dollars a barrel ; loaf- 
sugar was mainly used, except for pastries ; butter averaged thirty-eight cents a 
pound ; home-made bread ; no liquors for drink ; not a dollar for medicines; Java 
coffee roasted at home ; tea, one dollar a pound ; from three to four quarts of milk 
a day ; nine gas-burners were lighted every night, sometimes ten or more, three 
of which always burned some all night; dessert of some kind every day, and 
more or less of company, eating and lodging, every week. Servants were required 
to be in bed before the clock struck ten ; the area-gate was always kept locked ; 
there were no perquisites of rags and soap-fat sold at two cents a pound, made of 
bacon, lard, and butter at forty cents ; no cats or dogs were kept ; neither ants, 
roaches, bed-bugs, nor musquitoes. Servants were selected who had been at their 
"last places" several years ; who were middle-aged; looked tidy all the- time, es- 
pecially the cook ; had no relations, and few indeed, if any visitors. Nothing was 
kept under lock and key. 

Thus a family of eight or ten persons may live in comfort, cleanliness, and 
health in New- York, for eight hundred dollars a year, for fuel, lodging, washing, 
lights, food, and drink ; guarding against wasteful, dishonest, and liberal servants, 
late hours, and costly, early, or out-of-season dishes. 

It is painful to know how many families strive desperately and yet unavailingly, 
to " get ahead " in New-York City ; the failure arising too often from their setting 
out with a style of living which was decided on in ignorance of what it ought to 
be ; in consequence of forming an opinion from those who were living beyond their 
means, or who had resources greater than their own ; then the strife to " keep up," 
involves those excessive efforts, those anxious toils and corroding cares which eat 
out all the joys of life, undermine the health, and make a premature grave, leaving 
children with no other heritage but the necessities of the same toils and cares f 
with the same false ambitions, and to make of life a failure also ! 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 



Our Legitimate Scope is almost boundless : for whatever begets pleasurable 
and harmless feelings, promotes Health ; and whatever induces 
disagreeable sensations, engenders Disease. 



WE AIM TO SHOW HOW DISEASE MAT BE AVOIDED, AND THAT IT IS BEST, WHEN SICKNESS COMES, TO 
TAKE NO MEDICINE WITHOUT CONSULTING A PHYSICIAN. 



Vol. IX.] JUNE, 1862. [No. 6. 

COUNT CAVOUK; 

OR QUACKERY AND H I G- H - L I V I N G . 

An Italian nobleman, one of the very greatest of living 
statesmen, died recently, at the close of his fifty-second year. 
America, England, France, and Italy, four nations, sincerely 
regretted his death, as did the friends of human liberty every 
where. He ought to have lived at least twenty years longer, 
to have used the power which long experience, a great intel- 
lect, and gigantic political abilities gave him for good, for Sar- 
dinia, for united Italy, and for mankind. But he died before 
his time, while in the very zenith of his power, his efficiency, 
and his fame, as many great men have done before, in conse- 
quence, first, of yielding to the gratification of the animal ap- 
petites ; and second, by the weak presumption, not uncommon 
with smaller minds, of prescribing for himself, of being his own 
physician. The public record of his case is : "He died of con- 
gestion of the brain, arising from intense occupation, want of 
bodily exercise, and either too strong an appetite, or else an 
excessive indulgence in the pleasures of his well-appointed 
table." In plainer language, he died of apoplexy, from eating 
too much and exercising too little. In fact, the great Count 
could govern a nation better than he could govern himself. 
His presumption completed the ruin of his manly frame and 
once vigorous constitution. We have all read of the Eoman 
ruler who loved eating so well, that when he had swallowed as 



132 hall's journal of health. 

much as his paunch could possibly hold, he would take an 
emetic, that he might repeat the pleasure. Count Cavour had 
for a long time been a great feeder ; and as he persisted in 
taking no exercise, he made too much blood, and that, too, of 
a bad quality ; and being a great thinker, this attracted the 
blood to the brain faster than it could be conveyed away by the 
sluggish veins ; hence, there was such a great accumulation, 
that the brain was compressed, crowded, and the powers of ]ife 
were for the moment in a state of suppression. He had found 
out, in previous milder attacks, that the quickest way to get 
relieved of the surplus of blood was to open a vein in the arm, 
and speedily " Eichard was himself again." But in this last 
attack, having no medical knowledge beyond the general fact 
that bleeding had relieved him before, he inferred that it would 
do so again, and that the only rule to govern himself by was 
to let the blood flow until he was relieved, and as often as the 
symptoms returned. The result was, that he did not send for 
his physician, but for a professional bleeder, whose whole duty 
consisted in opening a vein, and letting the blood run until he 
was ordered to stop it. Hence, neither the bleeder nor the 
Count's physicians were to blame, because he was in effect bled 
to death before he consulted a physician at all. It is admitted 
that " Count Cavour was bled to death." He was bled seven 
times ; but by his own directions, given to a non-medical man. 
There are not a few persons who, from having observed that 
certain good effects followed certain remedies, do not hesitate 
to administer those remedies under what appear to them to be 
similar circumstances ; and then it is easy to slide into the 
practice of increasing the quantity or force of the remedy, 
when the effect is not decided enough. For a few times, or for 
some considerable time, they are apparently successful, gain 
self-confidence with great rapidity, and do not hesitate to state, 
with the utmost complacency, "I believe I know about as much 
as the doctors do;" and armed with a rag dipped in cold water, 
or a bottle of red-pepper, or a pint of catnip-tea, or a box of 
favorite pills, they think themselves invincible practitioners. 
Count Cavour's great remedy was the lancet; with that at 
hand, he felt defiance to death and the doctors. Three things 
he seems not to have known : 1st. That any one remedy, often 
repeated, begins to lose its power ; 2d. That blood-letting, often 



COUNT CAVOUR. 133 

repeated, tends to increase the frequency of the attacks which 
it seems to remove ; 3d. That two ailments will appear to a 
general observer precisely identical, yet the remedy which 
would cure in one case would kill in the other, in consequence 
of a symptom which only a professional eye would note. 

The sum of the whole matter is this, that man is a fool, who, 
in a grave case of sickness as to himself, his family, or those 
under his control, fails to call in promptly a regularly educated 
physician, or one who, if not regularly educated, has had long 
years of practical and extensive experience ; and when death 
results from such omission, such an one is a constructive mur- 
derer. 

It is an inexcusable stupidity for any one either to give or 
take advice in sickness, except from a physician, unless a phy- 
sician can not be had ; it is worse than a stupidity — it is a pitiful 
impertinence and a crime. 

Not long ago a great theologian died in the very prime of 
his life, before he was fifty. He was said to be one of the most 
learned divines living. It was also said of him that he " seemed 
to speak of physicians with a kind of contempt ;" and feeling 
thus, he allowed a trivial disease to progress unchecked, until it 
became of a fatal character. It killed him on the evening of 
the very day in which he had ridden out, and when he sup- 
posed he was on the point of getting well. It is to be hoped 
his theology was better than his physic. 

The last sentence was scarcely finished, when on opening an 
exchange, the following was read, in an obituary of a useful 
citizen, a kind neighbor, and a good man: "He was in the en- 
joyment of a large portion of health and vigor, and bade fair 
to live to be very old ; but he was attacked with typhoid pneu- 
monia. Being accustomed to prescribe for himself when 
slightly unwell, and being unaware of the nature of the 
disease under which he was laboring, he neglected to call a 
physician, until it was too late to afford him any relief." This 
was precisely the case with Count Cavour, the William Pitt of 
Italy, according to the London Lancet. He doctored himself 
until he was really dying, the physician being called in a very 
few hours before he expired. 

We here waive our rule, and give place to an article just re- 
ceived in reference to Cavour's death. It is from the pen of a 



134 hall's jouknal of health. 

physician of distinction, who graduated in medicine at the time 
we did, being of the same class : 

u The untimely death of the distinguished Italian statesman, 
in the prime of life, when his patriotic and valuable services 
were so much needed by his countrymen, has led me to reflect 
on the unexpected death of many great and useful men. A 
large number of men, in the vigor of manhood, and in ap- 
parently perfect health, die annually, of whom it may be said, 
they are well to-day and dead to-morrow. Humanly speaking, 
these men ought not to die when they do. 

"A Turin correspondent, writing a few days before his death, 
says : ' Count Cavour's indisposition exhibits the symptoms of 
all his previous attacks, a sudden seizure and a speedy recovery. 
He was bled four times in three days. The complaint is con- 
gestion of the brain, arising from intense occupation, want of 
bodily exercise, either too strong an appetite, or else excessive 
indulgence in the pleasures of his well-appointed table. Pe- 
riodical bleeding had become a necessity with him, as with too 
many of his countrymen.' Count Cavour was a man of florid 
complexion, sanguine temperament, full habit, short neck. He 
loved good-cheer, and even quiet revels, among his intimate 
friends. 

" Physicians bleed with one of two objects : to subdue inflam- 
mation, or remove congestion. But there is not a professional 
bleeder in Italy who knows when to bleed, and how much, to 
subdue a particular inflammation, or in a case of serious con- 
gestion, because this latter pathological condition is properly 
understood only by eminent medical men. In cases of con- 
gestion, depending very much on the action of the heart, and 
the condition of the brain, a very few minutes may determine 
whether blood-letting is safe. 

" No physician, who knows when he ought to bleed, should 
ever be absent during the process. In cases of inflammation, 
Marshall Hall's directions to bleed to fainting, and then stop, 
are all-sufficient. In cases like that of Count Cavour, a man 
should not be bled at all ; the best remedy is to do nothing, 
In all such cases which are recoverable, an easy recumbent 
posture is all that is necessary. Mustard-plasters- and friction, 
with cold applications to the head, may rouse a man sooner 
than otherwise, and this will satisfy friends, which is important. 



COUNT CAVOUR. 135 

In almost all such cases, when a vein is opened, the blood will 
flow freely for a few seconds, and then ceases. In a man with 
Cavour's habits of life, the supposed congestion of the brain is 
simulated, not real. Great mental exertion does not produce 
that pathological condition known to medical men as congestion 
of the brain ; it is rather torpor of the brain, the proximate 
cause of which is reflex nervous disturbance, induced by the 
debility of an over-loaded, over-taxed stomach. As soon as 
the symptoms of the apparent congestion pass off, so soon as 
the torpor of the brain begins to disappear, if there is reason 
to believe that the stomach contains undigested food, (and if the 
attack is soon after a full meal, you may be sure such is the 
case,) give a glass of warm water in which has been stirred two 
teaspoonfuls each of common table-salt and ground mustard, to 
vomit freely ; then administer some remedy which will act cer- 
tainly, speedily, and powerfully on the liver; because high 
living, with the liberal use of good wines or alcoholic liquors, 
such as do not disturb the stomach primarily, as all bad liquors 
do, narcotize the blood, unless the individual takes a good deal 
of hard out- door exercise. English gentlemen live high, and 
enjoy good health, [apparently, for a time. — Ed.,] although 
they are scholars and statesmen, because they exercise much on 
horseback. For a longer or shorter time, depending very much 
on the climate, good wines and pure alcoholic liquors stimu- 
late the liver, and when taken in moderation, improve the 
health ; but sooner or later they render the liver torpid, healthy 
bile is not secreted, the effete matter of the body remains in the 
blood, rendering it less vital, while at the same time the direct 
narcotic effect of the wine and brandy is exerted on the brain 
and nervous system, weakening them. Abstinence from these 
drinks, with abundant out-door exercise, is the best remedy and 
the best preventive of all such cases. But where the man will 
not take the exercise, (many scholars, statesmen, and profes- 
sional men think they have not time to take it,) and still will 
live high, then some medicine which will act on the liver is the 
only safe reliance. There are vegetable remedies which will 
keep the liver acting, and also various mineral waters, when 
drunk from the springs, fresh and pure ; but calomel is not only 
the most efficient and reliable, but it is the safest, mildest 
remedy which can be used. But to do any good, either as a 



136 hall's journal of health. 

preventive or for immediate relief, it must be given in efficient 
doses, from twenty to sixty grains at a time, according to the 
threatening symptoms of the case, because in these cases the 
seats of the trouble are in the liver and the stomach — the latter 
for the most part temporarily, as in a fit, the former perma- 
nently. The stomach must be relieved at once by an emetic, 
as was the practice among the old Eomans, and then have rest ; 
next the liver must be made to perform its physiological func- 
tions of keeping the blood pure, by removing the effete matter 
which is emptied into the blood by the expletory absorbents 
every minute of a man's life. The malady in such cases is 
functional, and the vital functions are all weakened, because the 
assimilating and excreting organs are prevented from doing 
their constant work. The disturbance and confusion about the 
brain is not a congestion, pathologically speaking — it is a torpor. 
Bleeding may, and sometimes does, give temporary relief; but 
it is a dangerous remedy, because it is deceptive, for only a 
small quantity of blood will flow usually, while that which re- 
mains is as impure as ever. The system not being in a condi- 
tion to bear blood-letting, (as in a case of true congestion, where 
the pulse becomes fuller and stronger as the blood flows freely,) 
syncope is soon induced, or a decided tendency to it, producing 
a real congestion, (but one not to be bled for,) and the patient 
is left exhausted ; the true cause of danger is overlooked, the 
medicines to relieve it are not thought of, and bleeding is again 
repeated, to remove a condition which every repetition contri- 
butes to reproduce. Speaking as a medical man, I would say, 
if Count Cavour had not been bled at all in his last illness, but 
had had his stomach emptied, and his liver set to work with 
promptitude and energy, he would have been well to-day. Of 
all remedies used in such cases, (and they are numerous, very 
many of them being among the most efficient men in the com- 
munity,) blood-letting and opium are the most destructive ; but 
the most fatal field of the latter is in that class of cases where 
too much strong drink is the cause of the disturbance of the 
brain. Jno. C. Darby. 

•' Lexington, Ky., Jan. 2, 1861." 

This is a most interesting subject, and is of incalculable 
practical importance, because it has a special application to our 



COUNT CAVOUR. 137 

greatest men. Cavour, Douglas, and Webster were all great 
men, a head and shoulders above the millions of their own 
times, and the manner of their lives, their last illness, and their 
death was remarkably similar. All had been accustomed to drink 
freely, to " live high," according to accepted reports ; all were for 
the most part insensible for some days, with only an occasional 
and instantaneous gleam of intelligence, and their great mind,s 
went out in the night of insensibility. In either case, there 
were millions of men who would have given all they possessed 
in the world to have known the true nature of their maladies, 
and to have possessed the means of their cure. And as there 
are multitudes of other great men who are destined to the same 
habits, of life, the same kind of illness, and the same death of 
mental darkness, the unprofessional reader may be warned 
hereby as to opium, alcohol, and tobacco. Touch not, taste not, 
handle not, as you value your health, your life, your mind. 
At the same time, the educated physicians who regularly read 
this Journal may make a use of the suggestions of this ar- 
ticle, which will be of great, practical value as long as they live. 
It is too often the fate of distinguished persons, that when 
they are ill, the judgment of the attending physician becomes 
so disturbed by the sense of his responsibility, that the chances 
of success are not half as great as if the patient had been a day- 
laborer. It is said that Sir Eobert Peel was allowed to die be- 
cause it " hurt him" to adjust the broken bone. Mr. Webster 
was killed by a fall from his carriage. He did not, it is true, 
immediately die, but he was never well afterward ; his nervous 
system received a shock from which it never recovered, and 
when he became confined to his bed, the impression was made 
that he was suffering from some ailment of the stomach. 
u Cancer" of that organ was stated to be the malady, and as 
persons never recover from it, the public mind reconciled itself 
to an inevitable necessity. But a post-mortem examination ex- 
hibited the fact that there was nothing like cancer in the 
stomach ; but there was a substance in the liver " as black as 
tar," which was nothing more than vitiated bile, which with 
very great certainty could have been carried off from the sys- 
tem by a timely exhibition of efficient hepatic remedies. With 
equal certainty Mr. Douglas could have been saved in the same 
way. The fact is, Northern physicians have such an apparent 



138 hall's jouknal of health. 

liorror of medicine, or of a public opinion vitiated by the sense- 
less jargon of water-cure journals, steam-doctors, vegetarians, 
spiritualists, et id omne, that they are daily letting their patients 
die by default, or slide helplessly into the current of any popu- 
lar delusion which happens to prevail at the time, such as 
nitrate of silver, cod-liver oil, the phosphates, brandy, and 
Bourbon whisky. Nearly every patient coming to us lately 
from New-England has been swilling liquor by advice of the 
" family physician." Within a month a lady came to us from 
down-East, who was taking, by advice of a regular physician, 
black-drop, cherry pectoral, the phosphates, cod-liver oil, and 
half a pint of Bourbon whisky a day ! It does seem to us that 
New-England, with all her boasted intelligence, is getting no bet- 
ter fast, both in her theology and her physic. Is the Boston Medi- 
cal and /Surgical Journal, the medical organ of New-England, 
asleep ? Is the Hub of the Universe " chocked" ? Or are 
these results the legitimate unfolding of their teachings ? Is 
the acme of medical knowledge reached ? Is the biggest gun — 
the last resort when all other things fail — a plug of opium, a 
bottle of " Cherry Pectoral," or a jug of whisky? We pause 
for a reply ! 

LIFE AND DEATH.— One half the human family dies 
under seventeen years of age. Nine tenths of all who are born 
ought to complete their " three-score years and ten," because 
nine tenths of all diseases are avoidable by the steady practice 
of temperance and such out-door activities as are encouragingly 
remunerative. There is a still more specific method of length- 
ening life in healthfulness and vigor, and one which is practica- 
ble by the masses. Colds or constipation immediately precede 
or attend almost every case of ordinary disease. The latter can 
be antagonized by abstinence, cleanliness, and warmth for thir- 
ty-six hours ; and a cold need not be taken once a year if three 
things are attended to. Avoid chilliness, damp clothing, and 
cooling off too soon after exercise. 



SLEEPING WITH OTHERS, ETC. 139 



SLEEPING- WITH OTHERS, ETC. 

The following case came under the Editor's at 
tention : 

" My little son, eight years old, is lively and well 
in all respects, as far as I can judge, in the day, but 
at night he wakes up and screams in the most dis- 
tressing manner. He awakes frightened almost 
every night for a year. He has been subject to this 
for several years, but it is getting to be a distressing 
case. I almost dread to go to sleep. He sleeps with 
me, and once every night, sometimes twice, he springs 
as quick as lightning, screams the most soul-piercing 
screams, and I take him in my arms, and he looks 
back, with horror on his face. I could not, unless 
you saw it, give you an idea of how distressing it is. 
He is strong and lively, playful, and full of fun and 
life, until he gets to sleep. This happens every night, 
and often it so shocks me I can not go to sleep for a 
long time. He takes dinner at one, supper at sun- 
down, of cambric tea with a piece of bread. All my 
other children are entirely different ; they are lively, 
hearty, and cheerful, and so is he, otherwise." 

The directions given were on the presumption that 
these effects in the child were caused by sleeping in 
the same bed with the father, habitually. In two 
months, the report was made that " he had not waked 
up frightened for a long time." The national troubles 
at this point put an end to the correspondence. It 
may be instructive to know under what bodily symp- 
toms the father had been laboring for some years, but 
whom the author succeeded in restoring to " better 
health than had been enjoyed for seven years." Age, 
thirty-seven; hight, five feet seven; broad-shoul- 
dered, dark skin, black eyes, and had remarkable 
health, strength, and activity, never having had 
any severe sickness; began to chew tobacco rave- 
nously, and became gradually very nervous, from 
one meal to another ; especially in summer,, would 
become so exhausted as to scarcely be able to 
walk. The least excitement or agitation would 
keep him from eating enough to sustain his strength 



140 



until the next meal-time. Then came on chronic 
diarrhea, aggravated by any unusual intelligence, 
or shock of any description. "The least feel- 
ing like it, or appearance of loose bowels, com- 
pletely unmans me ; I can't help it ; and if I was 
very hungry or exhausted, the occurrence of any 
looseness kills my appetite. I can not help being 
alarmed at any symptom of diarrhea, for it has used 
me up long ago. I am greatly depressed in spirits 
from the sympathy incident to planning for and 
nursing my children, and solicitude for them in sick- 
ness, for these ten years. My wife is an angel of 
goodness to me, and I have every reason to be a 
happy man. Please don't say any thing that might 
have a tendency to depress me. As soon as I get 
the least hungry, I become weak and nervous, and 
the same if there is any cause for anxiety or excite- 
ment. Coffee is poison to me ; two swallows would 
distress my head and make my ears feel as if water 
were in them; at the same time there is a feeling of 
wanting to draw a long breath. If I talk much, or 
read aloud at times, I feel as if I had been violently 
blowing up a lire. Hot weather is ruinous to me." 
It was in August, when the thermometer had been 
ranging at one hundred degrees Fahrenheit, that he 
wrote of the great improvement in his health. This 
man's nervous system had been so impaired, and his 
general health so poor, that it is not to be wondered 
at if a young child sleeping with him constantly 
should have its own nervous organization impaired. 
On being required to sleep in another bed ; to go Xo 
bed late, but regularly ; to sleep on a pillow a little 
high, so as to antagonize the blood accumulating in 
the brain ; to be waked up about fifteen minutes be- 
fore the starting and screaming took place, so as to 
break up whatever there was of mere habit about it ; 
and not only to be waked up, but to get out of bed, 
walk across the room two or three times, and throw 
back the bed-covering, so as to allow the confined 
air to escape, then go to bed again, and avoid sleep- 
ing any in the daytime. By these means, and these 
alone, the starting, etc., began to abate, and to dimin- 
ish in frequency within a fortnight, and in two 
months with the results already stated. 



UNHEALTHY HOUSES. 141 



BODILY EMANATIONS. 

That there are material emanations, distinguishable 
by the sense of smell, constantly passing from every 
thing that breathes, is not denied. That every man 
has a different " scent," is proven by the fact that a 
dog will follow his master through, a crowded street 
or road, although, not in sight, keeping his nose to 
the ground until he can be seen, when he bounds 
away with, his head upwards, because the eye then 
assists him. An emanation comes from the negro 
which it requires no nice olfactory to discover. There 
are some white persons who will scent a room in five 
minutes after their entrance, to the extent of really 
sickening delicate organizations. There are most 
probably emanations of a still more ethereal charac- 
ter, more spiritual than solid or physical. One 
unknown person entering a room where there is a 
promiscuous company, will, without speaking a word, 
chill the whole party ; another will fill it with dis- 
gust ; while a third will send out a genial influence 
on every heart. It does not require a very large 
stretch of the imagination to infer that a combination 
of the ethereal or spiritual emanations with the more 
solid or material, may certainly act in such a way as 
to have a malign influence on a highly wrought or 
very susceptible organization, especially when brought 
into so close a contact as that of bed-fellows. It is 
known the world over, that low typhoid fevers of 
the most malignant and fatal type are caused by hu- 
man emanations, by crowding persons in confined 
apartments. These things being true, there is wis- 
dom in the universal custom of Germany to have 
all beds single. Such a thing as a double bed would 
be considered a disagreeable curiosity in that wide- 
spreading nation. What custom prevails in this re- 
spect when the "fatherland" is left, is not known. 

UNHEALTHY HOUSES. 

A man requires ten cubic feet of air every minute, 
in order to supply an amount of oxygen sufficient 
for the wants of the system. The air enters the 



142 hall's journal of health. 

lungs full of oxygen, it leaves them without an 
atom, hence that which leaves the lungs is so wholly 
unfit for breathing purposes, that if re-breathed, un- 
mixed with any other air whatever, it would cause 
instant suffocation. This urinutritious air is so very 
light that when out of doors it rises instantly toward 
the clouds, as may be seen any frosty morning ; but 
when a person is in a close room, this unwholesome 
. air mixes with that which surrounds it, and in a few 
moments the whole air of any room becomes con- 
taminated, and this contamination becomes more ag- 
gravated, more virulent at every breath, and this is 
the reason of the greater rapidity with which persons 
and animals recover from terrible wounds when they 
have to lie out in the open air, with nothing but 
water to drink and roots or berries to eat for days 
together, when in fact they would certainly have 
died if they had had all the comforts of home, fire- 
side, and friends. It is estimated that in the course 
of fifty years, a man, in round numbers, breathes 
five hundred millions of times, taking into his lungs 
one hundred and seventy tons weight of air, and dis- 
charging therefrom twenty tons of deadly carbonic 
acid gas. The great aim of those who have an ambi- 
tion to live long and healthfully should be to re- 
breathe as little of this pernicious gas as possible, 
and to have as many as practicable, of the five hun- 
dred millions of breaths to be drawn, to be taken 
from the exhaustless store-house of "all out-doors." 
If the circumstances of one's life should make it 
necessary to spend a large portion of existence in- 
doors, then it should be a constant aim and study to 
have a good ventilation, to facilitate the egress of the 
bad air, and that its place should be supplied by that 
which is pure, invigorating, and life-giving. 

Cases are given to show that a malign influence 
has been given to rooms, houses, and circumscribed 
out-door localities ; influences so potent, so invisible, 
so persistent, and so mysterious, as to inspire an in- 
definable dread and awe of the place. Napoleon 
the First once ordered the destruction of a sentry-box 
in which several soldiers had successively committed 
suicide. A case was reported officially lately, in 
Paris, to the effect that a gentleman, without any 



UNHEALTHY HOUSES. 143 

known reason, destroyed himself; that the person 
who occupied the apartment before him, and also the 
latter's predecessor, had committed suicide. 

A correspondent writes, April 11th, 1862 : 

" Our house is situated on the bank of a large 
river, on rather low ground, with salt-marshes on 
one side. So much for the outside. The inside is 
the great bugbear. A large drain runs through the 
middle of the house, from front to rear, and through 
the lawn to the river. 

" On either side of the front of the house is a cis- 
tern and pump of spring-water, waste-water from 
both running through this drain, which is directly 
under the flooring of the kitchen-entry, there being 
no sub-cellars. 

" At the river-end of this lower entry are the two 
water-closets, contents passing to the river through 
said drain. 

"Now the stench (for it is nothing else) through 
the house from this sewer is overpowering at times, 
and always disagreeable. When the wind blows 
from the river, words can give no idea of the 
effluvia. 

" Before I investigated the subject I was afflicted 
for years with a constant diarrhea, for which I con- 
sulted several physicians, and adopted several kinds 
of treatment 

11 My sister, who slept with me, had three long 
illnesses of bilious fever. She slept in the corner 
of our room, just over the drain. The smell in 
that spot is intense. The "bedstead was then re- 
moved as far as possible from the noxious corner, 
plenty of sunshine let in the room, and we have 
found much benefit from so doing. 

u A relative, who was never sick in his life before 
he moved into this house, has had fever and ague 
several times ; and I am convinced that if it were 
not that my mother and her four daughters almost 
live in the open air — riding, driving, walking, and 
gardening — they would be confirmed invalids from 
the air generated through this horrid drain." 

The gas which lights our dwellings, even when 
•pure, causes great contamination, unless the products 
of combustion are speedily conveyed away. But 



14 1 



illuminating gas is never pure, it always contains bi- 
sulphide of carbon, its burning yields sulphurous 
acid, which speedily becomes oil of vitriol ; another 
product is sulphurated hydrogen. 

If a man weighs himself at bedtime, and again on 
first rising, he will find an actual loss in weight of 
half a pound, which amount has gone off from his 
body and has been distributed through the bed-cloth- 
ing and the air of the room. If a single ounce of old 
woolen rags is burned in a chamber, the atmosphere 
becomes impregnated with the smoke and is scarcely 
endurable, yet sixteen times that much of foreign 
material, of dead and refuse parts of the body, are 
mixed with the air of a chamber, and although not 
producing so ill an odor, make it sixteen times more 
injurious, because the air is just sixteen times more 
impure, has sixteen times less of the appropriate 
nourishment of the system, showing again the great 
importance of sleeping in well-ventilated chambers. 
If two persons sleep in the same room, these perni- 
cious deteriorations of the atmosphere are doubled. 

PAPERED CHAMBERS. 

This subject has been already referred to, but its 
importance may be more clearly seen and felt by 
considering the effects which are observed in the un- 
fortunate poor whose lot in life is to work in color- 
ing green leaves and buds in artificial flowers, with 
the same substance used in green wall-paper, the 
arsenite of copper, both copper and arsenic being 
deadly poisons. These workers are mostly women 
and girls, and from breathing all day the dust of this 
arsenite of copper, diffused throughout the atmos- 
phere of the room, soon fall into a most deplorable 
condition. The derangement of the general health 
is all-pervading; debility, nervousness, sickness at 
stomach, want of appetite, thirst, headache, and loose- 
ness of bowels, the throat and gum* become sore, 
the eyes red and weak, running of the nose, which 
soon becomes sore, and ugly ulcers form on the 
hands, face, neck, and other portions of the body ; 
in fact, the French government, paternal in its na- 
ture, becoming acquainted with the facts, forbade the 



PAPERED CHAMBERS. 145 

use of sucli materials, with the result of more beauti- 
ful colors from not unhealtbful substances. An in- 
quest was lately held on the dead body of a good- 
looking girl of eighteen, who had worked in these 
flowers ; the lungs, the liver, all the tissues of the 
body were impregnated with arsenic. She died in 
great agony ; the wearing of muslin masks over the 
nose and mouth was not sufficient to protect the 
lungs from the insinuating poison. 

So vigilant is the French government in guarding 
the health and lives . of the industrious poor, that a 
manufacturer who surreptitiously employed the poi- 
sonous and forbidden materials was, in February, 
1861, fined and imprisoned, although only a slight 
eruption had been caused on the hands of a part of 
his employees. This same poisonous dust and ef- 
fluvia are constantly escaping from the green paper 
on the walls of chambers. If there is a poisonous 
agent in any green color, a drop or two of elixir 
vitriol discolors it. 

In November, 1861, a boy in his fourth year was 
found in convulsions, which left him apparently half- 
dead. Just before, the child had complained of being 
chilly, that he felt sick, would not take any break- 
fast ; during the night he became exceedingly restless. 
His little sister was also seized with convulsions, 
followed by violent screaming and copious discharge 
of the bowels. The boy soon fell into a collapsed 
state, and died thirty-eight hours after the com- 
mencement of the attack. Arsenic was found in the 
stomach, liver, and intestines. On inquiry, it was 
ascertained that the children had been playing seve- 
ral days in a small room covered with green flock- 
paper; the flock brushed off readily. The quantity 
of the poisonous pigment was equal to one third of 
the weight of the paper. The coroner and his son 
experienced headache from sitting in a room hung 
with such paper. The verdict of the jury was, that 
the child had been poisoned by the inhalation of 
arsenical fumes from green paper, and that the manu- 
facturer was guilty of very careless and culpable 
conduct. 

There is ground for the statement that the death 
of Prince Albert was the result of an illness caused 



146 



by occupying apartments, the atmosphere of which 
was contaminated by foul exhalations. Three years 
before, fevers of a typhoid type were prevalent at 
Windsor, and even in the royal apartments at the 
Castle. A thorough investigation was made by com- 
petent persons as to the drainage of the locality. 
This drainage was found most defective at those parts 
of the Castle where the fever appeared. This defect- 
ive drainage was at the two extremities of the pile 
of buildings, the cloisters and the stables, for they 
were connected with the town sewers ; the middle 
portion of the ' building had a drainage of its own, 
in good condition. The royal family occupied this 
middle portion and escaped the fever ; and it is quite 
probable that the Prince, who was an accomplished 
horseman and a great lover of horses, would natural- 
ly be drawn to the stables, and thus drew "into his 
nostrils the breath " of death ! the more easily as his 
constitution was not of that vigorous nature calcu- 
lated to repel diseased influences. A single hour's 
breathing of an atmosphere loaded with miasmatic 
exhalations may produce deadly effects, as will ap- 
pear from the following incident in another royal 
family, but a short time before the death of the hus- 
band of Victoria the First. It is stated in a letter 
from Lisbon, in reference to the death of the young 
King of Portugal : 

"It seems the terrible malady to which the unfor- 
tunate monarch, and two of his brothers, fell victims, 
was caught during a visit to Alemtojo, where the air 
is impregnated with some miasma exceedingly dan- 
gerous to strangers. On the evening of his arrival 
there, the landlord of the house where the royal 
party had put up, came in to inquire at what hour 
his majesty wanted breakfast next morning, adding 
that it could not well be before eight, as it was very 
unsafe for persons not used to the air of that country 
to go out early, at least before sunrise ; even the in- 
habitants never venturing abroad until the sun had 
dispelled the putrid vapors that arise during the 
night from the soil. Unmindful of this warning, the 
King was at his window at six next morning, asking 
for breakfast." 



*• 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 72. 



COFFEE SUBSTITUTES. 



The love of coffee is an acquired taste. Perhaps nine tenths of the families using it "burn " ft 
almost to a coal, so that, in reality, any other burnt bitter would answer quite as well. In fact, 
multitudes in the far West, removed from markets, have become accustomed to use burnt bread- 
crust as a substitute, which certainly is not injurious, but it is a known fact that a cup of some 
mild, hot drink at meals is a positive benefit, while a glass of the purest cold water is as certainly 
an injury, especially to invalids and to all who do not have robust health. 

The following substitutes for coffee have been collected, in all of which it is suggested, first, that 
the substitute be mixed with the genuine article, half-and-half; second, that in order to know what 
you are really drinking, roast and grind your own coffee. In this way only can you know that you 
are not imposed upon, or may not be drinking some cheap material, either filthy or poisonous. 

1. It is said that three parts of Rio, with two parts of eld government Java, well prepared, is 
quite as good, if not superior, to that made of the latter alone. 

2. Wheat Coffee. — Wheat coffee, made of a mixture of eight quarts of wheat to one pound of 
real coffee, is said to afford a beverage quite as agreeable as the unadulterated Rio, besides being 
much more wholesome. 

3. Rye Coffee. — Take a peck of rye and cover it with water, let it steep or boil until the grain 
swells or commences to butst, then drain or dry it. Roast to a deep brown color and prepare as 
other coffee, allowing twice the time for boiling. Served with boiled milk. Wheat coffee probably 
could be made the same way. 

4. Another. — Take some rye ; first, scald it ; second, dry it ; third, brown it, and then mix it 
with one third coffee and two thirds rye, and then you will have as good a cup of coffee as you ever 
drank. 

5. Sweet-Potato Coffee. — Take sweet potatoes, cut them fine enough to dry conveniently, and 
when dried, grind in a coffee-mill ; dry them by the fire or stove, at this season of the year, or by 
the sun, when that will do it ; grind and use one and a half tea-cupfuls for six persons, or mixed with 
coffee in such proportions as you like. Some omit half of the coffee, some more. 

6. Barley Coffee. — Take common barley, or the skinless, if it can be obtained, roast as you 
would coffee, and mix in such proportion as suits your taste. It is very good. 

7. Pea Coffee. — It is probably known to many that a very large per cent of the ground coffee 
sold at the stores is common field-peas, roasted and ground with the coffee. There are hundreds of 
thousands of bushels of peas annually used for that purpose. Those who are in the habit of pur- 
chasing ground coffee can do better to buy their own peas, burn and grind them, and mix to suit 
themselves. 

8. Carrot Coffee. — Is recommended by an exchange. Cut up, dry and grind, and mix with 
coffee in quantities to suit the taste. 

9. Chestnut Coffee. — Chestnuts, also, are said to make excellent coffee. 

10. Dandelion root, dried and slightly scorched, never burned. 

11. Chicory Coffee. — Equal weights of chicory and coffee, dried and roasted in the usual manner. 
The chicory root is raised as easily as carrots, and in exactly the same manner. To prepare the 
root, wash it clean, slice lengthwise in four to six pieces, according to size, cut in two-inch lengths, 
dry and keep in a dry place until wanted. Chicory is largely used to adulterate coffee in this coun- 
try, and especially in Europe, 25 million pounds being used in England and Prance alone. 

12. Excelsior Coffee, (our own.) — Half a cup of pure, new, farm-house milk, (such as is fur- 
nished to New-Yorkers by the Rockland County and New-Jersey Milk Association,) and while al- 
most boiling hot, add to it as much boiling water, and when sweetened to suit, call it " coffee," and 
drink it down. 

It is worthy of remark, that if the same preparation be provided for children for supper, and you 
simply call it " tea," they would not perceive any difference between it and the coffee for breakfast. 
After several years use of both, we have never been able ourselves to perceive the slightest 
difference. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 73 



BREAD AND BUTTER "TEA." 

As usually ground, one hundred pounds of wheat yield from seventy-eight to 
eighty pounds of flour, but when "hulled" before grinding, it yields from ninety 
to ninety-five pounds. Connoisseurs of the table know that when the bare outside, 
thin skin of the potato is removed, the most nutritious part of the vegetable is the 
one fourth of an inch of the outer portion of it, more nutritious than .the whole 
remaining inner part or core ; so in wheat, the most nutritious part of the grain is 
that which is immediately outside of the kernel and adheres to the hull ; hence the 
ten per cent of flour lost in the common mode of grinding, is the most nutritious 
portion of it. It is in this part, also, that weevils and other animalculae lay their 
eggs, and such flour does not keep, while that ground of hulled wheat will, under 
the same circumstances, keep for years, looking fully as well, and is quite as agree- 
able to the taste. 

Butter. — The best temperature for getting butter out of milk quickly, is sixty- 
eight degrees, ten times quicker than if at fifty-four. If cream is churned, it should 
be about sixty-eight degrees. 

Tea. — Take pure soft water, make it boil rapidly, and the moment it has boiled, 
make the drawing of tea in the usual way, thus retaining the gas in the water, which 
gives that lifelike and sparkling quality so contradistinguished from "flat," "dead" 
drinks — dish-water, for example. 

It is very certain that several years would be added to civilized life if, from in- 
fancy to age, nothing were eaten after dinner but a bowl of pure, fresh, sweet milk, 
and cold, light, or hot corn-bread for children ; and for those over a dozen years of 
age, the "supper" should be made of stale, coarse, "light bread," with fresh 
butter made of rich milk, and a cup of hot tea ; for children, made of boiled milk 
and hot water, half-and-half, with sugar, adding green or black tea in later years. 
The effect of such a " supper" would be to allow the stomach to rest at night, with 
the other parts of the body, by which it would be laying up a stock of strength to 
be expended on a hearty breakfast. The most unobservant know^that a very hearty 
supper will inevitably be followed by a disturbed, dreamy, or otherwise unrefresh- 
ing sleep. Just as certain as any thing in nature can be certain, will a bad night's 
rest be succeeded by a weary waking up, with an entire day following of more or 
less discomfort ; an irritability of mind or depression of spirits, while the body lacks 
that animation, vivacity and elasticity so inseparable from vigorous health, and 
without which life is pleasureless, if not actually burdensome. What an inconsider- 
ation it is, that for the small and literally momentary pleasure of swallowing a little 
"relish" of chipped beef, pound-cake, preserves, hot rolls, or ginger-bread, all of 
which tempt and lead on the appetite to excesses, we incur the discomforts just 
alluded to, at the expense of a sound sleep, a glad awakening, a glorious appetite, 
and a pleasurable day. 



HEALTH TRACT, NO. 74. 



BEAEDS. 



The wise and kind Infinite never made any thing in vain. Every created thing 
has not only its use, but its uses. Wearing the beard is no exception to the uni- 
versal law. The beard was first mentioned thirty-three centuries ago, in connection 
with a Mosaic injunction, that it should not be " marred" — deformed. Its first 
great design, perhaps, was to distinguish the sexes, to inspire personal dignity, self- 
respect, and the deference of woman. The next great use is its influence in the 
preservation of man in those out-door exposures to winds, and cold, and dust, and 
accidents from which women are exempt, from its being more natural for her to re- 
main in-doors in attention to domestic duties. Since we first mentioned, some five 
years ago, the advantages of keeping the mouth shut, as a preservative against 
colds, pleurisies, and pneumonias, by its sending the air to the lungs through the 
circuit of the head, thus warming it, a book has been written on the subject. The 
beard on the upper-lip is kept warm by its living connection with the body, and by 
the warm air constantly passing out of the nostrils ; this warmth is imparted to the 
incoming air, and thus effectually prevents those dangerous shocks of cold driving 
in upon the warm lungs, which so often cut short human life in three or four days. 
The beard being warm, evaporates any dampness in the atmosphere, to a greater or 
less degree, and thus gives a purer air to the lungs; rendered still more pure by the 
dust, with which the air is always full, being detained in the meshes of the hair. 

The throat and upper part of the chest are greatly exposed to cold ; their impru- 
dent exposure engenders some of the most fatal forms of disease, such as Bronchi- 
tis, Consumption, Diphtheria, and the like. The beard is an extraordinary protec- 
tion against cold. The thinnest gossamer vail over the face will make the coldest 
winds endurable. Delicate and silken as the hair is, its protecting influence in keep- 
ing the scalp comfortably warm, is very impressively appreciated by those who have 
become bald. 

Inconsistent as it may seem at first sight, the beard not only keeps the parts ge- 
nially warm in winter, but by its evaporating influence, cools the parts wonderfully 
in the hottest weather, to say nothing of its breaking the force of the hot sun. 

Another advantage of the beard is its power to break the force of blows and 
arrest the stroke of a cutting instrument against so vital and otherwise easily vul- 
nerable a part as the throat.' Many persons aggravate throat complaints by muf- 
flers, wearing scarfs or extra covering about the neck ; these do keep the throat 
warm, but in every change of position of the head or face, some part of the neck 
or throat is moved from the covering ; the covering does not adapt itself to or 
follow the movement, hence the cold air rushes in upon that unprotected part and 
chills it ; but the beard follows every motion of the head or face faithfully, and 
thus is the most perfect muffler that can possibly be devised.' Nature's provisions 
can not be interfered with with impunity. The Orientals, who shave the head and 
wear the beard, suffer more from ophthalmia, an eye-disease, but have fine teeth. 
Europeans, who shave the beard and wear the hair, suffer but little from ophthal- 
mia, but have very defective teeth ; this last result may arise from the beard modi- 
fying the coldness of the air which passes into the mouth, thus keeping the temper- 
ature of the teeth more equal. The early Christian fathers denounced shaving as 
a violation of the law of God. The beard of John Mayo of Germany touched 
the ground when he stood upright. Steel-grinders, stone-cutters, engineers, fire- 
men, and all others who work in dust, heat, or steam, should especially wear the 
beard. Daily shaving is an intolerable nuisance, a useless waste of time. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 75. 



MEMORIES. 

" All men think all men mortal but themselves." Every man goes on the pre- 
sumption that he at least, whatever may be the fate of the friends of his own age, 
will live to become an old man ; and taking it for granted that such will prove to 
be the fact, the very commonest capacity ought to feel the importance and see the 
wisdom of so living, that when that old age does come, it shall be one of physical 
comfort and mental repose ; that, in short, it shall be an old age, genial, joyous, 
and gleesome. Regular, temperate, and industrious habits from youth through 
mature years will, with the utmost certainty, give health and vigor to gray hairs, 
without pain or sickness or premature wasting. But at three-score and ten, the 
step may be still firm, the eye bright, the intellect vigorous, digestion good, and 
all the tastes, appetites, propensities, and appreciations still keen and enjoyable ; 
but in that bright eye there is no merry twinkle ; in that yet ruddy face there is 
no index of a genial heart within ; the voice, still strong, does not express itself in 
sympathetic benevolences ; and the hands are all unused to deeds of love and 
kindness to the unfortunate and the poor ; and, in addition, there is a hardness of 
sentiment and manner and conduct, which prove, beyond contradiction, that within 
that bosom there is not one ray of pure joy, not one thrill of unalloyed delight. 
And why ? All the energies, from youth to age, had been expended in securing 
food for the body, as if human existence were only to eat and drink and die. No 
provision had been made for the aliment of the mind and heart, as if they needed 
nothing but to gloat over hoarded gold. But in amassing that treasure, injustices 
were done ; wrongs had been perpetrated ; deceits had been practiced ; advantages 
had been taken of brother-strugglers in the race for life. It had altogether been 
forgotten that the heart of age fed best, and flourished green and sunshiny, on the 
sweet memories of good deeds done, of kind acts performed by favoring the poor, 
aiding the weak, assisting the unfortunate, helping up the fallen, encouraging the 
despondent, counseling the ignorant, steadying the wayward, warning the reck- 
less, and being a brother, forbearing, loving, considerate, toward all, as the 
representatives of a common Father in heaven and the Saviour of man, and failing 
thus to do " to one of these little ones," they had shown themselves unwilling to 
do it to the Infinite, who made, preserved, and redeemed them ; thus, when age 
comes, the heart has nothing to live upon, the busy memories, sharp-pricking, go 
back to clouds instead of sunshine, and the man feels, as did that great but per- 
verted intellect, 

"The flowers, the fruits are gone; 
The worm, the canker, and the grief 
Are mine alone !" 

But let a man feel that the truest way of living for himself is to live for others ; 
that the best way to serve his Maker is to " make it his meat and his drink," his 
highest aim, to benefit and bless mankind habitually, by such acts of kindness and 
charity as it is in his power to perform, consistent with the other duties of life ; 
then the earthly pilgrimage will have a very different ending ; for as he enters 
upon immortal scenes, he exclaims, not in the despairing language of Lord Byron, 
but in the exultant expressions of one quite as highly born as the English noble- 
man, of talents quite as commanding, and, in the learning of his time, very far 
superior : " The time of my departure is at hand ; I have fought a good fight, I 
have finished my course, I have kept the faith ; henceforth there is laid up for me 
a crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous Judge, shall give me at 
that day ; and not to me only, but unto all them also that love his appearing." 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 76. 



A CENTENARIAN. 

We have just received a letter from u Hugh Cull," who was 
born at Havre de Grace, Maryland, in October, seventeen hundred 
and fifty-seven. In 1760 he went to the "West," which was then 
in Pennsylvania ; twenty years later, he went to the " West " 
again, which by that time had moved itself to Lexington, Ken- 
tucky ; a quarter of a century further on, he followed the " West,'' 
and found it in Wayne county, Indiana, where he has lived ever 
since. For three quarters of a century he has been a member of 
the Methodist Church, and for fifty-five years one of its ministers ; 
" never wrote a sermon in my life, never used notes." His " cir- 
cuit " was two hundred miles long and twenty broad, made in four 
weeks, preaching every day. Father Cull is five feet ten, weighs 
one hundred and sixty pounds, heavy eyebrows, and very black 
hair, never having changed its color. For the first fifty years of 
his life his chief diet was corn-bread and sweet, milk. He never 
could eat any thing acid, not even a sour apple. His abstinence 
from any kind of food was not with reference to its healthfulness, 
but solely because he had no relish for it, hence does not eat boiled 
" victuals," and takes no vegetables or fresh meat. He is a very 
little eater, not fond of a variety. A little salt meat, bread, and 
very sweet coffee, constitute his main diet. He takes no stimulants, 
(liquor,) never spent a dollar for whisky ; yet chews tobacco, 
" and always has." He sleeps more than almost any other man, 
goes to bed at dark and rises with the sun, winter and summer, al- 
ways taking his breakfast late. Has worked on his farm for a liv- 
ing, never worked hard, but in moderation ; is very confident that 
he never had any children — whether he had a wife, does not say. 
His sermons are always short and earnest. If he will only re- 
emigrate, we will promise him one of the largest and most appre- 
ciative congregations in New-York. He has lived in the same 
house fifty-two years. He has a cheerful disposition, and evidently 
is of an inquiring turn of mind, for in a postscript he wishes to 
know who baptized John the Baptist. No doubt this question 
has been " pestering " him for a hundred years. Will some of our 
double D'd readers vouchsafe the long desired information, and 
thus enable him to die with one less " weight on his mind ?" The 
practical inquiry is, to what does this Father in Israel owe his 
great age and healthfulness ? Plainly, to a simple mode of life ; 
the moderate eating of such plain food as was agreeable to his 
taste ; habitual, moderate daily labor on a farm, and an earnest in- 
dustry in doing good to others, and striving to get better himself. 

New-York, April 20th, 1862. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 77. 



HEALTH THEORIES. 

Let the reader turn to the Health Tract, No. 76, and see how at one fell swoop the thou- 
sand and one stupid theories of crude minds, brass faces and wooden heads, are knocked into 
a tee-totally cocked-hat. You dish-water vegetarians, see what fools you have made of yourselves ! 
Here is a Centenarian who never ate vegetables, but always did eat animal food, either milk 
or meat from the moment of his first squeak. And ye loud blatant cold-water soakers ! Here is a 
jolly old chap of a hundred and five, who never saw a bath-tub ; whose only shower-bath was a 
pouring rain in trying to keep some appointment ; whose only douche was swimming some swollen 
" creek " in his endeavor to be up to time at some log-cabin meeting-house. What will that sa- 
pient Ohio Conference now do, who last year debated the resolution, if indeed they did not pass it, 
that any man who chewed tobacco should not be allowed to preach the Gospel ? And you rampant 
ravers who have screamed yourselves blue in the face to prove that hog-meat is the cause of all the 
scrofula in the world, what think you of Father Cull's testimony, that almost the only meat he ever 
ate was " salt-meat," a word which out West is the synonym of ham and bacon. And in this con- 
nection, just turn to our article on " Pork as Food," for January 1859. We are not partial at all, 
and would " just as lief " give ourself a kick as any one else, if a " smile " can be got out of it. We 
have been proclaiming for years, that one of the best means of preserving health, especially " out 
West," was to take an early breakfast ; and here is a man who has kept himself " out West " for a 
hundred years, has persisted in taking breakfast " late," and even in " fever'n-agy-Ingiany," has 
never had a " shake " in his life. In fact, this '• old feller " seems to have lived "just a purpose " 
to demolish all speculation ; he is the.great theory-annihilator. Where is the grape-man, too, who 
had a large vineyard, and printed a book for gullible New-York, showing that the most certain way 
of living to a good old age, if not longer, was to eat grapes all the year round ; to him, also, old 
Father Cull is a perfect Mississippi snag, for he couldn't abide any thing sour, nothing acid, not 
even that of fruit. Why, then, has the old man persisted in living all this time ? that's what we 
would like to know, for we are very anxious to live a good while. We are like Paul, the spirit may 
be willing, but the flesh is weak ; it will prefer the leeks and onions on this side Jordan. Come to 
think of it, we are rather more of the same mind with the little old fellow living on the Jersey Flats. 
The doctor told him his time had come ; then they sent for the minister, who told him he ought to 
get ready, and more, he ought to be resigned and be willing. " Are you willing, Zechariah, to go 
to the other world ?'" " Oh ! yes, I'll go," said Zee, with a faint and sighful voice ; " but I had 
rather stay here where I'm better acquainted." 

But perhaps it was the coffee that has kept our venerable friend alive. We suggest the formation 
of a society for promoting long life, whose whole system of by-laws, rules, regulations and consti- 
tion shall be comprized in less than half a dozen words, easily remembered : Drink well-sweeteneo 
Coffee daily. Such a constitution is easily " expounded," can have but one interpretation, and 
is very readily carried into practice. Let a committee be appointed, with instructions to report 
progress on the first day of January, in the year of grace two thousand, and then have leave to re- 
port again, after a spell. The record which good old Father Cull has sent us of his life is very sug- 
gestive, as showing up a very common folly of weak minds, and there are multitudes of such in 
every department of human life, building theories of life and death, of human government and 
human conduct on single isolated facts. Facts are often falsehoods, because not taken with all 
their connections. Only whole facts are truths. It would be just as unfair to say that Father Cull 
has lived so long because he has always used tobacco, as it would be to aver that his great age is 
due to the fact that he never ate any thing sour, or that he never had any babies to keep him awake 
of nights, or gouge his eyes half out, or make digital explorations up his nostrils at day-light. The 
presumption is, that he lived so long because he had a good constitution to begin with ; that the first 
half-century of his life was spent in industrious, useful and benign activities in the open air, com- 
bined with simple tastes, moderate appetites and as moderate an indulgence of the same. In short, 
he was a plain liver, a cheerful worker, and a good man from his youth up ; and those of our readers 
who have an ambition to reach a patriarchal age, should, like Father Cull, live temperately and 
industriously, doing good always unto all men. 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 



Our Legitimate Scope is almost boundless : for whatever begets pleasurable 
and harmless feelings, promotes Health ; and whatever induces 
disagreeable sensations, engenders Disease. 



WE AIM TO SHOW HOW DISEASE MAY BE AVOIDED, AND THAT IT IS BEST, WHEN SICKNESS COMBS, TO 
TAKE NO MEDICINE WITHOUT CONSULTING A PHYSICIAN. 



Vol. IX.] JULY, 1862. [No. 7. 



TEETH. 

A statement is going the rounds of the newspapers and 
scissored magazines without "credit," and thus without author- 
ity, which prevents an appreciating public, too lazy to think 
for themselves, the pleasure of knowing to whom they are in- 
debted for an article so universally practical, and yet so perfectly 
convincing and logical in its statements and conclusions. It is 
headed : 

" A New Tooth-Powdek. — Eoasted rye is recommended as 
tooth-powder, from the fact that, in all those countries where 
bread made of rye is the food of the generality of the inhabit- 
ants, the latter are remarkable for the whiteness, strength, and 
durability of their teeth. Savoy and Landes are instances of this 
truth. Schrader has found 500 grammes of ashes of rye to 
contain 7 grammes of carbonate of lime, 9.8 ditto of magnesia, 
7.2 of oxyd of iron and manganese, and 1.9 of silica, all of 
which substances have a favorable effect on the teeth. Rye, 
finely pulverized and used daily as a tooth-powder, is said to 
stop caries, and promptly cure the small abscesses which are 
often formed on the gums." 

This show of scientific terms will cause the statement to be 
received as perfectly conclusive by that large class of readers 
which voraciously gulp down as true all that is put in print, 
thus saving themselves the trouble of thinking. Reflecting 
persons, however, will call in question the legitimacy of the 



156 hall's journal of health. 

sequence that pulverized roasted rye, daily used as a tooth- 
powder, will insure sound, white teeth, even if decay has already 
begun, because those who live on rye-bread have good teeth ! 
It is this careless, incoherent, and illogical mixing up 6f the 
false and true, of mere theory with fact, which makes so many 
failures in life. Want of exactness in our knowledge is a 
striking characteristic of the American people. Knowledge is 
only practically valuable in proportion as it is exact. Hence 
those who "succeed in life" (with us "success" means making 
a large amount of money) rather blunder on a fortune than 
secure it by well-matured plans and operations. We might as 
well say that because taking water into the stomach satisfied 
thirst, washing the big toe would do the same thing. 

It is beautifully and instructively true that the inhabitants of 
Savoy and Landes have strong, white, and durable teeth, but it 
does not necessarily follow that it is owing to the fact of then- 
living on rye-bread. Perhaps it is because they do not eat 
much meat or do not drink whisky. May be it is because they 
do not drink much water in the south of France and in northern 
Italy, where wine is so abundant. Perhaps it is because they 
never read a daily newspaper, and thus are saved from burden- 
ing their memories and endangering their health and lives by 
multitudes of plausible but lying " receipts." But by a little 
scientific inquiry we may be able to decide with satisfactory 
conclusiveness whether there is any connection between eating 
rye-bread and having sound teeth. One familiar fact looking 
in that direction is, that certain soils will largely increase their 
yield of grain if lime is scattered over them. This proves that 
lime is a constituent of grains, and when a chemist analyzes 
them, he finds that lime is one of their largest constituents. If 
hens are fed on food which contains no lime, they will soon lay 
eggs without any shells, or will lay none at all ; but give them 
lime to eat with their food, or give them food which has lime 
largely as a constituent, and the eggs will soon have shells on 
them. This would seem to show that egg-shells are mainly 
composed of lime, and such is the fact. As to the teeth, it is 
found that almost the entire bulk is lime. Some teeth are softer 
than others, and on examination it is found that they are soft 
because they have not the proper amount of lime in them. 



TEETH. 157 

Again, the " permanent" teeth of many of our children begin 
to decay before they are seven years old. On examination it 
is found that at some point, perhaps the center of the upper 
horizontal surface, there is a soft spot not covered with enamel, 
and it is because there was not lime enough in the system to 
complete the work of enameling the whote tooth — like some 
men who begin to build houses, and have to leave them unfin- 
ished for want of money to purchase materials to complete them. 
It would seem then that if grains are composed mainly of lime, 
and teeth wanting in whiteness, strength, and durability are 
deficient in lime, it is a rational- inference that if grains were 
made the chief articles of food by a people, that people would 
have sound teeth. We feed on grains in the shape of bread. 
The main diet of the French is bread ; and on our visit to the 
Louvre, in Paris, it was noticed, with considerable interest and 
wonder, that a young man or woman would paint until noon, 
then would make a hearty dinner on a loaf of bread and a bottle 
of wine, without leaving the apartment, and then paint on the 
remainder of the day. Persons were seen passing along the 
streets with loaves of bread on their shoulders a yard long. 
The fact is, the French make the best bread in the world, and 
on their bread and wine alone a man may live sumptuously 
every day. It very naturally follows then, that, as the main 
food of the French is made of grain, and Landes is in France, 
and the people of Landes have good teeth, and teeth are bad 
for want of lime, and grain (bread) has a great deal of lime in 
it, the way to give our children good teeth is to bring them up 
on bread. But that is taking rather a long jump, for we "fetch 
up all standing" against a stubborn little fact that all our child- 
ren eat largely of bread, and yet dentists assure us that there 
are hundreds of children under ten years of age who have from 
one to half a dozen plugs of gold in their teeth. Is not the reader 
sorry to have such a beautiful theory spoiled, to say nothing of 
the trouble of hunting up another ? But we must follow out the 
investigation. It never does any good to "give up," to get 
" discouraged," especially in matters of this kind ; for this thing 
of having good teeth is one of prime importance in a variety of 
ways. It prevents dyspepsia ; it adds to the pleasure and com- 
fort of eating. Without good teeth the most splendid "figure" 



158 _ hall's jouenal of health. 

is nothing, and the handsomest face is not worth looking at. 
"What woman would knowingly and willingly wed a man with- 
out "ivories"? The smile of beauty, how enrapturing! But 
if that smile displays a snaggled tooth, blackened and half- 
decayed, what a fall ! — nothing less than fathomless ! Young 
ladies, a fine set of pearly-white teeth (of your own !) will be of 
greater service to you in getting a good husband, a man of fine, 
elevated tastes, than the stocks, bonds, and mortgages of your 
father. 

But so far from the grain and tooth theory being spoiled, a 
little further investigation will add both to its beauty and truth 
fulness. The people of Landes eat their bread with all the lime 
in it. We throw the lime away and eat the remainder ! Landes 
and Savoy are out-of-the-way countries. The inhabitants are 
small farmers and poor, hence are careful, waste nothing, and 
prepare their food in the most primitive manner. In short, 
tiiej^ eat the whole grain, either boiling it as we do rice or 
cracked wheat, or pound or grind it into coarse meal for bread, 
thus consuming the whole grain, husk, kernel, pith, heart, and 
all. It is true of grains as it is of the potato, the most nutri- 
tious and wholesome part is that immediately under the outer 
skin. The outer eighth of an inch of the potato contains more 
nourishment than all the remainder; hence it is a shameful 
waste to peel a* potato with a knife, of which many of the poor 
are unfortunately ignorant to their own great loss. Thus it is 
that the outer portion of ground grain, called the "bran," is 
richest in nutriment and contains nearly all the lime ; but by 
refining it away, in our efforts to get a "fine" and "white" 
flour, we but eat the refuse and throw away the substance, and 
thus lose the lime which gives strength to the bones, durability 
to the teeth, and vigor to the brain, through the pure, perfect, 
and life-giving blood which the consumption of the whole grain 
makes. 

In point of physical vigor and development it would be of 
incalculable value to our country if the children were allowed 
to take nothing for their breakfast and supper, as their general 
habit, until the twelfth year is completed, but milk with mush, 
cracked wheat, porridge, or other forms of food which include 
the entire grain. Oat-meal porridge is the main article of food 



TEETH. 159 

in most Scotch families, and they are among the most endur- 
ing race of men. Their tenacity, their power of adherence, of 
"holding on," has become a proverb, not only physically but 
morally. Who like a Scotchman could " hold on " so bravely 
to his religion, in spite of the " boot" ? Who like Sandy could 
clutch his dollar, defiant of the pirate's thumb-screw? And 
who but Sandy would stick to his pitcher of hot whisky-punch, 
albeit the ship was taking its final plunge to unfathomable 
depths ? 

In confirmation of these views, Dr. John Allen, of this city, 
one of the fathers of American dentistry, states, in a scientific 
essay on the "Development of the Natural Teeth," that seventy- 
one parts out of a hundred of each tooth are of lime in some 
form — that is, of the bony structure of the tooth; while the 
enamel, or vitreous substance which covers the external surface 
of the crown of the human tooth, contains over ninety-four per 
cent of lime. Dr. Allen's article has come to hand since the 
above was written, and it would seem as if he had prepared it 
exactly in the form best suited to our mode of illustration ; for 
after showing how large a constituent of the tooth, and especially 
of the enamel, lime is, he proceeds to give tables showing how 
much lime the whole product of the grain contains, and then 
how little in comparison bread contains which has been deprived 
of its bran, for -the little benefit of having a finer and whiter 
article of flour. Let it be remembered here that there is no 
specific virtue in rye beyond what is found in the other grains. 

In 500 lbs. of whole grain 
There are 12 lbs. of fat elements, 

35 of flesh, 

85 of bone. 
500 lbs. of fine flour contain 

10 lbs. of fat elements, 

65 of flesh, 

30 of bone ! 
500 lbs. of "bran" contain 

30 of fat elements, 

00 of flesh ! 
125 of bone ! 

These statements need no comment. They can not be dis- 
puted, and all argument against them is altogether useless ; and 



160 

all this about, not a " dog-tooth, " or " sweet tooth," but a* 
"bread-tooth;" teeth made beautiful, and white, and strong, 
and enduring, by eating largely of bread made of coarse flour, 
whether of corn, wheat, barley, oats, or rye. But as to the 
efficacy of tooth-powders made out of roasted rye, simply be- 
cause persons who eat rye-bread have good, sound teeth, it is 
only the argument of an impracticable ass, or some needy, seedy 
dentist who wanted to " make a raise " by selling burnt rye at 
twenty -five cents a box, (of a table-spoonful I) But forty "fies" 
be on any editor who would cumber his columns with such a 
glaring non sequitur. Our Philadelphia exchanges for example I 

A LUMINOSITY.— John Young Myrtle, M.D., F.R.C.P.E., 

and the rest of the A B C's, took the pains a "spell" ago to 
send a paper to the Medico -Chirurgical Society of Edinburgh, 
containing this very clear, concise, and precise prescription, in 
part : "As much hog's lard as a slice of fresh butter from the 
table." The Boston Medical Journal quotes the same without 
note, comment, exclamation, or explanation. The same inde- 
finiteness, want of precision, is a very common defect in pub- 
lished recipes and medical prescriptions. It is better to throw 
every thing of the sort into the fire. Meanwhile, will the Bos 
ton. Medical Journal tell its multitudinous readers what is the 
size of a " slice of fresh butter from the table"? Is it as large 
as a slice of salted butter from the same place ? Is it as large 
or larger, or is it smaller, than a slice of butter from a tub or 
grocer's shelf ? Is it as large as a piece of chalk ? Is it as big 
as a turnip, or as the head of John Young Myrtle, with all the 
letters of the alphabet, and all the way from " Edinboro' town" ? 
Within a few days, a life was nearly lost by a person following 
a newspaper " receipt," which printed a " tablespoonful" instead 
of a teaspoonful. No person should swallow any medicine 
from a newspaper direction, unless it has been submitted to an 
authorized druggist or an intelligent physician. And every 
editor owes it to his own defense, and to the "welfare of his 
patrons, to publish no suggestion as to human health, without 
giving the authority ; and not even then, unless the name of 
the person or publication has some claim on public credence. 



HEALTH RUINED. 161 

WILSON'S PRESBYTERIAN ALMANAC— Without so- 
licitation the following is inserted. It embodies our own views 
of the general and great value of the work, not only to clergy- 
men, but to every well-informed church-member and officer. 
The price is one dollar and a half a volume. Four are issued. 
Many a clergyman would like to have the book, but may not 
see his way clear to spare the price of it. To such we say that 
we will send either volume free of expense to any clergyman 
who will send us three dollars for three subscribers to Hall's 
Journal of Health for 1862. We will send the four vol- 
umes free of expense for the trouble of obtaining ten sub- 
scribers for 1862. 

" Messrs. Editors : Some weeks ago I noticed that the 
Presbyterian described Wilson's Presbyterian Almanac at some 
length, and with just commendation. Heartily concurring in 
this estimate of a work which has now for the fourth time 
more than justified its prospectus, and is indeed very compre- 
hensive and accurate, I can not but express my regret and sur- 
prise that it has not been more extensively encouraged. It is 
useful to persons of all denominations, but it has especial value 
for all the various Presbyterian communions. To say nothing 
of the ministers, it would seem as if it ought to be in the hands 
of ruling eiders and many laymen ; and it Ought to be suggested 
to these classes, to avail themselves of the opportunity of pos- 
sessing the important information it annually collects, with 
great pains and expense, hitherto inadequately met by the 
sales. It were to be regretted if, for this want of remunerative 
sales, the work should cease to be issued. 

" Very truly yours, John M. Krebs. 

" New- York, May 8th, 1862." 



HEALTH RUINED. 

Two young men called to consult us to-day at the same time ; 
one from the city, the other from a farm in New-England,, both 
the victims of chronic maladies ; the ambition of both, and the 
hopes of both, blasted and blighted by the inroads of disease ; 
both in their twenty-second year. Whether they can be rescued 
from a premature grave, time, the great solver of difficult 



162 

problems, alone can tell. It is hard enough for one to make 
his own way in the world, even when in vigorous health ; but 
to earn an honest living, and to lay up money for the future, 
when weighed down by some disease which makes itself felt 
every hour of waking existence, is in all cases a painful and 
laborious task ; in some, an impossibility. It is natural that 
the young should be vigorous and strong ; but that vigor and 
that strength are often thrown away by inexcusable ignorance, 
or unpardonable thoughtlessness. The citizen had come to 
town with high health, high hopes, and a high ambition, 
backed by a good family, a good education, and good moral 
principles. He had a manliness of expression which at once 
inspired confidence, and secured a profitable situation. Within 
six months 'his health was broken, and at the end of three 
years he is still an invalid, from the following cause — a cause 
which one would suppose any man of two ideas might have 
known must inevitably produce pernicious results. His em- 
ployers occupied a basement in Water street as a counting- 
room, so damp that it spoiled their goods, which had to be re- 
moved on that account : still the place was used for keeping- 
books, writing letters, etc. The young man's duties called him 
out several times every day, in the heat of summer, never fail- 
ing to induce free perspiration. As soon as he reached his 
office, he pulled off his coat and hat, and employed himself at 
his writing-desk, with the result of cooling off rapidly in a low 
room known to be damp and cold. He saw at length that his 
health was declining, and reading some stupid article in a news- 
paper about the all-efficient benefits of physical exercise, he 
entered his name in a gymnasium at the beginning of winter. 
His mode of procedure was as follows : He walked from the 
store to the gymnasium pretty rapidly, making himself a little 
warm. Ushered into a cold room, he pulled off his warm 
clothing, and put on the cold garments supposed to be more 
suitable for his performance. In an hour or two he was in a 
delightful glow, a healthful heat, from vigorous exercise ; when, 
getting a little tired, he went to the clothes-room, took off the 
warm garments, and put on others which were not merely cold, 
but a little damp from the exercise in coming to the place, and 
by the time he got out of doors, he was chilled ; and this was 



HEALTH RUINED. 163 

persisted in until its absurdity was brought to his attention. It 
is by such thoughtlessness and ignorance that many a young 
man is sent to an early grave. 

The young farmer had a variety of ailments, but, as a saving 
clause in his estimation, he had a good appetite ; and it is not 
an uncommon thing for patients to complain of aches and pains 
from top to toe, but to the question, " What's your appetite?' 
the ready and uniform reply is : " First rate ; no fault to find 
with that." The young farmer said he was weak, couldn't 
work ; in fact, it appeared that all he could do was to grunt 
and eat, just like a pig. He could eat all day, at regular meals 
and between times. He always had a good appetite for sup- 
per — a New-England supper — the chief elements of which 
were sodden bread, greasy cakes, pie, preserves, and dough- 
nuts. Eeader, be honest j don't you think that such folks 
ought to die? There is no kind of use for people in this 
world who have no brains. More than twenty years ago we 
made the tour of New-England, just to be seeing things ; and 
such dishes of fat pork and fries, sweet doughnuts boiled in 
hog's fat, sour preserves, (that is, sweetened fruits in a state of 
decay,) and bread weighing an ounce to the cubic inch, we 
never saw before nor since, and never want to. Is New- 
England intelligence on a wool-gathering expedition still, that 
they have " pie" for supper ? What is a "pie," as generally 
made ? Even after all the cooking it gets, it is stewed fruit, 
covering over a layer of mere dough, almost as. heavy as lead, 
almost as indigestible as a piece of raw-hide or India-rubber. 
Two simple rules in relation to this subject would prevent an 
incalculable amount of pain and suffering : First. Eat nothing 
between meals. Second. Take no supper at all, or if any. 
thing, only a single cup of weak tea and crust of cold bread 
and butter. 



HEALTH TBACT, No. 78. 



STJMMEEINGS. 

1. In going to the country to spend your summer, leave business behind, 
but take with you your entire stock of patience, courtesy, self-respect, and 
religion. Go as plain "John Smith, gentleman." 

2. If you have the first claim to being well-bred, you will be the last 
person in the world to volunteer any information on the subject. If it must 
be told, let it be by your conduct ; let your entire deportment prove that 
you are a lady or a gentleman. 

3. Do not profess that you "know" Mr. Astor, Mr. Grinnell, Mr. Min- 
turn, or other distinguished citizens, when your entire knowledge consists 
in their having been pointed out to you on the street. 

4. Avoid claiming acquaintance with this or that family of note, when 
you only happen to have spoken to them on a rail-car or steamboat, or in 
some purely business transaction. An enterprising individual once claimed 
that he knew a distinguished judge very well. On inquiry it was found 
that the said judge had once sent him to the penitentiary ! 

5. If you have the first mite of common-sense, and really go to the 
country for recreation, enjoyment, and health, leave your best and second- 
best clothing at home ; take only your common wardrobe, and but a small 
part of that; not only that the persons you "stop with" may feel more 
easy, but that you may feel freer yourself to scale fences, climb trees, 
scramble up mountain-sides, wade across creeks, penetrate forest tangles, 
and jump Jim Crow generally. 

6. Never turn up your nose at any thing at the table ; if you have the 
slightest disposition to do so, you may be sure it is a pug, and isn't long 
enough to turn. If you don't like a thing, let it alone ; eat nothing, and 
by the next meal you may be glad to get any thing. 

7. Remember that in going to the country a sensible man's object is 
neither to dress nor eat, chiefly, but to obtain mental repose, pure air, and 
unrestrained exercise. 

8. Endeavor to conform, without apparent effort, to the arrangements of 
the family with whom you board, and to the manners and customs of the 
people around you, as far as they do not compromise your principles of 
good morals and good taste. 

9. Be cheerful, be kind, be considerate, be accommodating. 

10. Do not obtrude your political or religious sentiments. 

11. Shun argument and controversy on any and all subjects. 

12. Let your courtesy come out naturally ; and if religious, don't be a 
Pharisee. 



HEAIjTH TRACT, No. 79. 



In round numbers, and familiar fractions, of 70,000 Prussian soldiers 
vaccinated, or re-vaccinated, during 1860, 50,000 were successful— namely, 
'"took." Out of this whole number there was not a single case of small- 
pox, and only one of varioloid, showing what a perfect protection against 
small-pox effectual vaccination is ; but as three out of four "took" after 
having been re-vaccinated, there is reason to believe that these might have 
taken varioloid or small-pox if they had been very directly exposed to it. 
As confinement to the house in winter makes "catching" diseases more 
dangerous, and as the virtue of the vaccination of childhood and infancy 
seems to be exhausted in many cases at puberty, parents who are wise 
will therefore promptly have every child vaccinated the second time on 
entering the fourteenth year, especially as it causes very little constitutional 
disturbance. The family physician should be applied to to use every effort 
to secure healthy vaccine matter. It would be humanity to make it an 
indispensable condition of admission into a public school to have a distinct 
vaccine-mark on all under fourteen, and a certificate of re-vaccination as to 
all who have entered their fourteenth year. 

Vaccination of infants, within a few days after birth, has been attended 
with accidents more or less serious, and sometimes fatal ; and as small-pox 
is very rare in children under six months of age, it is best, in the case of 
private families, to defer the operation until the third month, except as 
to children in hospitals, or in other particularly exposed circumstances. 
Special efforts should be used to secure proper vaccine matter. 

1. Take the lymph from a child not less than five months old. 

2. The child's parents should be healthy. 

3. The lymph should be taken previous to the ninth day of the existence 
of the vesicle. 

4. Take no blood with the matter. 

5. Never vaccinate over a dozen with the same supply, for fear it may 
have been from a diseased subject. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 80. 



SCALDS AND BURNS. 

On the instant of the accident, plunge the part under cold water. 
This relieves the pain in a second, and allows all hands to become 
composed. If the part can not be kept under water, cover it over 
with dry flour, an inch deep or more. In both cases pain ceases 
because the air is excluded. In many instances nothing more will 
be needed after the flour; simply let it remain until it falls off, 
when a new skin will be found under. In severer cases, while the 
part injured is under water, simmer a leek or two in an earthen 
vessel, with half their bulk of hog's lard, until the leeks are soft, 
then strain through a muslin rag. This makes a greenish-colored 
ointment, which, when cool, spread thickly on a linen cloth and 
apply it to the injured part. If there are blisters, let out the water. 
When the part becomes feverish and uncomfortable, renew the 
ointment, and a rapid, painless cure will be the result, if the patient, 
in the mean while, lives exclusively on fruits, coarse bread, and 
other light, loosening food. 

If the scald or burn is not very severe — that is, if it is not deeper 
than the outer skin — an ointment made of sulphur, with lard 
enough to make it spread stiffly on a linen rag, will be effectual. 
The leek-ointment is most needed when there is ulceration from 
neglected burns, or when the injury is deeper than the surface. 
As this ointment is very healing and soothing in the troublesome 
excoriations of children, and also in foul, indolent ulcers, and is said 
to be efficacious in modifying, or preventing altogether, the pit- 
ting of small-pox, it would answer a good purpose if families were 
to keep it on hand for emergencies — the sulphur-ointment for mod- 
erate cases, and the leek-ointment in those of greater severity, 01 
of a deeper nature. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 81. 



M XJ S I O . 

Eefines the taste, purifies the heart, and elevates our nature. 
It does more : it soothes in sorrow, tranquillizes in passion, and 
wears away the irritabilities of life. It intensifies love, it fires 
patriotism, and makes the altar of our devotion burn with a 
purer, holier flame. Not only man, but the brutes themselves 
have been restrained and charmed by the bewitching power 
which it possesses. And in the still twilight hour, when sweet, 
sad memories go back upon the distant past, and hover lovingly 
about the places where we played and the persons whom we 
loved, but now gone, in their youth and beauty and purity, to 
return no more, who does not know that the soul drinks more 
deeply in of the saddening sweetness when it breaks out in 
the soft, low notes of song, or the fingers instinctively sweep 
through diapasons absolutely ravishing ? And when tedious 
disease has dampened the fires of life, has removed its gilding 
and written " vanity" on all things earthly ; when wealth and 
fame and worldly honor are felt to be nothing ; when the aims 
and ambitions and aspirations which were wont to rouse up all 
the energies of nature toward their accomplishment fail of their 
accustomed power, music renders the burden of sickness light, 
and makes us all oblivious of pain and suffering. For these 
reasons, that parent has largely neglected a religious duty, has 
been strangely forgetful of one of the highest of all obligations, 
who fails to afford his children, while yet young, all the facili- 
ties in his power for fostering and cultivating whatever taste 
for music they possess, whether vocal or instrumental ; for in 
after-life, and through all its vicissitudes, those who practise it, 
in the love of it, when young, will find in its exercise a happy 
escapade in seasons of boisterous mirth, and thus increase the 
joy; in times of depondency, its expression will give encour- 
agement ; when difficulties oppose, it will inspire strength to 
overcome them, and when clouds of trouble gather around and 
above, hedging up the future, shutting out the blue sky of life, 
music can penetrate even Egyptian darkness, and let in upon 
the almost broken heart the sunshine of hope, of gladness, and 
of joy. 

It is because of this view of the health-giving, happifying, 
and refining influences of music, that in the progress of a high 
civilization its cultivation has become a profession, not only 
among those who give utterance to it in vocal symphonies, 
" almost divine," but men of genius and mechanical talent, not 



MUSIC. . 

willing to be laggards in their department,- have brought all 
their energies to bear in the improvement of every form of in- 
strumental music, and, more than in any other direction, on the 
piano-forte, which, as all believed, had been brought to a point 
of perfection in- tone and chord and symphony which could 
scarcely be improved upon. But, lo! within a month, "Letters 
Patent" have been taken out by a gentleman of this city, claim- 
ing an improvement, of which the Hon. Erastus Brooks, of the 
New -York Daily Express, says, under date of Wednesday, Mav 
28th, 1862 : 

" Horatio Worcester, one of the most successful city piano manufacturers, has 
obtained Letters Patent for an improvement in the piano-forte, consisting of a 
hinged-plate made in two pieces, the stationary part being fastened to the instru- 
ment in the usual manner. The piece to which the strings are hitched is con- 
structed separately, and has a link or opening in the base end, by which means if 
is suspended from an abutment on the fixed portion of the plate. Thus is formed 
a hinge or coupling on which the detached piece moves freely in connection with 
the strings while they are in operation, the effect of which is to communicate in- 
creased vibratory power throughout the whole extent of the sounding-board under 
the plate. This new principle has been successfully tested on several instruments. 
The increased vibration produces a singing quality of tone unusually powerful and 
agreeable. The inventor produces instruments of the rarest excellence, as can be 
seen and heard upon examination." 

In reference to the same improvement, the New - York Com- 
mercial Advertiser, now in the sixty-eighth year of an honorable 
age, and of which all its confreres speak uniformly with con- 
sideration and respect, adds : 

" Something New in Pianos. — Mr. H. Worcester, the well-known manufacturer 
of pianos, has just taken out a patent for a valuable improvement in pianos. 

" ' This improvement consists in the use of a hinged-plate, which gives to the 
sounding-board a freedom similar to that found in the violin. The plate is made 
in two pieces, the stationary part being fastened to the instrument in the usual 
manner. The piece to which the strings are hitched is constructed separately, and 
has a link or opening in the base end, by which means it is suspended from an 
abutment on the fixed portion of the plate. Thus is formed a hinge or coupling 
upon which the detached piece moves freely in connection with the strings, while 
they are in operation, the effect of which is to communicate increased vibratory 
power throughout the whole extent of the sounding-board under the plate. 

" ' The increased vibration obtained produces a singing quality of tone unusu- 
ally powerful and agreeable, while for general volume, durability, evenness, and 
richness of tone, the inventor claims that these excel any piano-fortes that he has 
heretofore produced.' " 

In other words, sweet as were the tones of the piano before. 
Worcester's improvement makes it 

"A" {lengthened) "sweetness, long drawn out," 

reminding us of the man who, after draining his glass of the 
very last drop, exclaimed, with a most distressful sigh, "I 
wish " and there stopped, and began to wring his hands. 

11 What do wish ?" said a bystander, in a very impatient tone. 

" I wish my neck was a mile longer ; it was so good in going 
down." 



HEALTH TRACT, Wo. 82. 



MILK-ITS USES. 

Milk is the natural and all-sufficient food of infancy, containing as it does all the 
elements of nutrition necessary for sustaining, repairing, and building up the new 
being ; but as the little one gets the power to move its muscles, then crawl, and 
walk, and run, so much of the more solid portions of the body are worked out or 
used up by the friction of the complicated machinery, that milk alone can not sup- 
ply the rapid wastes, and the instincts of the child call out in very decisive tones for 
more substantial aliment, and it greedily eats bread and meat. Nature herself weans 
the child from the all-absorbing love of milk, showing that it is the natural food 
only of infancy. The active and laborious, whether as to body or brain, soon find 
that they must have something more " solid" than milk. 

Except in rare cases, milk as a chief or even large article of diet, is most perm 
cious to the sickly, the infirm, and the convalescent. And under any and all cir- 
cumstances, it is necessary, when all its healthful and natural qualities are desired 
to be secured, as an aliment, that it should be drank while warm from its natural 
fountain ; because, as soon as it loses its natural heat, it dies, it begins to decay, to 
decompose, unless, when milked, it is stirred well, until cooled, and then is put 
in a very cold place, or enveloped with ice, so that it shall neither freeze nor be 
warmer than fifty degrees. M. Flourens, a distinguished French physiologist, found 
in 1861, that if the animal mother is fed with madder, her own bones become tinged 
with its color, and also at length those of sucklings, although having no connection 
with the mother, except while at the breast. It would seem then that the body, 
the constitution of the suckling, is affected by what the parent eats and drinks. It 
therefore follows that the cow or other animal whose milk we use, should be healthy 
and should live on healthful food and in a natural manner f But a cow confined 
on ship-board, in the stable of a private citizen, or in the narrow stenchy stalls of 
the milkeries which supply cities, does not live a natural life, and can not by any 
possibility give natural, healthful milk ; hence chemists and microscopists assure 
us, that when the milk of a confined cow is minutely examined, even immediately 
after milking, it exhibits globules of yellow matter, such as come from sores and 
ulcers. If this is true, it is a disgusting thought, and would seem to prove that no 
family ought to use milk, unless drawn from cows which roam in luxuriant pastures 
from one day's end to another, and that breathe a pure atmosphere winter and 
summer. 

The infant feeds at the breast of its one mother ; it would seem natural that 
when cow's milk is substituted, it should be from the same cow. It is reasonable - 
to suppose, then, that bad milk is an agency of disease and death to multitudes, 
and especially of children in large cities ; particularly in summer-time. Daniel E. 
Delavan, Esq., City Inspector of New-York, in his admirably arranged annual report 
shows, that of twenty-two thousand persons who died during 1861, three thousand 
three hundred were children under two years of age ! Six thousand affectionate 
hearts lacerated beyond healing, for all time ! It can not be known definitely what 
proportion of all this death and sorrow is traceable to bad milk, but that it is an 
important item can not be well disputed. Whatever it is, is avoidable simply by 
encouraging those milk-furnishing companies Avho, 1st, Deliver milk from cows fed 
in field and pasture. 2d. Who deliver milk daily to any one desiring it, from the 
same cow. 3d. Who cool the milk at the time it is drawn, and keep it cool until 
it is delivered at our doors for consumption. One company at least does this, the 
Rockland County and New-Jersey Milk Association, at 146 Tenth street, near Broad- 
way, New- York, under the vigilant management of S. W. Canfield, Esq. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 83. 



THE PLACELESS. 

" There are fifty applicants for every vacancy, and no more will be received," 
was placarded on the Post-Office door on the inauguration of our new Postmaster 
the other day. In any large city there are a dozen applications ; yes, a hundred ! 
within half a day after the publication of any vacancy. On the incoming of a new 
governor or president, the "place" seekers are numbered by hundreds, thousands, 
and tens of thousands ; and sometimes the " outside pressure" is so resistless, that 
the very highest officers in the government feel themselves obliged to favor persons 
who are strangers to them, in preference to men to whom they are under special 
and personal obligations, and whom they know to be fully qualified for all the 
duties of the station. Public men who have offices in their gift, often feel them- 
selves compelled to bestow them on persons whom they know are not the best 
adapted to the position, as rewards for past political services, for present political 
influence, or for those conciliations of opposing parties which seem to them are 
indispensable to the situation of affairs. Yet opposed to these accepted applicants 
are men of integrity undoubted, of a refinement, of a culture, and of a once social 
position, which ought to guarantee success, brought to this suppliant attitude for 
"place" by sickness, by accident, by pecuniary revulsion, or by the perfidy of 
men, against which no human foresight could provide. Recently, a high name in 
this community, which five years ago wielded the wand of power in financial circles, 
was handed in for a " place" of trust and profit. Gray-headed and bald and bent, 
he craved the "influence" of influential men with hot tears; and after weeks and 
months of such debasement, and of agonizing suspenses, he failed of his object, the 
poor-house looking himself and helpless family full in the face. Young men and 
young women, within a week of this writing, have been driven into suicide, in 
New-York City, having vainly sought "places," until on the verge of starvation, 
and to escape it, took the rope and the poison. Why all this ? Because they grew 
up without a positive occupation, without having been instructed in any handicraft. 
There's truth in Franklin's saying, that the " parent who brings up a son without a 
calling, teaches him to be a thief." Let that father then, who wishes to be assured 
that his son shall not languish in a penitentiary, or perish on a gallows, give that 
son a trade. Let the mother who desires to make it certain that the daughter she 
so much loves shall not pine away in some cheerless hospital, ay, some insane 
asylum, teach that daughter the perfect use of her needle, or better, the skillful 
handling of a sewing-machine ; and more, how to keep a tidy house ; how to pre- 
pare a comfortable meal ; how to spread a well-appointed table — to do all these 
things with thoroughness. Such a young woman can never come to want ; can 
never fail to find a well-paying place in this country. There are a thousand 
families in New- York any day, who would consider themselves "fortunate" in 
having such seamstresses, house-girls, nurses, and cooks, at twenty per cent higher 
wages than generally prevail. A good mechanic can always find work for his 
"victuals and clothes," with increasing wages as his fidelity and skill become 
known, and thus prevent that distressing sadness, that debasing cringing, that eat- 
ing out all life's gladness, which wither the heart and waste away the health, until 
the friendly grave ends the torture. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 84. 



CORN BREAD. 

Hat, straw, fodder, etc., are what farriers call "roughness" to horses and cattle, 
as compared with a diet of oats or corn alone. Horses kept in the stable and fed 
on oats, soon become feverish and "bound," and unless relieved will die. Rough 
food, that is, hay and fodder, are the remedies. So coarse corn-meal made into 
bread, cakes, pies, pudding, etc., are the "roughness" as compared with eating the 
various preparations of fine flour. Many persons would be relieved of internal 
fevers, constipation, indigestion, and other similar ailments, if wheat-flour was dis- 
carded in whole, or at least in large part, and corn-bread with various corn-meal 
preparations were used instead, at every meal. It is generally thought that the 
corn-bread of the East is never so good as the corn-bread met with on Western 
tables. The chief reason perhaps is that in the East the corn is ground too fine, 
and there is something due to skill in baking. There are so many ways of cooking 
corn-meal, so many modes in which it can be served up on the table, that a person 
need not get tired of it for months in succession. Mrs. James O'Brien, of Carrick, 
Pennsylvania, makes her celebrated corn-bread thus : To two quarts of meal add 
one pint of bread-sponge ; water sufficient to wet the whole ; add half a pint of 
flour and a table-spoonful of salt ; let it rise ; then knead well for the second time, 
place the dough in the oven, and allow it to bake an hour and a half. 

Corn Griddle-Cake. — Scald at night half the quantity of meal to be used ; mix 
'the other with cold water until it is a thick batter ; add a little salt and set it to 
rise without yeast. This will make light, crisp cakes in the morning. The skim- 
mings of boiled meat is the best to fry them with. Fry slowly. 

Corn-Meal Pudding. — Cool one quart of mush with nearly as much new sweet 
milk, add five eggs, half a teacupful of sugar, one teacupful of flour, a little salt and 
quick yeast ; bake one hour in moderately slow oven, and eat with sauce, or butter 
if no sugar is used. 

Corn-Meal Pies are made by Mary Williams, of Linn Co., Iowa, thus : Stir a 
small teacupful of very fine ground Indian meal into two quarts of boiling milk ; 
when nearly cool add five beaten eggs, and sweeten to taste, like a custard, adding 
spice and orange-peel if desired. Bake with a crust like custard-pies. 

Old-Fashioned Hulled Corn. — Shell a dozen ears of ripe, dry corn, put it in 
an iron kettle and cover with cold water ; put in the corn a bag of tw6 teacupfuls 
of fresh wood-ashes, and boil until the corn looks yellow and tastes strong of the 
alkali, then take out the bag and boil the corn in the lye over an hour, then pour 
off the lye, add fresh water and simmer until the corn swells. If the hulls do not 
then come off by stirring, turn off the water and rub them off with a towel ; add 
more water and simmer for three or four hours, often stirring to keep it from burn- 
ing ; when it swells out and becomes soft and white, add salt to liking, and let all 
the water simmer away. Eat warm or cold with cream or milk. All these receipts 
require practice, skill, observation, and judgment. Mix two parts of new corn-meal 
with three parts of warm water, add one teaspoonful of salt, two teaspoonfuls of sugar, 
one large tablespoonful of hop-yeast ; after rising five hours add three fourths of a 
pint of wheat -flour and half a pint of warm water ; let it rise again for an hour and 
a half; pour it into a well-greased pan, let it rise a few minutes ; let bake an hour 
and twenty minutes in a moderately hot oven. 

Corn Sweet-Cake. — Kub well together a teacupful of butter with two of sugar ; 
five eggs, the whites beaten apart, one cup of sour milk, three of corn-meal, two of 
wheat-flour, half a nutmeg, with yeast enough to make it rise. 

Family Indian Loaf. — Two quarts scalding hot skim-milk, one tablespoonful salt, 
one quart corn-meal, stirred in by handfuls, two thirds pint of sifted rye-meal, stir 
thoroughly, then add one cup of cold milk, stirring smartly ; after standing twelve 
minutes, bake five hours in a cast-iron basin, covered with another basin. 



HEALTH TEACT, No. 85. 



THE SABBATH REST. 

No one muscle of the body, no one set of muscles can be continuously used, with- 
out an eventual paralysis, or total loss of power, until restored by rest. But if one 
class of muscles be employed for a time, then another, while the former is at rest, 
the two thus alternating may be kept in motion, without the slightest fatigue, for 
hours together. A child may even cry with the weariness from walking ; but pre- 
sent him suddenly with a beautiful little wagon, and allow him to take hold of it 
and draw a companion over a smooth road, the offer will be accepted with alacrity, 
and the amusement will continue for a time equal to the walk, without any com- 
plaint of being tired ; on the contrary, there will be a freshness of action, new and 
delightful. Many a traveler has rested himself from riding on horseback or in a 
carriage, by alighting and walking a mile or more ; simply because a different com- 
bination of muscular action is brought into play ; either a new set of muscles, or 
an action of the old ones in a different direction ; all going to show that the mus- 
cular system, the whole body, will have rest, or must prematurely perish. Pre- 
cisely alike is the law of the mind, whose faculties are various. A man who thinks 
intently upon a single subject becomes incapable at length of concentrating his 
thoughts upon that subject to advantage, and instinctively lays down his book, his 
model, or his pen, to take a walk. It is an observed fact, that a large number of* 
professed students of prophecy become deranged ; the world is full of monomaniacs, 
of persons who have so persistently thought of a single subject, that the mind has 
become permanently "unhinged" in regard to it. The attention of the French 
government has lately been drawn to the alarming fact, that " one in every xen of 
the scientific branches of the army finishes his course in a lunatic asylum, in conse- 
quence of the severe attention to mathematical training." The rector of the train- 
ing-college of Glasgow says, from long and extensive observation, he "will under- 
take to teach a hundred children in three hours a day as much as they can possibly 
receive ;" that is, when a child has been kept at study three hours, its brain becomes 
incapable of pursuing it further advantageously, until rested. These things show 
that unless*mind and body both have rest, both will be destroyed; and to save 
both, Divine wisdom issued the precept, "in the beginning," "On the seventh day 
thou shalt rest." It was no arbitrary command ; it was an injunction fraught with 
wisdom and benevolence; and in this sense was it that "the Sabbath was made 
for man ;" made to save his body from premature wearing out, and his mind from 
fatuity, by diverting it for one seventh of the time from its ordinary studies and 
affections, and fixing it on a totally different class ; taking it away from the wasting, 
wearing harassments and jarrings and anxieties of business, to employ it in the 
contemplation and worship of Divinity, to soothe, to elevate and sanctify ; com- 
pelling us to exclaim in affectionate admiration, not only as to the laws of our 
physical, but as to those of our moral nature : w In loving-kindness hast thou made 
them all !" The observation of the laborer and the bueiness-man will testify to- the 
exhaustion which Saturday night always brings, and to the renewed alacrity with 
which business is hurried to on Monday mornings. The reflecting know that 
without the compulsory observance of the Sabbath-day, multitudes of helpless 
slaves, of defenseless apprentices, of dependent employes ; the uncomplaining 
horse, and ox, and mule ; would be driven to death ! Who can deny after this, 
that the Bible Christianity is the poor man's friend ? And yet how many malign 
that blessed book, and wage a relentless and life-long war against that religion ! 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 86. 



DIETING 



Some persons eat themselves to death, others are dieted to death. When a man 
is sick he is weak, and concludes that as when he was well he ate heartily and was 
strong, ftf he now eats heartily, he will become strong again ; well-meaning, but 
ignorant friends are of the same opinion, and their solicitations to eat become one 
of the greatest annoyances of a sensible invalid. .Nature purposely takes away the 
appetite under such circumstances, and makes the very sight of food nauseating. 
A sick man is feeble ; this feebleness extends to every muscle of the body, and the 
stomach being made up of a number of muscles, has its share of debility. It re- 
quires several hours of labor for the stomach to "work up" an ordinary meal; and 
to give it that amount of work to do when it is already in an exhausted condition, 
is like giving a man, worn out by a hard day's work, a task which shall keep him 
laboring half the night. Mothers are often much afraid that their daughters will hurt 
themselves by a little work, if they complain of not feeling very well ; and yet if 
such daughters were to sit down to dinner and shovel in enough provender for an 
elephant or a plowman, it would be considered a good omen and the harbinger of 
convalescence. A reverse procedure would restore multitudes of ailing persons 
to permanent good health ; namely, to eat very little for a few days ; eat nothing 
but coarse bread and ripe fruits, and work about the house industriously ; or what 
is better, exercise in the open air for the greater part of each day on horseback, h\ 
the garden, or walking through the woodlands or over the hills, for hours at a time. 
Objectless walks and lazy lolling in carriages are very little better than nothing. 
The effect of interested, absorbing exercise, is to work out of the system the dis- 
eased and surplus matter which poisons it ; this relieves the stomach of the burdens 
imposed upon it, and allows it time to gain strength, so as more perfectly to con- 
vert the food eaten into well-made, pure, and life-giving blood. A weakly but 
faithful servant, in the effort to get through with a specified amount of work, may 
perform it all, but none of it is thoroughly done ; whereas, if a moderate task had 
been assigned, all of it would have been well done ; so a weak stomach, indicated 
by a poor appetite, may be able to convert a small amount of food into pure, invig- 
orating blood ; but if too much is eaten, the attempt to "get through it all" is 
made, blood i3 manufactured, but it is an imperfect blood, it is vitiated, and mixing 
with that already in the system, at every beat of the heart, the whole mass is cor- 
rupted, and "I am ailing all over" is the expressive description. In another set of 
cases there is a morbid appetite ; the unhappy dyspeptic is always hungry ; and 
finding that he feels best while eating, and for a brief space afterward, he is always 
eating and always dying. To hear him talk, you would imagine he could not possi- 
bly live long, and yet he does live and grows old in his miseries. Such may reason- 
ably expect a cure. 1st. By eating very moderately at three specified times each 
day, and not an atom at any other ; then in less than a fortnight sometimes these 
distressing cravings will cease. 2d. Spend a large portion of daylight in agree- 
able out-door activities. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 87. 



WOMAN'S TRUE BEAUTY. 

" I was glad to have it in my power to do any thing my husband wanted me to 
do," was the beautiful reply of a wife, long married, of wealth and position, when I 
asked her why, by over-taxing herself, she had induced great bodily suffering. 

A man was terribly injured ; a muslin bandage was essential to his safety ; it was 
not at hand, and there was no time to run for it. A young woman present disap- 
peared, and returned the next minute with the requisite article taken from her 
under-garment, and the poor soldier's life was saved. * 

On a bleak winter's night, a mere scrawl was handed in at the door, with a name 
known to fame ; death was imminent. The patient was in a kind of out-house, 
back from the street. A solitary woman attended the unfortunate sufferer, silent, 
busy, anticipating every want, translating every gesture, almost before it was 
made. In the early morning, at noon, and in the dreary hours of darkness, she 
was always there ; prompt, noiseless, vigilant, self-possessed. Day after day it was 
the same thing ; and with all this, there was such a benignity in the whole demean- 
or, that I wanted to know her name and her relation to the patient, who had been 
abandoned by the dearest ties of humanity, and whose mental state was evidently 
as great a torture as that of the body. The tumultuous heavings of the mind and 
conscience were in sad unison with the ceaseless tossings of the emaciated frame, 
and the vain efforts of the restless, tearless eye to close itself in sleep. "I shall 
die if I don't sleep," was the constant, piteous exclamation ! Lover and friend 
and daughter even kept sternly aloof from that miserable bed-side. She had heard 
of the hapless and abandoned sufferer, and for humanity's sake, supplied every 
want from her own purse, and continued so to do, for weeks and weary months, 
until death brought relief from the fearful combination of human sufferings. To 
do so much and for so long a time ; to administer tireless personal attentions, and 
unstinted pecuniary aid to one so abandoned, without hope or possibility of re- 
ward, was 'the work of that angel of goodness, who has written so much and so 
sweetly in prose and verse — Alice Carey. 

"My dear wife, I am hopelessly bankrupt," said a merchant when he entered his 
fine mansion, at the close of a day, all fruitless in his endeavor to save himself 
when men were crashing around him in every direction. " Tell me the particulars, 
dearest," said his wife calmly. On hearing them and his wants to save him, "Is 
that all?" and absenting herself a moment, returned with a book, from between the 
leaves of which she took out bank-note after bank-note, until enough was counted 
to fully meet all her husband's requirements. "This," said she, in reply to his 
mingled look of admiration and astonishment, "is what I have saved, for such a 
possible day as this, from your princely allowance for dressing myself, since we 
were married." 

If every mother made it her ambition to mold her daughters' hearts in forms like 
these, who shall deny that many a suicide would be prevented ; that many a noble- 
hearted man would be saved from a life of abandonment or a drunkard's dreadful 
death, and many families prevented being thrown upon society in destitution and 
helplessness, to furnish inmates for the jail, the poor-house, the asylum, and the hos- 
pital? 



HEALTH TRACT, NO. 88. 



DEATH OF DEBT. 

" This is the happiest day I have had in twenty years ! I feel free," 
said one of the greatest ornaments of the Supreme Court of the United 
States, to his sunny-faced child. 

"What makes you feel so happy, papa?" asked the little girl. 

"lam out of debt ! I have paid the last dollar I owed in the world, and 
have been laboring with all my might for twenty years to work myself out 
of the miserable slavery." 

On the first day of April, 1862, Mrs. F , of S , was awakened by a 

tap at the door early in the morning, her husband being in the army. She 
spoke a word to one of her children, and was a eorpse ! She thought it was 
the landlord come for his rent, and knowing sire had not a dollar in the 
house, expected to be turned into the street. 

The spacious halls of that fine mansion in a fashionable street in Boston, 
were lighted up for a gay party. The wife and two daughters had sent 
out their cards of invitation, and a joyous reunion of friends was antici- 
pated. Already had they began to assemble. At that very moment, the 
husband and father, having murdered his inexorable creditor, was burning 
to ashes the dead body of the unfortunate Parkman. ,It was not meant to 
intimate that debt would die : that the happy time would ever arrive when 
pecuniary obligation would become extinct ; but that debt brought death, 
literal death, sometimes, and sometimes, what is far worse, an infinitely 
greater misfortune. Debt blunts and blights the finest sensibilities of oui 
nature ; it eats out the sweetest domestic affections ; it blasts the moral 
character ; it robs us of our manliness, and where there was once all that 
was noble, truthful, high-minded, there is nothing left but the charred 
waste of debased manhood, of contemptible prevarications, and mean con- 
cealments. The Demon of Debt ! how it withers and wilts the beautiful 
flowers of conjugal love, of parental affection, and the holier emotions that 
belong to the Infinite One ! How it poisons every gladness, robs every 
smile of its beauty, cuts up by the root every glorious quality of our na- 
ture, and makes of him who might have been a man, a poor, fawning, fal- 
tering, cringing wretch, waiting the creditor's utterances with the fears of 
a slave, with the trembling of a culprit ; the fire has no warmth, the food 
•no taste, the flower no beauty, the air no life, the sky no sun ; the brain 
perceives nothing, the eye sees nothing, the heart feels nothing but the 
chill damps of the specter Debt, in the person of the creditor, that so looms 
up in the daytime as to shut out all the blue sky of life, and in the hours 
of sleep, sits like a horrid nightmare, with the weight of Pelion on Olympus 
piled. With these before him, who but an idiot could be induced to incur 
an indebtedness which there was not ample means on hand to satisfy, if 
necessary, within the hour ? 



HEALTH TRACT, NO. 89. 



LAW OF LOVE. 

Said an old man one day : " When I look back over the long pilgrimage 
of an eventful and not unsuccessful life, I can confidently say that I never 
did a kindness to any human being without finding myself the happier for 
it afterward. A single friendly act, cheerfully, pleasantly, and promptly 
done to a fellow-creature in trouble or difficulty, besides the good to him, 
has before now thrown a streak of sunshine into my heart for the re- 
mainder of the day, which I would not have taken a twenty-dollar bank- 
note for." 

If such acts of thoughtfulness and consideration and humane sympathy 
were performed as we 'yiave opportunity, the same " streak of sunshine," 
the same lightening up of the load of life would come to both giver and re- 
ceiver, until after a while there would be sunshine all the time within us 
and without, dispersing physical as well as moral miasms, purifying the 
social and domestic atmosphere, warming the heart to still higher sympa- 
thies, and waking up the whole man to those activities which can never 
fail to preserve, maintain, and perpetuate mental, moral, and physical 
health, to a serene 6"ld age. These things are to be done at home and 
abroad, at the family table, the fireside, in the street, on the highway, in 
town, in country, by day and by night, always and every where, kindly and 
cheerily, whenever there is " opportunity ;" to be done to the old and the 
young, to the rich and the poor, to the sick and the well, to the successful 
and the unfortunate, to stranger and acquaintance, to man and woman, 
enemy and friend, to every body and to every. thing that breathes the 
breath of life. These sunlight-giving kindnesses can be done in multitudes 
of cases by a word, a smile, a look. And these cost so little, why should 
they not be thrown broadcast over the whole surface of humanity, in 
princely profusion, blessing as they do the giver as well ate receiver, giving 
gladness to both, and a quiet peace which gold could never purchase, which 
diamonds of the purest water and gems of richest hue could not secure for 
the briefest hour ? Men, women, children, all, wake up from this good 
hour, and make the " law of love " to all of human kind the pole-star of 
life, the work, the pleasure of your human existence ; and in that triumph- 
ant hour when you shall be called to close your eyes on all things earthly, 
and open them on the realities of an eternal existence, the first sound that 
shall fall upon your delighted ear from the heavenly shore, will come from 
the King in his beauty, when he shall say : " Ye did it unto me. Well 
done!" 



HEALTH TBACT, NO. 90. 



SOLDIERS REMEMBERED 

If you write to a soldier, friend, or relative in the army, using a common 
envelope and a sheet of foolscap-paper, you may also add, without exceed- 
ing the weight for which a three-cent postage-stamp will pay, as much tea 
as a teaspoon will take up twice, or as much black or cayenne pepper, such 
as is obtained from a good drug-store under the name of "Capsicum," as 
you can take up at once with a common teaspoon, and the smaller envelope 
of thin paper to hold either. Chewing the tea, a pinch at a time, every 
hour or half-hour, while keeping guard, or under circumstances of great 
thirst, or of excessive weariness or sleepiness, will enliven, will modify 
thirst, will invigorate, or will waken up to a grateful extent, considering 
the amount of tea used, and its perfect safety from ulterior ill results, such 
as follow the use of alcoholic drinks. But a heaping teaspoonful of genu- 
ine "Capsicum" is worth ten-fold its weight of tea-leaves, especially in 
summer, in many ways ; for example, a single quarter of a pinch will save 
a man's life — that quarter of a pinch being put in a sleepy sentinel's eye. 
If it don't waken him up, and every body else within an Indian yell's dis- 
tance, then it is not a prime article of capsicum. A single pinch in a glass 
of flat or warmish water will nullify these qualities, and besides satisfying 
thirst, will invigorate and effectually prevent that uncomfortable sensation 
arising from having drank largely of water. A good pinch, eaten at each 
meal, or whenever a cup of coffee or tea or water is swallowed, will always 
invigorate digestion, aids to prevent acidity, and is, besides, a great antago- 
nist of the diarrhea, dysentery, flux, and "looseness," which are the great 
scourges of all armies. A level teaspoon of capsicum daily, taken in eat- 
ing or drinking, or both, or if taken a pinch at a time during the day or 
night, would do more real good, and that without any ill result, than ten 
times the cost in rum and quinine, as a preventive against chills and fevers. 
Liquor and quinine initiate the soldier into intemperate habits ; they will 
wake up a love, a craving, a slavery to strong drink, which pepper and 
water will never do. The latter invigorates like food, the former merely 
excites, then leaves weaker than before. A pinch of capsicum, which is 
simply pure cayenne pepper, will do a great deal more toward warming 
up a soldier, toward invigorating him, toward keeping him vigilant on 
guard, and toward modifying thirst or fatigue, than the best glass of grog 
ever swallowed. Capsicum goes farther, and is more efficient for all pur- 
poses, than black pepper ; if by express or privately, send half a pound at 
a time, in a tin box. If you have nothing else to send in your letters, send 
a few pins, or a needle and some thread. Many have seen the time when 
a string or a pin would have been worth ten times its ordinary value. 
Write often to the soldier. Write long letters. Give all the news you 
can think of. Let every line be full of love ; of kind, affectionate interest 
and encouragement. Be sure to inculcate a generous magnanimity toward 
those who oppose, so as to have as few obstacles as possible to a cordial 
coming together again, when that good time comes, as it certainly will, be- 
fore long. We are all brethren, presently estranged, sons of the same sires, 
and, taking an enlarged view, the aggregate character is pretty well 
balanced. 



PIANO-FORTE. 



H. "WORCESTER offers for sale a large assortment of choice Piano-Fobtes, 
6, 6 1, % and 7£ octaves, in elegant rosewood cases — prices, from $225 to 
$700 — all of which are manufactured under his own supervision, a n d are fbr 
sale on reasonable terms, in Fourteenth street, corner Third avenue, New-York. 

By devoting his personal attention to the touch and tone of his instruments, 
which have hitherto been considered unrivaled, he will endeavor to maintain 
their previous reputation, and respectfully solicits an examination from the 
profession, amateurs, and the public. 

u There is one of these charming instruments near us, made by Worcester, which, 
for its power of action, for the richness, clearness, and sweetness of its tone, is the 
more remarkable from the fact of its having been in use twelve tears. This manu- 
factory well maintains its old reputation for the durability of its instruments. Being 
intended for use rather than for mere show, they are made in the most substantial 
manner ; and, for this reason, we specially command them to our Western and South- 
ern readers. The extra time and labor expended on many pianos, to make them sell 
well, is put upon Worcester's instruments to render them more lasting, and to defer 
the necessity of repairs for a longer period. The frailty with which many instruments 
for Southern use are made, and the unskillfulness of most persons at a distance from 
large cities, who profess to repair and tune them, very often, as families know by ex- 
perience, soon render them almost unfit for use. For these reasons, the Worcester 
piano is not only afforded at less cost now, but is subject to less risk and expenditure 
hereafter, in keeping it in tune." — April Journal of Health. 

" We have, in many ways, and at many times, expressed our opinion strongly in 
praise of American mechanical art ; and a recent visit to the extensive piano manufac- 
tory of Horatio Worcester, has strengthened that opinion ; and we are well convinced 
that in the construction of these beautiful instruments, we Americans are rivaling, if 
not excelling, Europeans. The Philharmonic Society, the most scientific musical asso- 
ciation in this country, use Worcestfr's pianos at their grand concerts. We have had 
one in constant use for the last fourteen years, and find no diminution in clearness or 
sweetness of tone. They are said to stand every climate, and are daily being exported 
to the West-Indies, Canada, the far West, and South. The factory has been newly 
fitted up in the neatest manner, and ladies visiting it will find every facility for making 
their selections." — Hon. Erastus Brooks, in New- York Express. 

" Worcester's instruments, for perfection of finish and beauty of tone, seem to us 
unsurpassed. He has lately introduced an improvement, in respect to the sounding- 
board, that may make a mark upon the future of the piano manufacture. They who 
wish to see it in operation will find a kind and courteous reception at the rooms in Four- 
teenth street. Mr. Worcester has the latest improvements in his art, and his instru- 
ments are of the newest and best make ; yet, in one respect, he is a very old-fashioned 
man, for he speaks the truth after the ancient way of our fathers, and if any friends 
should send him an order by mail, they may rely upon it that it will be executed 
promptly and faithfully, at the fairest market rates." — Christian Inquirer. 

" Why Worcester's instruments maintain their acknowledged superiority, was lately 
explained by one of the very best piano workmen in the city, not in Mr. Worcester's 
employ. ' There is no shop known to me where such extraordinary pains are taken to 
make every part of the instrument as perfect as possible, as in the old and extensive 
establishment of Horatio Worcester." — New- York Journal. 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 

Vol. IX.] AUGUST. [No. 8. 

TEMPERATURE OF CHAMBERS. 

Human life would be prolonged, and an incalcula- 
ble amount of disease prevented, if a little fire were 
kept burning on the hearth during the night, winter 
and summer, if the doors and windows are kept 
closed. One great advantage would be, that a con- 
stant draft would be kept through the room, fire- 
place, and chimney, making a great degree of at- 
mospherical vitiation impossible. There is a bale- 
ful error in the popular mind as to the nature and 
effects of pure air, warm air, and cold air. Warm 
air may be as pure as that of the poles ; and although 
cold air is almost a synonym of pure air, and although 
it is healthful to breathe a cold air asleep or awake, yet 
the breathing of cold air is healthful only to a certain 
extent. It is not true that because it is healthful to 
sleep in a cool room, it is more healthful to sleep in a 
very cold room, not only because, as has been pre- 
viously stated, carbonic acid becomes heavy under a 
great cold, and falls from the ceiling to the floor and 
bed of the sleeper, but because also a great degree of 
cold in a room where one is sleeping is very certain 
to cause dangerous and even fatal forms of conges- 
tion in the brain and lungs. The same ailments re- 
sult from keeping sitting or sleeping apartments over- 
heated.' In midwinter, the heat of a sitting-room 
should not exceed sixty degrees of Fahrenheit, five 
feet above the floor. In the chambers of the sick in 
French hospitals, the directors are careful that there 
shall not be a greater heat than sixty degrees or 
about fifteen centigrade. The temperature of a 
sleeping apartment for invalids and for children in 
health should range about fifty degrees in cold 
weather, and not run lower than thirty -five ; there is 
no advantage in sleeping in a colder atmosphere. 
Five hundred cubic inches of pure air should be de- 
livered to invalids and sleepers every hour, as is the 
custom in the best-regulated French hospitals. 



178 hall's journal of health. 



NERVOUSNESS, DEBILITIES, ETC. 

The nervous fluid is manufactured from the blood ; 
the nerves themselves are nourished and repaired by 
the blood. The whole nervous system may become 
diseased in three ways : first, by sudden shocks ; sec- 
ond, by excessive action ; third, by an unnatural con- 
dition of the blood for a long time. That mental 
shocks, as from fear, or bad news, may prostrate the 
nervous system, destroy the mind, and life itself, 
needs no argument. That hard work, insufficient 
sleep, too great a press of business, or too much time 
spent in study, with errors in eating and neglect of 
exercise, may impair the nervous system, by calling 
the nervous fluid into action or use, before it is fully 
"ripe" or matured, is an often observed fact. The 
remedy, and the only remedy for these is, an avoid- 
ance of their causes ; and it is as useless to look for 
relief in medicines, while the causes are in operation, 
as to prevent the finger from burning as long as it is 
in the fire. The cure in the latter case must begin 
with taking it out of the fire. If there is excessive 
use of any part of the nervous system, whether of the 
thinking portions or of the propensities, the remedy is 
rest ; non-indulgence in the first place, and then ex- 
ercising the thoughts and propensities in another 
direction, to the extent, if possible, of an almost en- 
tire forgetfulness of previous studies and appetites. 
If, for example, a man has studied himself into a dis- 
eased condition ; if he has had such weighty respon- 
sibilities resting on him, that the draft upon his brain 
is such that he can not get sufficient sleep, and he 
either becomes deranged or is on his way to the 
grave by nervous prostration, there is no more safe 
and certain means of perfect relief, than that of send- 
ing out the nervous influence, or "stores," or accumu- 
lations, in a different direction — that, for example, of 
absorbing and pleasurably interesting out-door activi- 
ties. For the nervous fluids are constantly being gen- 
erated, as steam in a locomotive, when the fire is kept 
burning ; and if that steam is not expending itself on 
the driving mechanism, it must be let out upon the 
air. Destruction is inevitable, unless it finds vent 



NERVOUSNESS, DEBILITIES, ETC. 179 

somewhere. Hence the process of cure for all those 
nervous maladies which arise from over-use, is not 
merely a cessation of such uses, which is rest, but an 
employment of the influences in a different direction ; 
because, without such employment, there is no per- 
fect rest, as from mere force of habit these influences 
will go out through the accustomed channels.' To 
prevent a country from being devastated by a rising 
river, not only must a dam be built, but an outlet 
must be opened in another direction. 

A Eussian nobleman, childless, was banished to 
Siberia. His wife was permitted to share his toils 
and privations. They were compelled to live on the 
plainest fare, to live in a miserable hut, and work 
hard every day. At the end of fifteen years, they 
had a house full of healthy children. In this case, 
the power of reproduction was lost through those 
excessive indulgences which are inseparable from a 
life of idleness and voluptuous ease. Hard-working 
peoples are the most prolific, as witness the Israelites 
in the laborious service of Pharaoh. In a recent 
census taken in one of the towns of Massachusetts, it 
appeared that although the foreign population was 
less than the native, a smaller number of Irish fami- 
lies gave more births in one year than a larger num- 
ber of American. An Irishman does more hard 
work than an American. Idleness predisposes to an 
excessive indulgence of the propensities, and this 
very indulgence increases the desires; thus being 
over-used, they become powerless, inefficient; that 
upon which they thus feed inordinately, destroys 
them. A state of labor is the natural habitual state 
of man ; animal indulgences, incidental, occasional ; 
and in proportion as this law is reversed, in such 
proportion does it tend to the extinction of the race. 

The object of this extended statement, is to im- 
press on the mind that the natural, safe, and efficient 
means of correcting all nervous derangements, is to 
give more rest to the parts deranged or disturbed, and 
so to change the modes of life as to send out the 
nervous power constantly being generated in the sys- 
tem, through other channels, thus giving those which 
are overworked time for recuperation. It would be 
the same if a man were dying with excessive physical 



180 hall's jouknal of health. 

exertion. Let the body rest, and give him something 
to engage his thoughts pleasantly ; send the nervous 
system out of the body, through the brain. 

Next to over-indulgences as a cause of nervous 
disturbances, is an imperfect assimilation of food, 
that is, indigestion, known as dyspepsia, which is the 
failure of the stomach and other parts of the digestive 
apparatus to convert the food into perfect, that is, 
health-giving blood ; for if the blood is imperfect in 
quality, the nervous influence which is made out of 
that blood must also be imperfect, not of a suitable 
character, hence does not manifest itself naturally, 
fails to effect the objects intended by nature. When 
a man is dyspeptic, that portion of the nervous fluid 
which is sent to the brain is not of a proper quality ; 
and whatever part of the brain is in the habit of 
greater exercise, is more particularly disturbed, be- 
cause more of the imperfect blood, or more of the 
imperfect nervous fluid is sent there. Suppose the 
moral organs, at the top of the head, are most con- 
stantly exercised, as in the case of a clergyman, his 
teachings will diverge from the right line, will be 
unfaithfully lax, or morbidly rigid, painfully exact, 
unsympathizing, vituperative, dealing in epithets and 
invectives, with not a tithe of the forbearances which 
characterized the Master. If he be more of a theo- 
rizer, more purely intellectual or imaginative, his 
discourses will tend to what is airy, impractical, and 
absurd. Tf he be "domestic," a great lover of his 
wife and children, devoted to their welfare, the effect 
of bad blood on this part of the brain is to revolu- 
tionize this sentiment, and he becomes insufferably 
cross, complaining of the very things done for his 
comfort and welfare, overrunning with a multitude 
of utterly groundless suspicions, imagining slights 
and inattentions where they were never intended, 
and perverting every thing said and done. If such 
a person, or exceedingly affectionate parent, or other 
relative, becomes actually deranged, the life of the 
child is sought, or of the kindred most loved. It 
is thus that mothers are not unfrequently known 
to murder their own children, the infants of their 
bosom. 

If a man loves to eat over-much, the imperfect, the 



NERVOUSNESS, DEBILITIES, ETC. 181 

bad blood excites the stomach to inordinate appe- 
tites. The man is never satisfied ; he is always eat- 
ing, always hungry, can not wait for his meals with 
any kind of comfort or patience — hence eats when- 
ever he is hungry, giving the stomach no time for 
rest ; thus it is over- worked, and the main difficulty is 
increased. 

The practical view to be taken of nervous affec- 
tions in general, is, that they are an effect ; and whe- 
ther it be called neuralgia, nervous debility, nervous 
prostration, or any other name, and in whatever 
part of the body it is located, the immediate cause 
is in the condition of the blood, for it is upon the 
blood the nerves feed, it is by the blood they are 
nourished, and from it they derive all their power. 
If the blood is not supplied in sufficient quantity, in- 
anition is the result, a general prostration; if the 
blood is too rich, there is abnormal action ; if the 
blood is impure or imperfect, there is nervous irrita- 
bility ; the mind is fretful, * peevish, unstable, the 
body is weak, restless, and invigorous ; if the blood 
is over-abundant, there are aches and pains, neural- 
gias, which are literally " nerve-aches," in any and 
every part of the system. There is beside these, a 
nervous debility, which arises from the part being 
exercised beyond the strength given by the natural 
amount of healthful blood sent to it, and that part 
becomes exhausted temporarily ; if rested, it returns 
to its natural condition ; if called into excessive 
action soon again, rest will enable it to regain its 
usual strength; but that rest must be longer, each 
succeeding exhaustion requiring more time for recu- 
peration, until, eventually, the power of recuperation 
is lost. This is destructive excess, not only to the 
part itself, but to the whole system, because the 
malady spreads as naturally and as certainly as the 
fire in a burning building, and ceases not until the 
ruin is complete. If the brain is exercised too intense- 
ly, whether in perplexing study, in incessant anxie- 
ties, or in the vortex of business, it soon begins at 
length to lose its elasticity, its power of concentra- 
tion, its continuity of thought, and the mind goes out 
in darkness, the body in death, or both body and 
mind together wilt and wither away. But even this 



182 hall's journal of health. 

condition of things is found in an unnatural state of 
the blood, brought about by the brain consuming 
more than its share of the nervous supplies ; hence the 
stomach and other portions of the digestive apparatus 
have less than their share, perform their duties im- 
perfectly, and make an imperfect blood, bringing us 
again to the point arrived at before, to wit, that in 
the cure of all nervous difficulties, rest to the parts is 
the first essential; the absolutely indispensable step; 
the next is to supply the parts with a better quality 
of blood, a blood which is perfect, pure, and abun- 
dant. Nothing can purify the blood without pure 
air ; nothing can make it perfect and life-giving but 
muscular exercise, sufficient, yet not excessive, not 
exhausting, the whole expressed in three words, 
u moderate out-door activities," always safe, al- 
ways permanently efficient, and will always cure, if 
cure is possible. 

In addition to these, and without which the others 
can not be expected to be efficient, the nervous influ- 
ences must be sent out of the body through another 
set of channels ; must be expended in physical exer- 
cises, steady, hard, remunerative work, calling into 
requisition, the while, all that force of will which can 
possibly be brought to bear in compelling the mind 
into a different channel. 

The proof of the truthfulness of the principle pre- 
sented may be easily demonstrated in any half-hour. 
Move the arm up and down continuously, until mo- 
tion becomes painful or impossible ; then running 
can be done as vigorously as if the arm had not been 
moved so. After running for some time, and resting 
the arm, it recovers its entire strength. It is precisely 
so with every other muscle or set of muscles in the 
system, its glands or manufactories. A man may 
think until the brain seems scarcely to work at all, 
yet he can go out and work as hard as before he be- 
gan to think, and after a while can go to his study 
and think to advantage again. 

To administer medicines to stimulate any power 
into wonted activity, is only the stimulus of the 
lash to an exhausted donkey ; it either kills outright, 
or induces an unnatural effort, which can only be 
exerted temporarily, with the certain effect of falling 



NERVOUSNESS, DEBILITIES, ETC. 183 

into greater exhaustions. Precisely so is it with the 
tonics and other remedies more powerful and more 
destructive, when employed to " invigorate." As 
proof, the universal testimony is, " It seemed to do 
good for a while." The recognition of this simple 
truth would prevent the blasting of many a fond 
hope, would save many a dollar to those who can 
ill afford its expenditure, would prevent the rob- 
bery of many a till, would save his integrity to many 
a (heretofore) noble-minded youth. Ignorance of 
that principle has allowed multitudes to precipitate 
themselves into wrong-doing, and into vices which 
have ultimated in ruin to body, soul, and estate. 



VARIETIES. 

Cool off slowly after all forms of exercise by 
avoiding drafts of air, or sitting at an open door or 
window. 

That excellent and most reliable paper, the Scien- 
tific American, of New- York City, $2 a year, ad- 
vises the ladies, when they wish to wash fine and 
elegant colors, to boil some bran in rain-water, and 
use the liquid cold. Nothing, it is said, can equal 
it for cleaning cloth and for revivifying effects upon 
colors. 

Forcing Food, that is, eating when you are not 
hungry, is a wicked waste, is fighting against nature, 
and puts you below the level of a brute, for brutes 
never go against their instincts. 

A small pinch of gunpowder given to a chicken 
with the gapes, will effect a cure in from one to three 
hours' time, and leave poor chick healthy. 

Ice-water in summer is a great enemy to the 
teeth, an impairer of digestion and a promoter of 
dyspepsia, although it is comfortable to take when 
very thirsty. 

Potatoes, the finest, mealiest, and most healthful, 
will sink in very salt water; the soft and waxy 
swim. 



184 

The editor of the New- York Observer, an amateur 
and practical fruit-grower, declares in the most posi- 
tive terms that " Two applications of whale-oil soap- 
mixture in a dry season (or more, if rainy) will pro- 
tect the fruit from the Curculio." We presume the 
ingredients should be in a proportion to make it of 
a consistence which will admit of sprinkling or 
syringing. 

Feuits are healthful. A lady in Grainstown 
bought eight acres of worn-out stony land at forty 
dollars an acre, and set it out in an orchard at an 
expense of two hundred dollars. She cropped it 
every year, cleared two hundred dollars a year, and 
at the end of six years after the purchase refused 
twenty-five hundred dollars for the field. 

E. Lake, of Topsfield, Mass., gathered from one 
acre, of Baldwin russet apples two hundred barrels, 
at four dollars, besides one and a half tons of marrow- 
squashes and one hundred heads of cabbages, one of 
which weighed twenty-seven pounds. 

To protect trees from rabbits, mice, etc., rub the 
bark from the ground to the hight of eighteen inches 
with blood or raw, bloody meat, (fresh liver is best,) 
late in the fall. 

A well-beed family is kind, polite, and cheerful, 
at meal time, in every word, gesture, and look. The 
brutal, the low-born, and inherently vicious scarcely 
fail once in a week to sit down with. a complaint, a 
growl, or a contemptible whine. Even a pig wags 
its tail in satisfaction while its nose is in the slop- 
trough. It is left to human brutes alone to eat in 
thankless, ungracious fault -finding. 

Lawns must be swept frequently, and mown once 
a week until July, and gradually less often until 
October. Now, ladies can mow lawns themselves, 
for Boyd's Brush Lawn-Mower is made small enough 
for a lady to guide or draw, and no scythe can 
equal the machine -work, for the grass is cut as even 
as velvet; but it must be done regularly, and not 
be allowed to get ahead. 



DEBTOR AND CREDITOR. 185 

DEBTOR AND CREDITOR. 

Immeasurable is the mortification of an honorable mind at 
the inability to pay a just debt. Deeper still does the heart 
writhe, when it is known that the creditor greatly needs the 
money, and is even suffering for the want of it; and yet 
there is a deeper depth of mental torture in the cognizance of 
the fact that this same suffering creditor, with a generosity not 
unknown among the high-minded, does not press his claim, 
under the conviction that all will be done that can. be done to 
liquidate the obligation. 

Many a hard-working, frugal, self-denying man has spent 
more time, and had more trouble, in collecting a debt, than 
were involved in earning the original amount. 'There is per- 
haps not one reader in a hundred who has reached man's estate, 
whose heart has not before now sunk within him at the an- 
nouncement that what was due him could not be paid. That 
health has been ruined, and life lost, under the wearing harass- 
ment of inability to pay ; and that other lives have been sacri- 
ficed, and other hearts broken, under the crushing disappoint- 
ment of not. receiving expected dues, needs no array of facts 
and dates and persons to prove at this time. Let the reader 
turn again to the article on " The Death- of Debt," in the last 
number ; and further back still, about the incidents of the 
" Laced Veil," and with the following most suggestive narra- 
tive, by that familiar and loved and honored name, Mrs. Caro- 
line A. Soule in the Ladies' Repository : in the light of these, it 
is urged, in all the sincerity and earnestness of our nature, as a 
means of adding largely to our own happiness, and that of 
neighbors and friends with whom we have had business associa- 
tions, to make a beginning this very hour,, and pay every debt 
possible with what money there may be on hand ; and the 
moment other sums come in, go and pay them out, without 
waiting for the creditor to come r and thus nobly and heroically 
continue to do, until every debt is wiped out, and thus once 
more be " free indeed," to enter the miserable thralldom no 
more again forever ! And be assured that it will end in a, 
peace of mind which is perfectly luscious' to think of ; which 
will impart largely of health-giving influences to the whole or- 



186 DEBTOR AND CREDITOR. 

ganization, lengthening our existence, and preparing us for a 
happy and peaceful end. 

" How I wish father was here now," and Mrs. Smith looked 
complacently at the pan of cream-biscuits she had just drawn 
from the oven. " I've had such good luck with these, and he's 
so fond of them, too. Run, Jimmie ; run down to the gate, 
child, and see if he isn't coming. I do hate, of all things, to 
have cream-biscuit wait, and these are so nice ;" and she turned 
them from the dripping-pan on to a side-table, and broke 
them up. 

They did indeed look tempting, so light and white, with such 
a delicate shade of amber-brown on their crusts. When the 
last one was piled on the plate, a most appetizing odor diffused 
itself over the old farm-kitchen — an odor that would have made 
a dyspeptic sigh as he broke in halves his hard brown crackers. 
Covering them with a towel, fresh from the drawer, she set 
them on the tea-table, and then resting a hand on each hip, sur- 
veyed it carefully, to see if all was there. 

It was a genuine old fashioned Yankee tea-table, such a one 
as makes our mouth water only to remember, with a homespun 
linen cloth, snowy as drifted flakes, and yet in its Sunday 
creases; with a quaint mulberry-colored tea-set; tiny' silver 
spoons, that had grown thin with the handling of three genera- 
tions, and horn-handled knives and forks, scoured to a mirror- 
brightness. Cream from the morning milk floated in the little 
pitcher; pure maple-sugar filled the bowl; a pat of butter, 
golden as the wheat-sheaf that was stamped upon it, was flanked 
on the one side by a ball of new Dutch-cheese, and on the other 
by a plate of pickles, green and crisp as though fresh from the 
vines ; a quart-bowl, just beside the biscuits, held circular slices 
of beets, tinging the vinegar with the crimson-purple of claret 
wine ; opposite was another, with cider apple-sauce, each great 
mellow quarter, mellow to the heart, yet perfect in shape, while 
the four corners of the table bore proudly the pies and cakes ; 
pumpkin-pie, ruddy as the old brick-oven in which it had been 
baked ; apple-pie, with upper-crust that dropped into flakes as 
you cut it ; cookies, with caraway-seeds in them for flavoring ; 
and doughnuts, brown as a berry on the outside, and creamy- 
white in their centers. 

" Yes, I believe I've got all ; now, if he would only come I" 
and she turned to the fire-place, and lifted the tea-kettle from 
the hook, and set it on a warm corner of the ample hearth. 

" He's coming, mother ; he's 'most here ;" and nearly out of 
breath, Jimmy bounded into the kitchen, " and I guess he's got 
the money too, for he looks ever so glad. Won't you be glad, 
too, mother?" 



DEBTOR AND CREDITOR. 187 

" Yes, indeed, child, the dear knows I will ; but run, now, 
and wash your face and hands, and call Susan to set the chairs 
up. I'll make the tea in a hurry." 

" Supper all ready ! Well, I'm glad of it ; for I tell you 
what, mother, I'm hungry as a bear ;" and the broad-chested, 
sturdy, sunburnt, yet genial-looking farmer, drew off his over- 
coat, and pulled off his cap, and handed them to his wife, and 
then run his fingers back and forth through the blaze that 
went up the chimney, rubbing them briskly the while. 

"It's chilly riding, and I shouldn't wonder if we had a frost 
to-night. Did the children gather in all the pumpkins to-day ?" 

"Pretty much, father. All that's fit to cook " 

11 Some great bouncers, too," interrupted Jimmie ;" it was all 
Sue and I could do to roll them." 

" You'd better throw some old blankets over them to-night, 
mother. I don't want 'em brought in, as long as I can help it, 
for every day's sunning helps sweeten 'em. My old mother 
used to say it saved half the molasses to let 'em sun a fort- 
night." 

"And so it does, father, but come, sit down now." 

" Don't look much like hard times here, mother ;" and 
Mr. Smith set down the cup of fragrant tea his wife had 
handed him, broke open the biscuit he had helped himself to, 
and spread the halves with a generous allowance of butter. 
" Not much like hard times ;" and he deposited a brimming 
spoonful of apple-sauce on his plate, and dipped his fork into 
the bowl of beets. " We've thought we knew something about 
'em ; but I tell you, mother, we've got to fare slimmer than this 
before we feel 'em to speak of. If you just could only have 
set down to the table I did to-day noon, I reckon — well, I 
reckon you'd a-choked up, mother. You see, I met cousin Sam 
Jones in the street, just as I was going down to the tavern to 
get a dinner, and nothing would do, but I must go home with 
him. I didn't want to a bit, for I .knew they must be short 
about these times ; but he wouldn't take no for an answer, and 
so I went. I was sorry enough, though, when I saw Sary Ann, 
for she looked so frustrated ; but she shook hands with me as 
warm as ever, and said she was glad to see me, though if she'd 
known I was coming, she'd a-tried and tossed up something a 
little better. Well, we set down to the table ; but dear me, 
mother, I could have eat every mouthful of it myself, and then 
had room for a decent dinner." 

" What did they have, father ?" 

" Have, mother; why, they had a piece of steak, just about 
as big as my hand. I don't believe there was over a pound and 
a half of it, and about a dozen little crazy potatoes, not one of 



188 DEBTOR AND CREDITOR. 

them a bit larger than my thumb, a slice of butter about as 
thick as one of those cookies, and just about as big round, and 
a small loaf of baker's bread, that had about as much substance 
to it as a soap-bubble, and a pitcher of water." 

" No pie or pudding, father ?" 

"Not the first mouthful, mother. I tell you, I didn't eat 
much ; told 'em I wasn't very hungry, for I'd been lunching on 
doughnuts all along the road. 'O dear!' says little Moll, 'I 
wish we could have doughnuts. We haven't had any for ever 
so long. Why don't you make some, ma ?' Sally Ann, she 
colored up, and says, kindly, softly : ' Hush, Molly ; you know 
the times are too hard for father to buy lard to bile 'em in.' 
Well, that kinder started 'em ; and sich a story as they had to 
tell, mother ! Dear me, but it made my heart ache only to hear 
it. His wages have been cut down half, and he can't always 
get that when it is due, and sometimes they don't for days have 
any thing to eat but hasty-pudding' and molasses, and some- 
times they even have to go without the molasses. Sally Ann 
said she hadn't had a bit of tea or sugar for two months, nor 
an egg, nor a pie or a cake. I'll tell you what I did : I just 
went right down to the wagon, and got that basket of dough- 
nuts — I hadn't eat 'em half up — and carried 'em to the child- 
ren. Mercy, but how they did pounce on 'em ! I couldn't 
think of any thing but a half-starved cat coming across a stray 
mouse, they grabbed 'em so. And such % shout as they gave 
when they saw the slice of cheese ! Sally Ann said it was 
more than a year since she had tasted a bit." 

" Dear, but how funny — not to have cheese in the house all 
the time. Why, I reckon we've got forty now, up in the 
cheese-room." 

"Twenty, Jimmie, twenty; don't you stretch things so. I 
do wish I'd known it, father, before you started. I'd sent her 
one, and a roll of butter, and a load of vegetables. You might 
have carried 'em just as well as not, if we'd only thought of 
it ; but I never supposed folks — decent kind of folks, I mean, 
such as they are — ever had to do without such things." 

" Nor I either, mother, and it set me to thinking, as I was 
coming home ; and I believe you and I have often done rich 
people wrong, when we've called 'em stingy because they didn't 
divide with the poor around 'em. I don't believe it's stinginess 
a quarter of the time. It's because they don't think. They've 
so much of every thing themselves, they don't realize how others 
do live. Sally Ann and Sam might have thought we were 
stingy to-day, because I didn't bring 'em in a load of one thing 
and another from our farm ; I say they might, if they didn't 
know just what we really are. But you and I know that 



DEBTOR AND CREDITOR. 189 

wasn't the reason. But never mind ; I shall go down again in 
two or three weeks, and I reckon I'll make the springs bend 
some with the load I'll carry 'em then. I'll put in a good lot 
of potatoes and turnips, and sich small trash, and half a dozen 
good-sized pumpkins, and four or five bushels of apples, 
and " 

"And I'll send him some of my nuts," cried Jimmie, "a 
great bag of nuts, all mixed up, walnuts and butternuts and 
chestnuts. I reckon they'll make little Moll open her eyes." 

"And I'll send cousin Sally two of my chickens ;" and little 
Sue's eyes sparkled, and dimples danced all over her sunny 
face. 

"And I'll put in a roll of butter and a cheese and a ten-quart 
pail of apple-sauce, and I'll bake one of my biggest loaves of 
bread for her ; I reckon home-made bread, wet up with new 
milk, will be quite a treat to them." 

"And mother, put in some doughnuts and cookies," cried 
Jimmie. 

" And mother ! make her a nice loaf-cake, with raisins in it 
and sugar on the top — white sugar, I mean." 

"Yes, yes, Susan, and I'll send her a couple of gallons of 
new milk, and a quart or so of sour cream, to mix up a few bis- 
cuits. I don't suppose she's had a cream-biscuit these two 
years. Dear me ; but I don't know how city folks do live so 
from hand to mouth. I reckon Sally Ann is sorry enough now 
she ever persuaded Sam to go there to live. To be sure, he 
wasn't making much at his trade here, but then their rent was 
only a trifle; and their garden kept them in vegetables the 
year round, and they had a cow and could make their own but- 
ter, and once in a while change milk with a neighbor, and make 
a cheese or two, and they could fatten a couple of pigs every 
year, and keep hens and have fresh eggs, and raise all the fruit 
they needed but winter apples. Their currant-bushes were 
doing so when they left, while their cherry-trees almost broke 
down, and their plums and peaches would have borne in a 
year or two, a plenty. And now, .they don't have #ny thing r 
but what they buy. It's too bad. I wouldn't stand it." 

" Nor I either, mother. This putting one's hand in his pock- 
et, every time he wants a bite, an't just the thing, according to 
my notions. Sam tried hard to have me go when he did. But 
I gave him a right flat no. Says I, Sam, may be I won't make 
as much money as you, but I'll live a deal sight better. Poor 
fellow, I wonder how he'd feel to happen in jist now, and set 
his eyes on this table. And yet we don't think this is any 
thing extra ; at least nothing but the biscuits." And swallow- 
ing the last bit of the fifth one, he reached out his plate for a 
piece of the pumpkin pie. 



190 DEBTOR AND CREDITOR. 

Mrs. Smith thought it a favorable opportunity to ask the 
question that had been on her lips ever since he came in. 

" Did you get your money, father, to-day ?" 

" I reckon I did, mother," and he clapped his right hand on 
his breast-pocket. " I reckon I've got a hundred dollars hid 
here ; bran new bills, too, every one of 'em. No, not quite a 
hundred ; for after I got 'em, I went and bought a pound of tea 
and a dollar's worth of sugar, and gave 'em to Sally Ann, for I 
couldn't bear that any of my connections, and a woman, too, 
should be drinking cold water all the time. Don't they look 
good ?" and opening the old leather pocket-book, he took them 
out and counted them over. " Five tens is fifty ; nine fives is 
forty-five, and this three is ninety-eight ; just it." 

" I'm so glad you got it, father. I've worried all day for fear 
they'd disappoint you, and goodness knows what would have 
become of us this winter, if they had." 

"And I'm glad, too," shouted Jimmie, " for now I shall have 
new boots and a new cap, a store cap, such as other boys wear, 
and a new overcoat out of father's old one, and a new jacket 
and pants. Hurrah, boys, an't I glad ?" and he shoved his 
chair back hastily, and picking up the old cap which his mother 
had fabricated the winter before, out of bits from her bundle- 
bag, he sent it, as he said, u a-kiting." 

"And I'll have anew dress, won't I, mother?" said little 
Susan very earnestly ; " a new delaine dress — a red one, with 
little black dots over it. O dear, won't it be funny, to have a 
dress right out of the store. I've had to have mother's old 
ones cut over for me, till I'm tired. And I'll have your cloak 
now, won't I, and new shoes and a belt, mother ; all the little 
girls wear belts " 

"And what'll this little fellow have?" said the mother, 
cheerily, as she took up the crowing baby out of the cradle. 
" He'll have a new dress, too, won't he, father ?" and she held 
the little soft face close to the farmer's lips. 

" May be, may be," he said, as he tossed the little one to the 
ceiling half a dozen times. " There, take him, now, mother, 
for I must unhitch the horses and get them into the stable. 
Bonnies are tired and hungry by this time," and he hurried 
away. 

The chores were all done and the children put to bed. The 
farmer sat in his easy-chair, which was tilted back against the 
oven-door, and looked the picture of homely comfort, with his 
legs crossed so lazily, his arms folded so cosily, and his " pipe 
of clay" set so snugly between his lips. His wife sat in her 
low rocker, with the stand drawn closely to her, though the 
blaze from the hickory fire rendered the light of the candle 



DEBTOR AND CREDITOR. 191 

almost unnecessary. Her knitting- work lay beside the snuffers 
ready to take up, as soon as the last stitch was set in the long 
patches with which she was covering the holes in the knees of 
Jimmie's trowsers. The cradle stood near by, so close that her 
foot touched it lightly if the baby stirred. 

The fire crackled and blazed ; the farmer smoked and seemed 
lost in thought ; the farmer's wife sewed, and she too seemed 
lost in thought. 

By and by, she hung the mended trowsers on the foot of the 
cradle, saying as she did so : " There, I hope it's the last time I'll 
have them to patch." Then she took up the double mitten she 
was knitting for her husband, and her fingers flew as though 
his hands were bare, though if the truth be told, he had two 
pairs yet in the stocking-bag, besides those he yet carried in 
his pockets. But she was a thrifty wife, and always ahead with 
her knitting. 

"I'm so glad you got that money, father," she said after a 
while. He did not answer her, but puffed away at the old 
pipe. ; . 

Presently she spoke again. " Shall you be using the team 
to-morrow, father?" 

"Why, mother?" 

" Because, I thought if you wasn't, I'd have you drive me up 
to the store. Now we've got the money, we may as well get 
our clothes first as last, and have them cut, and then when I 
get a minute's time I can be making them. It'll take me nearly 
all winter, any way. I don't suppose Grey's got his winter 
stock yet, but we can buy twenty or thirty dollars' worth out 
of what he's on hand." 

Mr. Smith did riot reply at once. He smoked out his pipe, 
knocked out the ashes, and laid it on the shelf. He set his chair 
forward on its four legs, drew off his boots, and planted his feet 
on the front round, and then putting an elbow on each knee, 
he rested his face on his hands. It was his usual attitude when 
he was going to talk seriously, and his wife's heart began to 
rise in her throat. 

" What would you have done, wife, supposing I hadn't got 
that money ?" he said, after clearing his throat with sundry 
hems and haws. 

" Why, I'd had to got along without it, I suppose," she 
answered, rather curtly, "but the dear knows how, though, for 
I've twisted and turned every which way the last year. We're 
every one of us nearly naked for clothes— every thing we've 
got is ready to drop to pieces. But what makes you ask such 
a question ?" 

" Because," speaking very slowly, "I've been thinking that 



192 DEBTOR AND CREDITOR. 

if we could possibly make onr old clothes do this winter vet, 
I'd take that monej and use it for something else." 

" But I thought you'd said, over and over again, that if you 
ever got that hundred dollars you'd spend every cent of it for 
clothes, and so get a good start again." 

" So I have, mother, so I have, but — well, I'll just tell you 
what started me to thinking we'd perhaps better use it some 
other way. Just as I got off this mornir/g, I found one of old 
Ned's shoes was loose, so I went round to the smith's to have 
it fixed. Well, it was pretty early, you know, and they hadn't 
much fire yet, and the shop was open and cold, so I thought 
I'd run into Johnson's and warm me a bit. They were jist sit- 
ting down to breakfast " 

" How is Miss Johnson, father ? I have never seen her since 
her baby was born, and it must be over three weeks old now. 
Dear me, how time flies ! It's too bad, too, when I thought so 
much of her." 

" She's poorly, mother — thin as a June shad and white as a 
ghost, and the puniest baby you ever set eyes on. But as I 
was saying, they was jist sitting down to breakfast, and what 
do you think they had — rye griddle-cakes and milk-gravy " 

" No meat or potatoes ?" 

" Not the first mouthful, nor any coffee, nor any tea, but 
catnip " 

"Catnip " 

" Yes, mother, catnip. 'You've eat your breakfast, I reck- 
on,' says he, as he drew up his chair. ' If he hadn't,' says she, 
' he wouldn't relish ours much,' and then she turned her head 
away, but I saw her wipe her eyes with her apron." 

" Poor thing ! but, father, I always thought Johnson was a 
good provider." 

"So he is, mother, so he is ; but just wait till I tell you. 
' It's hard fare,' says he, as he took up a cake ; ' I didn't think 
once I could have stood it to have gone without meat or pota- 
toes, or butter or coffee, for breakfast, but these hard times play 
the deuce with a fellow's earnings.' ' But I thought you was 
doing pretty well now,' says I. ' Well, so I am,' says he. ' I 
turn away work every week, but the trouble is, no one has any 
thing to pay with ; it all goes on to the book.' Well, I tell 
you, mother, that made me feel rather uncomfortable, for I 
couldn't help thinking of the hundred dollars I owed him." 

" Yes, but he agreed to wait a year when you spoke of get- 
ting the wagon made, you know, and he's got your note for it, 
and it's bringing him interest all the time." 

" I know it, mother, but — well, when I got ready to go, he 
went out with me, and says he : 'I've been thinking about com- 



DEBTOR AND CREDITOR. 193 

ing over to see about that note, neighbor Smith. I tell you, 
we're pretty hard up just now. We an't had a spoonful of tea 
or coffee, or a bit of meat or wheat-bread in the house, since the 
baby was a week old, and we have to let all the butter go that 
we make now, to pay old Granny Boone for taking care of 
Mary a fortnight. She ought to have had help a month, for 
she's mighty thin this fall, but we were too poor.' 'But can't 
you get trusted at the store ?' says I. ' Yes, I can, but I owe 
Grey fifty dollars now, and I hate to ask him to let the bill run 
any longer, for I know he's in a tight place, too ; and then I 
owe the butcher ten dollars and the doctor ten, and I signed ten 
for tj^e minister, and I know they all want it. There's all the 
debts I owe in the world, and a hundred dollars would make 
me square, you see, and give me a little start, too, and I've 
been thinking if you could pay that note now, I'd throw off in- 
terest — yes, and ten dollars of the principle, for ninety now is 
worth more to me than a hundred and six will be next spring.' 
Well, I told him just how it was — how we'd calculated to put 
that into clothes and sick like, but he looked so sorrowful that 
I told him I'd speak to you about it, and if you thought we 
could get along till spring with the old clothes, why, I'd take 
up the note now. What do you. say, mother?" 

Mrs. Smith did not answer. She had dropped her mitten 
and was looking dreamily into the fire. 

' ; We should be out of debt then, you know," said the farmer, 
after a while, " and that would be such a comfort. We've had 
a pretty hard tussle with the world, getting all these mortgages 
paid off. I reckon it'll be many a long day before the old farm 
gets saddled with another one, but father, though a mighty hard 
working man, was always too easy with folks ; he never would 
say no." 

Still his wife did not speak. She was thinking of the many, 
many things she had " lotted so " on buying with that hundred 
dollars. 

The clock*struck nine. " Bed-time," said the farmer, giving 
himself a good shake before the fire, " and I'm ready for it, too, 
for I'm about tired out. Here, mother," taking out his pocket- 
book and handing it to her, " you take care of this ; it's mighty 
precious just now, and mind you, mother, do jist as you think 
best. If you've really set your heart on spending it for clothes, 
why, take it and buy 'em. But if, after thinking it all over, 
you find you can manage any way to make our old ones do, 
why — but do jist as you're a mind to. I don't care a copper, 
as far as I'm concerned, only I hate to think of Miss Johnson 
drinking catnip-tea and we owing her man." 

" So do I, father." 



194 DEBTOR AND CREDITOR. 

Mrs. Smith's voice was husky as she spoke, and it was only 
after she had swallowed hard two or three times, that she was 
able to add : " I'll think it all over, father, before I go to sleep, 
and see what can be done." 

She did so. Long after her husband's eyes were closed in 
sound slumber, she lay wide awake beside him, devising, calcu- 
lating, and wondering. "If it wasn't for his and Jimmie's 
boots, and Susan's and my shoes, I do believe I could manage 
after all, but I can't make over boots arid shoes. Well, well, 
I'll go to sleep, now — perhaps I can think of some way in the 
morning to get them. Poor Mary Johnson — drinking catnip- 
tea, and living on rye-cakes, and her baby only three weeks 
old, it isn't right," and then she said her prayers, oh ! how 
fervently ! and dropped off into a sleep, sweet and sound. 

Her morning work was light the next day, for she had washed 
and scrubbed and baked and churned on Monday, that in case 
her husband got his money she could get an early start to the 
store. By the time the children were off to school and the baby 
had settled himself for his morning nap, she was at liberty to 
commence her rummaging. She went first to the " south room" 
— parlor, city folks would have called it, bu.t she was country 
bred, and satisfied with the same quaint name her husband's 
mother had given it when the house was built. Opening the 
drawer of the bureau, she commenced taking out her husband's 
shirts and looking them over carefully. " Well, I declare," she 
said to herself, as she replaced them, "they an't worn so bad 
as I thought; if I put a new bosom and collars and wristbands 
on two, they'll be nearly as good as new, the muslin isn't worn 
any, hardly, and the other two will bear mending some time 
yet. The one he wore yesterday is whole, and pretty strong 
too ; that's five, and the sixth he's never had on yet, for I've 
always made it a rule to keep one out of every set all new and 
nice, in case any thing should happen." She sighed as she 
spoke, for well she knew what that "any thing" meant. 

" Yes, I guess I can keep them on another year, or till spring 
at any rate, for he don't often wear white shirts in winter, and 
it's so lucky I made up so much flannel last year. He didn't 
want me to, but I seemed possessed to do it. If I hadn't, I 
don't know what would have become of us now, with having to 
sell all our wool this summer to pay off that last mortgage. 
Thank fortune it's paid too, and the old place is safe." And 
then she took out the Sunday vest and neck-kerchief. " Well, 
they don't look so dreadful bad, after all ; I guess if I iron this 
out nice, I can fold it so as to hide the old creases, and then it'll 
do almost as well as new, and I can put new buttons on the 
vest, and bind it over, and it will last quite a spell ;" and she 



DEBTOR AND CREDITOR. 195 

closed the bureau and went to the " north room," where behind 
a sheet hung her own and husband's best clothes. " They're 
pretty thin," examining the pants, u pretty thin, but then if I 
make him a new pair out of that piece of full cloth that was 
left over last winter, why, he won't need to wear these only on 
Sundays, and he can take them off as soon as he comes from 
meeting, and that'll save them a good deal," and she hung them 
up and took down the coat. "It's most threadbare in spots, I 
declare, but then he can wear his every-day one under his over- 
coat this winter, and if he keeps that buttoned up close, why, no 
one will be the wiser. I did hope, though, to have got him a 
new coat this fall, but — well, this must do some way. They 
cost so much," and she replaced it and took down his best over- 
coat. She shook her head as she examined it, but presently 
her eyes brightened, she had remembered that there were pieces 
enough left to put on a new collar and new cuffs, " and that, 
with new buttons and new binding, will make it look quite re- 
spectable. As for his cap, he must slip that into his pocket 
when he goes into meeting; it'll do well enough elsewhere. 
JSTow I must look at mine," and she spread out on the bed a 
purple merino dress, a cloak of brown Circassian, and a black 
alpaca skirt and basque. " If they only hadn't been turned 
once — oh ! I've just thought, I'll dye the merino and the cloak, 
dip the alpaca, and then, when I've made 'em all over nice, 
they'll do as well as new." And she hung them up, and took 
down a band-box. " I was in hopes to have had a new bonnet, 
and had this made over for Susan, but I guess it'll do this win- 
ter. Poor Sue, she'll be so disappointed about the red dress ; 
she's lotted on it so much. There, I've just thought what I'll 
do ; I'll take that delaine I've had for a good dress these three 
summers, and die it crimson. There'll be enough of it to make 
the baby one, too, and the cape'll make each of them a hood. 
Susan will think just as much of it, if it's only red, and I'll buy 
her a belt some time, when I have a little butter-money. And 
that linsey of mine, that I was going to take for a petticoat, will 
make her a good every-day dress, and hers that she wore last 
winter will do for the baby ; so they're fixed out. No, there's 
her cloak. Oh ! I'll dye her old one when I'm about my clothes, 
and that'll make it as good as new in her eyes. JSTow for Jimmie. 
Let me see ; I do believe there'll be enough of that full cloth to 
make him a Sunday pair, and I'll cut over some of his father's 
old ones that I have been saving for a new carpet, for every day 
wear. And there's those old coats of his grandpa's, which I 
never could bear to think of ripping up, they'll make him all 
he needs this winter, if I cut them over ; so he's fixed, all but 
his cap ; but then caps are cheap now, and I'll save in groceries 



196 DEBTOR AND CREDITOR. 

some way, and get him one at the store with my butter-money. 
Now if it wasn't for the boots and shoes. I do wish I had 
something to sell that would bring money enough to get them. 
And I have — I have — there's these feathers ; I did once think 
I never would let them go, but I will — I will F she repeated, 
emphasizing the word heartily, and then she went into the 
kitchen again, and began to fly round to get an early dinner. 

" Groing to use the team this afternoon, father?" she asked, as 
the farmer shoved back his chair from the table. 

" No, I guess not ; why ?" 

u AVhy, Pd like to go and sit with Miss Johnson, awhile, 
father — and, father, you may take up that note, while we're 
there. I've made up my mind to make what clothes we've got 
do, somehow or other. Here's the money," and she brought 
the pocket-book from the "south room." "I've put in two 
dollars that I'd saved up out of my butter money, and as for 
the interest, why, I reckon you can fill up the wagon with some 
things that'll be as good as cash to them. I've killed and dressed 
a pair of chickens, and will put up a loaf of fresh bread and a 
pie or two, and a pail of apple-sauce." 

" That's right, mother ; and I'll load up with apples and 
garden sass and such like, that they have to buy. I feel as if I 
could give away half I own, to think I'm going to be out of 
debt. You get ready as quick as you can and I'll harness up in 
a jiffy." 

Let us follow that roll of bills, and see how many hearts were 
made glad by the self-sacrifice of one farmer's wife. 

Mrs. Johnson lay on the bed, faint and weak, and if the truth 
be told, just ready to cry. She was" actually suffering for the 
want of suitable food and drink. She never could bear rye, and 
her stomach fairly loathed it now, and she did miss her tea and 
coffee so much. She had never complained to her husband, but 
her pale, thin cheeks, as they sat down that day to dinner, had 
so touched his heart, he could not swallow a mouthful, hungry 
as he was. 

A rap at the door. She hastened to rise and open it. " "Why, 
Miss Smith, dear woman, how glad I am -to see you !•" and she 
shook her visitor cordially by the hand. 

" I'll help myself, Mary. Go and lie down again ; you don't 
look fit to sit up. I never knew how poorly you was till father 
told me last night, or I'd a-tried and got out to see you before. 
It's no one but father," as a second rap was heard at the door ; 
" come right in." 

" How are you, to-day, Miss Johnson? haven't gained much 
since yesterday ; where's Johnson — in the shop ?" 



DEBTOR AND CREDITOR. 197 

" I expect he is, Mr. Smith ; sit down, and I'll send bubby 
after him. Kim, Harry, run, and tell pa who's here." 

Mr. Johnson stood beside his bench with a chisel in his hand ; 
but not, as usual, busy as a bee. He had no heart to work ; 
" Where was the use," he muttered, "in these hard times, when 
a poor fellow, let him earn ever so much, can't get a drawing of 
tea for his sick wife ? What's that,. Harry — Mr. Smith wants to 
see me ? well, I'll come, right away, too. I do wonder if he's 
going to take up that note ; if I thought he was — but pshaw ! 
it isn't often a man pays a note till it's due, when times are easy. 
Ah ! Smith, how are you to-day ? and you, Miss Smith, pretty 
well, eh ? and there's the baby, too — don't look much like our 
little rat, here. But, sit down, Smith, sit down." 

"I haven't time, just now, Johnson. Have you got that note 
about you ? Mother, here, has concluded she'll make our old 
clothes do awhile longer, and pay up our debts, and as she 
wanted to come and visit awhile with your wife, I thought I'd 
come along and have that little business of ours all straightened 
There," counting out the money, "there's the face of the note, a 
hundred dollars, and the six months' interest is out in the wagon, 
if you'll take it that way ; if not, you must wait till butchering 
time " 

"Don't say a word about the interest, neighbor," and great 
tears rolled down Johnson's cheeks, while his wife sobbed aloud ; 
"and you must take back this ten, too," handing him a bill. 

"No, no, not a cent. You made the wagon on honor, and 
it's worth all I agreed to pay for it. Take it all ;" then twisting 
the note in his fingers, and holding it in the fire till it was all 
of a blaze, " no man can look me in the face now,.' and say I owe 
him a copper. Hard times won't trouble me any longer, for I 
can raise enough on the old place to make a living, let prices be 
ever so low, now I am out of debt ; but I- guess I'll be traveling. 
Mother wants me to go up to the 'Squire's, and sell some feathers 
for her. Come on, Johnson, and get that interest out of my 
way." 

" There, that bag's apples, and that's potatoes, and that's meal, 
and here's a lot of turnips, onions, and beets, and some of my 
big cabbages, and a pumpkin or two ; them things there in that 
bucket and pail is some little notions mother fixed up for your 
wife; you see, she thought something away from home might 
relish. Grot 'em all? well, I'll be off, then," and he whipped up 
his horses and was soon out of sight. Mr. Johnson carried in 
the interest, and then, stopping only to take off his apron and 
put on his coat, started off for the village. 

" I'll go to the minister's first," he said to himself; " for min- 
isters are always hard up — the dear knows how they do live in 
these times." 



198 DEBTOR AND CREDITOR. 

" "What is to become of us I don't know," and the minister 
shoved back his sermon-paper. "It's no use trying to write, 
I can't think of any thing but our wants. Not a candle in the 
house, or any tea, or sugar, or butter ; wife, without a calico 
dress to her back, and the children bare-footed, and Brs. Friske 
and Holmes will be here to-night, on their way home from the 
Association, and nothing but 'bread and potatoes and salt to set 
before them, and have to feel their way to their mouths in the 
bargain. O dear! if some one would only get married; but 
times are too hard, I suppose, for the young folks to think of 
that ; I haven't had a wedding- fee for three months ■ " 

"Are you too busy to see Mr. Johnson a few moments, hus- 
band?" 

" Busy ! no dear ; tell him to walk up. Ah ! friend Johnson, 
how do you do to day, and the folks at home ?" 

" Oh! I guess they'll get along now, and as for me, I'm hearty 
as ever. No, thank ye, haven't time to sit down ; I just called 
in to pay that ten dollars, I signed. There," handing him two 
fives, "just write me a receipt, if you please. I thought I'd 
pay it right over to you, for this red-tape way of doing things, 
as the law folks call it, is so slow, a man might starve before he 
got his dues. That's right," folding up the slip of paper; "good 
day, sir ; call and see us as often as you can." 

. . . . " Is the baby asleep, wife ?" said the minister, as 
he looked into the sitting-room a few moments after the front- 
door had closed on his visitor. 

" No, husband ; why ?" 

" Because, wife — because" — and he choked down a sob of 
gratitude — "Johnson has just paid me ten dollars, and I want 
you to go and spend it at the store." 

" Ten dollars ! the Lord bless him !" and she covered her face 
with her hands and wept. 

To and fro went the doctor in his little office, revolving in his 
mind his whole list of patients, and trying to think which of 
them would be most likely to pay up if he presented his bill. 
His wife had asked him for ten dollars that morning, and told 
him she must have it, for he was just naked for shirts, and their 
two little boys hadn't a whole suit of clothes in the world. 

" It's no use, no use," muttered he, as he took up his mortar 
and pestle and pounded away ; "no one's got any money, and 
if they had, they'd run right to the store with it ; the doctor's 
the last man they'd think of paying. Ah ! Johnson, how are 
you ? how's the wife, and little John C. Fremont ? sit down ; 
sit down." 

"I've only a minute to stay. Doctor, got that bill of mine 
made out?" 



DEBTOR AND CREDITOR. 199 

" No, I haven't, Johnson, but I can make it out, if you want 
it." 

11 Well, I do ; I'm round settling up my debts, and thought I 
wouldn't forget you. ' For professional attendance and medi- 
cine, ten dollars.' All right ; just what what I expected — 
there," handing him two fives, "just sign your name now, and 
we'll be even." 

.... " Could you go up to the store .this afternoon, 
wife?" The doctor's eyes twinkled as he spoke. 

"For what, husband?" and his companion looked up from 
her pile of mending in surprise. 

How quick she sprang from her chair, and how she laughed 
and cried in the same breath. Ten dollars ! it was a little for- 
tune to her. She had not seen so much money before in six 
months. 

The butcher's stall was closed, but he had not gone home yet. 
He was still there, and busy too, wiping off counters, and 
scrubbing up the floor, and straightening things generally ; but 
not whistling Yankee Doodle or Hail Columbia, his two favor- 
ite tunes, as was usual, but humming away at one of Watts's 
solemnest hymns, and looking for all the world, like a man 
going to be hanged. To tell the truth, though one of the j oiliest 
fellows in the world, he was all out of heart that day. He had 
to put on his Sunday pants that morning, because his every- 
day ones were so ragged that his wife declared they wouldn't 
even do for carpet-rags, and the doctor had ordered flannel for 
her, as the only preventive to the cough that had racked her 
all last winter, and how he was to get a new pair of pants, or 
she to get flannel, was more than he knew. Not a cent com- 
ing in ; every body wanting to pay in flour, or potatoes, or 
butter, or apples, or some such thing. 

"Halloa, old fellow! gone home, yet?" 

"No, no, Johnson; pull the string, and the latch'll fly up. 
How are you, wagon-er ? don't show your face here very often, 
any more ; turned Grahamite, I reckon." 

" Not a bit of it, man ; I'm in for a nice steak to-morrow, 
porter-house, mind ; be sure and save it ; and see here, old fel- 
low. Here's ten dollars, to shorten your face a little ; hang me, 
if it isn't as long as the moral law. Give me a receipt, quick, 
and we'll begin anew on the books. That's it ; don't forget 
that steak." 

.... " What's happened, husband ?" 

" Why ?" 

"Why, I haven't heard you whistle before, for a week. I 
should think you'd got some money, if there was any in this 
part of the Union, but I don't believe there is." 



200 DEBTOR AND CREDITOR. ^ 

"Don't yon, wifey? see here. Ten dollars: not a cent more 
or less. I'd like to keep it a week, just to see how it would 
seem to have money in my pocket once more ; but I can't — it 
burns my fingers, even now." And he whistled Yankee Doo- 
dle, till the baby's afternoon nap was completely broken up. 
"But never mind," he said cheerily, as he tossed the little one 
to and fro in his brawny arms, " I'll tend her if she's cross. 
You just put up them patches, and get ready to go to the store. 
You're a better judge than me, of cloth and flannel. I'm good 
on beef and pork and mutton, but when it comes to store 
goods, I'm the biggest fool alive ; so, hurry up, wifey, hurry 
up." 

The young merchant stood at his desk, gloomily turning 
over the leaves of his ledger. He was evidently ill at ease ; his 
brow, usually so placid, was now deeply furrowed ; his cheeks 
were feverish and his eyes heavy. He had been in business but 
two years, and having but little capital to begin on, had been 
obliged to run in debt for a portion of h;s stock. But until 
now, every payment had been made punctually, and he had 
felt himself fast getting along in the world. Now his prospects 
looked gloomy enough. He had a note of five hundred dollars 
to pay the next Friday, and here, four o'clock Wednesday 
afternoon, he had but four hundred raised. He had no hopes 
of making out the remainder, either, for he had been to every 
body who owed him, again and again. He must fail — fail for 
that paltry sum, which, in ordinary times, he could have bor- 
rowed of almost any one. Fearful of this, he had, some days 
before, reluctantly begged of the firm to which he was indebt- 
ed, an extension of time. The answer to his letter lay before 
him on the desk. They too, were in a tight place, and depend- 
ed upon the payment of his note. 

"There is no help for it," he said, shutting to the ledger; 

"I must/az7. If it wasn't for wife and the baby " Just 

then the door opened, and Johnson entered. 

"Don't leave your desk, Grrey," he said cheerily, coming 
toward it, " but just hand me over that bill of mine, if you 
have made it out." 

" Is it possible he's going to settle ?" thought the merchant, 
and great drops of sweat started to his forehead. 

" All right," and the customer ran his eye over the items. 

" Now, just write your name down there," and he handed it 
back. 

The merchant's fingers shook so, he could hardly hold the 
pen. " That's it ; now you may have these," and Johnson 
counted out five tens; "and now fly around, and do me up a 
lot of things, for our buttery's as lean as a church mouse." 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 



Our Legitimate Scope is almost boundless : for whatever begets pleasurable 
and harmless feelings, promotes Health ; and whatever induces 
disagreeable sensations, engenders Disease. 



WE AIM TO SHOW HOW DISEASE MAT BE AVOIDED, AND THAT IT IS BEST, WHEN SICKNESS COMES, TO 
TAKE NO MEDICINE WITHOUT CONSULTING A PHYSICIAN. 



Vol. IX.] SEPTEMBER, 1862, [No. 9. 

A SICK NATION. 

The cause, the nature, and the remedy, are the three thoughts 
which always engage the attention of the scientific physician in 
every given case of sickness. Each individual may have his 
own opinion on these points, in reference to our country's pres- 
ent condition ; and however obscure any man or woman may 
be, the expressed opinion of such person helps more or less to 
make up the great aggregate sentiment of the nation, and it is 
opinion which makes or destroys nationalities. Every patriot, 
in times of his country's trial, ought to sustain her to the extent 
of expressing his opinions in her favor ; under still greater obli- 
gation is he laid, in proportion as he has an influence beyond 
himself. Hence the Editor here gives his opinion, pure and 
simple, and in as clear, sharp, and distinct terms as he knows 
how to express it : Maintain our republican institutions over 
the whole Union of States, if it require a lifetime's living on 
bread and water, wearing the coarsest home- spun, dwelling in 
huts if need be, selling every dollar's worth of property for the 
national treasury, and if required, leveling to the earth and 
clearing away, as clean as the palm of the hand, every city and 
city-site throughout the confederation, only if thereby the found- 
ation is laid for the freedom of every slave that lives, and of 
every human being to be born within our boundaries, from this 
good hour. The scalpel which, is handled less gingerly, had 
better be shivered to atoms before its employment. Men may 
philosophize and refine as much as they please, but clearly to 



202 hall's journal of health. 

our mind, the cause, the sole and only cause of this war, direct 
and remote, is slavery. The South saw with alarm that its 
power was waning, that its area was becoming more restricted, 
in the certain and prospective freedom of the border States, and 
in the growing population of the North-western territorial do- 
main. They regarded the extension of the area of slavery as 
their salvation — and it was. The North was willing, in fidelity 
to the original understanding, to guarantee the South all their 
slave tights in its present boundary, but that one inch more of 
slave soil should be added to the national domain, was a moral 
impossibility. The South saw this, and the instinct of self-pres- 
ervation impelled them to take the stand they did ; it was an 
infinitely inevitable event, only a question of time. 

The Bible declaration is the only safe ground on which to 
build in this thing, and in reference to any government whose 
laws emanate from the people, resistance to its authority is re- 
bellion against God, for " he that resisteth the power, resisteth 
the ordinance of God ;" and it is as utterly impossible for any 
nation to survive a rebellion against God, as it is for an indi- 
vidual to do so ; hence the success of the South in its present 
undertaking to establish such a government as it proposes, is a 
moral impossibility. By analogy, they can never succeed. His- 
tory is uniform in its teachings that the progress of empire and 
of domination is from the North, Southward. A law of the 
people may be a bad law, but for the time being, it is for all 
that to be recognized, until it can be changed by the dissemina- 
tion of better views, and this is the only resistance which the 
Bible authorizes against legally constituted authority. Hence 
the only righteous alternatives are, submission to the laws of 
the land, peaceable removal, or the endurance of the legal pen- 
alty. Any other principle is subversive of all authority, and is 
anarchy in its worst form. With these views, we consider the 
doctrine of a " higher law " the " doctrine of devils ;" and those 
who took this ground, and defended it, in reference to the fu- 
gitive slave law, were rebels, not only against the Government 
of the United States, but against God himself, and the South, 
in its conduct, has only followed Northern example ; hence, 
whatever of vituperation and abuse and despicable epithet has 
been uttered, in speech or print, in reference to the Southern 
people, is only a degradation to those who uttered, or do utter 



A SICK NATION". 203 

them, for thereby they condemn themselves out of their own 
mouths. Besides, there is a want of magnanimity and dignity 
about it, which is unbecoming a man ; it never can do good, 
and always will do harm. If the North must be an enemy to 
the South, let it be a high-toned, generous enemy, and not a 
hissing fiend, as some even of our clerical speakers have shown 
themselves to be. " Forgive them," was said in reference to 
the pitiless crucifiers. If there ever is a " higher law " than 
that which a people have framed for their own government, 
there is only one right course as to an existing law, either 
to obey it or submit peaceably to the penalty of its overt or 
passive infraction, even unto death, or leave the country. 

The remedy, then, for the nation's malady is the perfect, utter 
and eternal eradication of the unfortunate cause, and that is the 
institution of slavery. But how apply the remedy ? Go ac- 
cording to the law of the land, as long as it is law ; free every 
slave instantly, belonging to a voluntary opposer of the Gov- 
ernment of the United States ; take from such persons all the 
property they have on earth ; demand an unconditional oath of 
submission to the constituted authorities, or require them to 
leave the country forever, with the penalty of summary death 
if they return unbidden. As to the slaves of the loyal now 
living, let them be purchased at a fair price, and be set free ; 
and all born hereafter, to be born free. What do with these 
millions ? Do as Almighty wisdom did with Adam and Eve 
— turn them into the field of the world, and let them alone. 
Just give them as fair a chance as you would like any other 
human brother give to you. If, after that, you find some of 
them are likely to surfer, do as you would do to any stranger 
beggar — try and put them in a way of doing something for 
themselves. The negroes of the South have done a great deal 
toward the prosperity of this nation. Don't we owe them a 
little help ? The gains which their sweat and toil have helped 
to make, have aided in building many a mansion in Fifth Ave- 
nue and Walnut street, on the Hudson and at Newport. 

The man who does not stand by the President and his Cabi- 
net as a unit, weakens them. Let every true man trust wholly to 
them, and sustain them by a generous confidence, in darkness 
as well as the light, for the very sufficient reason that they have 
all the lights of the case, and thus should be competent judges 



204 hall's jouenal of health. 

of the full situation, while they have at least as much patriot- 
ism and common-sense as any other equal number of persons in 
the land. A good many people seem to have just sense enough 
to believe that if the Government does not do as they think, all 
is lost ; while the ubiquitous " our correspondent " of eight-by- 
ten sheets, declares about every other day there is a ." crisis/' 
and if that cannon on " point no point " is not directed a little 
further to the right or left by to-morrow at twelve o'clock, the 
nation will be remedilessly ruined. The Editor-was born on 
slave soil, and lived among negroes for more than half his life, 
the remainder in the North, and the Southern people, as a class, 
rise before his mind daily as the personification of all that is 
cordial, high-minded, and heroic ; and that what they have 
done in this war, with the means they had, has outshone the 
North in energy, self-sacrifice, endurance, and heroic daring, 
posterity will better testify ; at the same time, that they are 
grievously in the wrong, and have committed a crime in this 
thing, second only to the crucifixion, we verily believe. But 
we know a great many good men and women all over the 
South, have personally known them from youth, and even in- 
fancy, and know that they never could have joined in this war 
unless they really believed it was right, and that it was their 
duty to do so. The North can not see how they can think it 
is right to subvert the best government the sun of heaven ever 
shone upon ; neither can the South see why the North will not 
just let them alone; it was all they asked, it is all they ask 
to-day ; so that neither side ought to be dictatorial, and both 
ought to be nobly forbearing. 

At the same time, we are free to say that, under the circum- 
stances of the case, the North ought to prosecute this war until 
the South shall surrender unconditionally — not to the North, 
but to the authority of the law of the land ; that is the submis- 
sion which the North ought to demand, ay, and the North 
will have it, if it costs the last dollar on the continent ; and it 
ought to have it ; and this contest ought no more to cease short 
of this end, and universal, liberty, than the rebellion of Apollyon 
in heaven should have ceased short of his eternal overthrow. 
Human diseases allow no temporizing. One million of men 
ought to be drafted, and half of them on their way to the seat 
of war in thirty days, (the other half held in reserve,) without 



A SICK NATION. 205 

bounty, without advance payments, but on simple soldiers' 
wages ; and then strike hard, strike fast, strike every where, 
and continuously, until the work of war is fully done, for, as 
the brave General Mitchel has significantly said, (brother Ken- 
tuckians, by the way, are we,) " We are engaged in war." 
Shall we employ the freed slaves, the rescued contrabands ? 
Yes, in any way in which the laws of honorable, warfare will 
allow. The very first and the most essential step in any man's 
elevation, is to let him see that he can do something, that he 
can help himself, that he can help others, that he can do a no- 
ble deed. After the war is over, the consciousness, " I have 
been a soldier," "I have striven side by side with the white 
man," will do more toward his elevation, in his own eyes, more 
toward sustaining his ambition, to keep him up where he is, 
and to rise higher, than five years of any other kind of teach- 
ing. One year in an active army, is ten at home. When we 
lived in New- Orleans, we often admired the manly bearing and 
the expression of self-respect and personal dignity which marked 
the countenances and conduct of the negroes who had fought 
with General Jackson on the fields of Ohalmette, and we know, 
too, that those very negroes were always held in esteem — nay, 
that is not the full meaning, we will say in affectionate respect, 
by the old inhabitants of the Crescent City ; and so are those 
who survive regarded by the oldest residents of New-Orleans 
this very hour. Still we would not arm the negro ; let the 
whites have all the glory of the war, and victory. What next ? 
Since confiscation is the law of the land, let all the confiscated soil 
be divided, by the Government, into conveniently small-sized 
parcels, and leased to any who will take them, for the cultiva- 
tion of cotton, etc. If this is done, the annual yield of cotton, 
in five years, will approach eight million bales, instead of the 
four or five millions, some two years ago. We have often laughed 
in our sleeve, as many a cotton-planter has no doubt done, at 
the monstrously absurd admission of the North, that only ne- 
groes were fit to cultivate the burning plantations of the South, 
and that white men eould not stand it. Dear, delightful igno- 
ramuses of the North, did you ever inquire who dug the canals 
of the South, and ditched its millions of reclaimed lands? 
White men, for the most part. We have a medical student in 
our office now, who graduated with honor last spring at one of 



206 hall's journal of health. 

the best medical schools in the nation, who, at sixteen, made a 
full "hand " on his loyal father's immense plantation. We can 
give you the place and name and date and residence of families 
in the Gulf States, whose cotton was plowed and planted and 
hoed and gathered by the girls and boys, under the direction 
of the father, not a negro on the place ; but they soon became 
able to own negroes, and now have plantations and "hands " 
of their own, all paid for. Having practiced medicine on South • 
ern plantations, we speak by the authority of personal observa* 
tion and actual knowledge of the facts. 

If the South is thus dealt with, thus repopulated with work- 
ing-men of any and all colors, it will, in the continuance of a 
rightly conducted republican government, by means of the ele- 
vating and restraining influences of a faithfully and intelligently 
preached Gospel, open up such a career of national prosperity, 
virtue, and greatness, as the sun never looked upon before, a 
government which will permanently hold in her own hands the 
balance of power for the world. But if this most unexpected 
and magnificent opportunity for universal liberty is not im- 
proved, then must such glorious results be indefinitely post- 
poned, and the angels in heaven may well vail their faces before 
the throne of the great King, in sorrow and sadness unutterable. 
We are conscious that in what we have said we have offended 
our Southern friends, have offended all u Conservatives," as 
they like themselves styled, and we have offended " Union " 
men, whom we regard, with a few exceptions, as secessionists at 
heart, and now we are going to offend the u balance of the 
batch" of every body, by saying we would like to have the 
hanging of three men, the three abolition extremists, and feel 
like asking for one more, the anathemist, but he is a cler- 
gyman, and there are none of these to spare ; besides, he has 
done work aforetime for the Sabbath and temperance, and other 
good causes, which is of silver and gold and precious stones, 
and for these, let him alone and compassionate him for the one 
great weak spot in his upper story. One hanging is not enough 
for these men. We would hang them every day in this wise: 
string them up by the big toe, nude, let a barrel of ice-water 
stream adown each, with daily birchings, and bread and water 
diet, until they learn to express themselves respectfully of God 
and man, of the Bible, our country, its rulers, its constitution, 



A SICK NATION. 207 

and its laws. The liberty of speech and of' the press, is liberty 
no longer, but an impudent and vile prostitution of the same 
when they are employed, against legally constituted authority, 
in indecent allusions, in blasphemous exclamations, in degrading 
Billingsgate, and in fiend-like invective, shocking public sensi- 
bility and corrupting public taste, all of which have been but 
too common of late, in our public places and public prints. 

In reference to the penalties which Congress has declared 
shall attach to men who shall persist, after September 25th, 
1862, in refusing a true fealty to the best government which 
has ever been exercised on the face of the earth — namely, the 
loss of all their earthly substance — it is a just and righteous en- 
actment ; they have not only beggared multitudes who never 
harmed them, but have sent blood and death to thousands of 
happy homes, and have caused maimings to other thousands, 
which shall cause them in all after-life to live in destitution, 
from having been rendered incapable of labor, or to labor in 
ceaseless pain, and weary, wearing discouragement. Yerily, 
many of them deserve to be banished from the land of their 
birth, to return no more, until they show by tears more bitter 
than wormwood, that they are fit subjects for the bestowment 
of a generous amelioration of penalties. Secession is not only 
a crime against our beloved country, but against our common 
humanity, inasmuch as its success is a blow to self-government, 
to republican institutions, to popular nationalities and true free- 
dom throughout the world, which may not be recovered from 
for ages to come. If secession succeeds, then the United States 
becomes a fourth-rate power for centuries perhaps, to be obe- 
dient to the beek and call of kingdoms and empires beyond the 
seas, looking up to them as the eyes of a maiden look to the 
hand of her mistress. Eather than let our country come even 
within the shadow of perils like these, it would be better that 
every human being whose voice or heart or hand is continued 
to be raised against her in outright rebellion, or in the doubtful 
mask of " Union,' 7 of " conservatism," or of deprecating or 
halting adhesion to the authorities, better that all such should 
be swept from the face of the earth, that their memories rot, 
and their names be the synonyms of infamy, till time shall be 
no longer. Monday, July 28th, 1862. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 94. 
HOUSEKEEPING HIUNTTS. 

Health is impaired, and even life lost sometimes, by using imperfect, unripe, 
musty, or decaying articles of food. The same money's worth of a smaller amount 
of good is more nutritious, more healthful, and more invigorating than a much 
larger amount of what is of an inferior quality. Therefore, get good food, and 
keep it good until used. Remember that 

Fresh meats should be kept in a cool place, but not freezing or in actual contact 
with ice. 

Flour and meal should be kept in a cool, dry place, with a space of an inch or 
more between the floor and the bottom of the barrel. 

Sugars. — Havana sugar is seldom clean, hence not so good as that from Brazil, 
Porto Rico, and Santa Cruz. Loaf, crushed, and granulated sugars have most 
sweetness, and go further than brown. 

Butter for winter use should be made in mid-autumn. 

Lard that is hard and white, and from hogs under a year old, is best. 

Cheese soft between fingers is richest and best. Keep it tied in a bag hung in a 
cool, dry place. Wipe off the mold with a dry cloth. 

Rice, large, clean, and fresh-looking is best. 

Sago, small and white, called u Pearl," is best. 

Coffee and tea should be kept in close canisters, and by themselves. Purchase 
the former green ; roast and grind for each day's use. 

Apples, oranges, and lemons keep longest wrapped close in paper, and kept in 
a cool, dry place. Thaw frozen apples in cold water. 

Bread and cake should be kept in a dry, cool place, in a wooden box, aired in 
the sun every day or two. 

All strong- odored food should be kept by itself, where it can not scent the house. 
. Bar-soap should be piled up with spaces between them in a dry cellar, having the 
air all around it to dry it for months before using; the drier, the less waste. 

Cranberries kept covered with water will keep for months in a cellar. 

Potatoes spread over a dry floor will not sprout. If they do, cut off the sprouts 
often. If frozen, thaw them in hot water, and cook at once. By peeling off the 
skin after they are cooked, the most nutritious and healthful part is saved. 

Corned beef should be put in boiling water, and boil steadily for several hours. 

Hominy or " samp" should steep in warm water all night, and boil all next day 
in an earthen jar surrounded with water. 

Spices and peppers should be ground fine, and kept in tin cans in a dry place. 
A good nutmeg " bleeds" at the puncture of a pin. Cayenne pepper is better for 
all purposes of health than black. 

Beans, white, are the cheapest and most nutritious of all articles of food in this 
country. The best mealy potatoes sink in strong salt water. 

Hot drinks are best at meals ; the less of any fluid the better. Any thing cold 
arrests digestion on the instant. 

It is hurtful and is a wicked waste of food to eat without an appetite. 

All meats should be cut up as fine as a pea, most especially for children. The 
same amount of stomach-power expended on such a small amount of food, as to 
be digested perfectly without its being felt to be a labor, namely, without any ap- 
preciable discomfort in any part of the body, gives more nutriment, strength, and 
vigor to the system, than upon a larger amount, which is felt to require an effort, 
giving nausea, fullness, acidity, wind, etc. 

Milk, however fresh, pure, and rich, if drunk largely at each meal, say a glass 
or two, is generally hurtful to invalids and sedentary persons, as it tends to cause 
fever, constipation, or biliousness. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 95. 

DUKATION OF LIFE. 

The average duration of life of man in civilized society is about thirty-three and 
a third years. This is called a generation, making three in a century. But there 
are certain localities and certain communities of people where this average is con- 
siderably extended. The mountaineer lives longer than the lowlander ; the farmer 
than the artisan ; the traveler than the sedentary ; the temperate than the self- 
indulgent ; the just than the dishonest. " The wicked shall not live out half his 
days," is the announcement of Divinity. The philosophy of this is found in the 
fact, that the moral character has a strong power over the physical ; a power much 
more controlling than is generally imagined. The true man conducts himself in the 
light "of Bible precepts; is "temperate in all things;" is "slow to anger ;" and on 
his grave is written : " He went about doing good." In these three things are the 
great elements of human health : the restraint of the appetites ; the control of the 
passions; and that highest type of physical exercise, " going about doing good." 
It is said of the eminent Quaker philanthropist, Joseph John Gurney, that the 
labor and pains he took to go and see personally the objects of his contemplated 
charities, so that none of them should be unworthily bestowed, was of itself almost 
the labor of one man, and he attended to his immense banking business besides ; 
in fact, he did too much, and died at sixty. The average length of human life of 
all countries, at this age of the world, is about twenty-eight years. One quarter 
of all who die do not reach the age of seven; one half die before reaching 
seventeen ; and yet the average of life of " Friends," in Great Britain and Ireland, 
in 1860, was nearly fifty-six years, just double the average life of other peoples. 
Surely this is a strong inducement for all to practice for themselves, and to incul- 
cate it upon their children day by day, that simplicity of habit, that quietness of 
demeanor, that restraint of temper, that control of the appetites and propensities, 
and that orderly, systematic, and even mode of life, which "Friends'" discipline 
inculcates, and which are demonstrably the means of so largely increasing the 
average of human existence. 

Reasoning from the analogy of the animal creation, mankind should live nearly 
an hundred years ; that law seeming to be, that life should be five times the length 
of the period of growth ; at least, the general observation is, that the longer per- 
sons are growing, the longer they live ; other things being equal. Naturalists say, 

A dog grows for 2 years, and lives 8 
An ox " 4 " "* 16 

Ahorse " 5 " " 25 

A camel " 8 " " 40 

Man " 20 " should live 100 

But the sad fact is, that only one man for every thousand reaches one hundred 
years. Still it is encouraging to know, that the science of life, as revealed by the 
investigations of the physiologist and the teachings of educated medical men, is 
steadily extending the period of human existence. The distinguished historian 
Macaulay states, that in 1685 one person in twenty died each year; in 1850, out 
of forty persons, only one died. Dupin says, that from 17Y6 to 1843 the duration 
of life in France increased fifty-two days annually, for in l^Sl the mortality was 
one in twenty-nine ; in 1853, one in forty. The rich men in France live forty-two 
years on an average ; the poor, only thirty. Those who are " well to do in the 
world" live about eleven years longer than those who have to work from day to 
day for a living. Remunerative labor and the diffusion of the knowledge of the 
laws of life among the masses, with temperance and thrift, are the great means of 
adding to human health and life ; but the more important ingredient, happiness, is 
only to be found in daily loving, obeying, and serving Him " who giveth us all 
things richly to enjoy." 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 96. 



SEEEKITY. 

" Friends," commonly known as Quakers, as a class live longer than any other 
persons in the world. The very name of " Quaker" brings up before the mind the 
personification of equanimity, composure, and quiet dignity. The serene command 
at once our confidence, our respect, and our love. The brave are serene, and so 
are the good. In fact, serenity is our highest dignity ; it is godlike ! And as we 
should aim to be like Him, in all the qualities possible to man, it is our duty to 
cultivate serenity, not only because it promotes length of days on earth, and hap- 
piness, but does much toward preparation for that after-life whose duration is end- 
less and whose quality is bliss ! That serenity of mind is a cultivatable character- 
istic, is demonstrated by the existence of Friends' Society. Their founders were 
as other men in birth and habits and propensities ; but convictions of certain 
moral and practical truths came upon them, and they emerged into a new life ; 
they "put off the old man with his deeds," and thereupon framed to themselves 
a new garb, a "moral dress," which makes them stand out in the world a dis- 
tinct and an admired people. Peace is a fundamental faith of theirs, and peace 
is serene. Temperance in all things is another article in their creed, and tem- 
perance is serene. Even-handed justice toward all of human kind is the polar- 
star of their practical faith, and justice is serene. By the practice of these 
serenities themselves, and by their inculcation upon their children, they have, 
in half a dozen generations, made it an almost inheritable virtue. While we 
should cultivate serenity of heart and mind, for the benign influences which it 
can not fail to have on ourselves and on those with whom we associate, we should 
be deterred from the neglect of cherishing a quality so divine by keeping in mind 
the evils which hourly befall those who give a loose rein to the natural man. The 
great and good Washington is known to have been an extremely irritable man in 
early life, but he schooled himself to become as calm as a summer's sea in his later 
years. Our children should be early taught to look calmly at all things, to speak 
calmly of all things, and judge calmly of all things, and thus avoid those habits 
of conversational exaggerations, of hasty judgments, of ridiculous praises, and of 
demoniacal vituperations which so commonly prevail, and which are at once a 
disgrace to the head and heart of the multitudes who are chargeable in this regard. 
The want of this self-control, of this calm looking at trouble and at joy, lays us 

all liable to death without a moment's notice! Mr. P died the other day in 

this city from " some words with a gentleman, which excited him greatly." " He 
was a man of varied abilities, and had held many high and responsible situations," 
and might have held them for many years to come had he possessed one other 

" ability," that of serenity. Mrs. G , " a lady of high social distinction," on 

hearing that her nephew had been elected to Parliament, died under the excite- 
ment of the gratifying intelligence. Let us then practice ourselves, and teach it 
to our children, to look at all things, to think of all things, to speak of all things 

" SERENELY." 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 97. 



DIARRHEA. 

This word means, literally, a " running through" and as applied to the human 
body, in connection with a diseased condition, its expressiveness is easily seen. 
Whatever a person eats or drinks seems to pass through the system very soon, 
and with comparatively little change. 

Simple diarrhea is the passing from the bowels of a watery, lightish-colored sub- 
stance, in considerable quantities, at several times during the twenty-four hours, 
sometimes with pain ; always leaving a sense of weakness, which makes sitting still 
a deliciousness, as if it would be a happiness to know that there would be no occa- 
sion ever to get up again. 

If blood is passed instead of a thin, light-colored liquid, it is then Dysentery, or 
"Bloody Flux," accompanied with a frequent desire to stool, without being able to 
pass any thing, with a sensation so distressing, that the Latins called it Tormina, 
literally a " torment." If, on the other hand, the discharges are frequent, imper- 
ative, in immense quantities, thin as water almost, and of a lightish color, without 
any pain whatever ; that is genuine cholera — Asiatic cholera. It is quite sufficient 
for all common, practical purposes, to say that diarrhea, dysentery, and Asiatic 
cholera are one and the same disease, differing only in intensity. Diarrhea is a 
watery looseness ; dysentery is a bloody looseness ; cholera is an immense watery 
looseness. 

In diarrhea, there is not much pain, necessarily. In dysentery, there is a great 
deal of pain inevitably. In cholera, there is never any at all as to the bowels. In 
diarrhea discharges always succeed inclination. In dysentery there is a most dis- 
tressing inclination, with no satisfactory, no relieving discharge. 

In cholera, desire is followed always by immense and relieving discharges. In 
all these, there is one never-failing circumstance always and inevitably present, and 
never can be absent, under any conceivable circumstances — it is the quenchless in- 
stinct of nature calling for absolute rest, bodily quietude, and without that rest, 
a cure is always impossible, and death an inevitable event. 

There is in all these a remorseless thirst. Nature then calls for two things, to 
satisfy her longings for rest and drink, and if these two things are done with suffi- 
cient promptness, there is a perfect cure in nine cases out of ten. Perfect quietude 
on a bed, and chewing ice, swallowing as large pieces as possible, until the thirst is per- 
fectly satisfied, is all that is necessary in any ordinary attack of either of these three 
diseases. To make assurance doubly sure, keep the abdomen tightly bound around 
with two thicknesses of woolen flannel, eating nothing but boiled rice, with boiled 
milk, in ordinary cases ; if more violent, let the rice be parched black as coffee 
usually is, then boil and eat it ; or what is still more efficient, put a pound or more 
of flour in a linen bag, boil it two hours in milk, take off the skin, dry it, grate it 
into boiled milk, and eat it freely, and nothing else, until the disease is checked. 
If these bowel-complaints are checked too promptly with laudanum, paregoric, or 
opium, fatal convulsions take place in a few hours, as to children, and incurable 
congestion or inflammation of the brain in grown persons. As bowel diseases are 
the scourge of all armies in the fall of the year, these suggestions should be widely 
circulated. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 98. 



M IAS M . 

The scourge of camps, especially in the fall of the year, is an emanation from the 
surface of the earth, most virulently poisonous at sunset and sunrise, throughout 
the United States, the more so southward, and is called Miasm, sometimes more speci- 
fically, " Marsh Miasm." Formerly, (and perhaps now,) the steps of St. Peter's at 
Rome were covered every night with sleeping harvesters, who spent the day in cut- 
ting and gathering the grass and grain in the Pontine and other marshes, and 
broad, flat, damp fields, around the " Eternal City," because, ignorant and degraded 
as they are, they know that to sleep in those fields, even under cover, is certain 
sickness, and in thousands of cases death itself in a few days, by malignant fevers 
or wasting bowel-complaints. The noisome fumes of carrion -beasts are pure polar 
winds, in comparison to the deadly effects of a miasmatic atmosphere, which, 
while it is being breathed, appears so deliriously cool and fresh and pure, that sci- 
entific intelligence can scarcely (and often does fail to) break the victim away 
from the fatal spell. But miasm is under certain laws, and medical investigation 
has ascertained with certainty several of these, and the means by which this in- 
visible but deadly agency may be deprived of its power to harm or to destroy. In 
ordinary circumstances, in our latitudes, persons may sleep out of doors in mias- 
matic districts, without injury, if between the times of an hour or so after sun- 
down, and as long before the succeeding sun-rising ; while from an hour after sun- 
rise, until near the succeeding sunset, being the day-time, it is not hurtfullypresent. 
It is only for the hour or two, including sunrise and sunset, from August until 
November, or two or three good frosts, that armies should be most on their guard 
against that invisible and entrancing foe, which has slain a thousand times more 
soldiers in all past times, than sword, bullet, and cannon-ball, by the bowel-com- 
plaints, and fevers, and epidemics, and plagues, which it has the power to en- 
gender. There are three agencies which always will perfectly and safely antagonize 
all the ill effects of Miasm, to wit : 1st. A good warm meal ; 2d. Heat ; 3d. Cold. 
It is curious to notice how each of these acts differently. Cold only paralyzes 
miasm, for, like the frozen adder, it comes to life to destroy as soon as it is warmed. 
Heat, continuously applied, sends the miasm to the clouds, hence its innocuousness 
in the heat of the day every where ; while a hearty, warm breakfast or supper 
makes the system impervious to its effects, makes it invulnerable, repels its deadly 
onslaught. Miasm arises from only one source, and that is a combination of three 
familiar agencies, each one of which must be always present, or its generation is 
absolutely impossible, namely, heat over eighty degrees acting on vegetable sub- 
stances which have moisture ; or heat, vegetation, moisture. Any individual may 
escape the effects of miasm by invariably taking a warm breakfast an hour before 
sunrise in the morning, and a warm supper awhile before sundown ; or a pint of 
hot coffee, or any kind of hot tea or milk, or simple hot water, with a thimbleful 
of cayenne pepper in it ; but a regular meal lasts much longer in its antagonizing 
effects. Kindling a brisk fire in the sitting-room, to burn for the hour including sun- 
rise and sunset, will protect any family from fall epidemics ; and the same will be 
done for armies, by keeping the camp-fire burning during the nights along the 
streets of tents, a million times better than quinine and whisky. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 99. 



HABIT. 

Burke relates that for a long time he had been under the necessity of fre- 
quenting a certain place every day, and that, so far from finding a pleasure 
in it, he was affected with a sort of uneasiness and disgust ; and yet, if by 
any means he passed by the usual time of going thither, he felt remark- 
ably uneasy, and was not quieted until he was in his usual track. 

Persons who use snuff soon deaden the sensibility of smell, so that a 
pinch is taken unconsciously, and without any sensation being exerted 
thereby, sharp though the stimulus may be. 

After a series of years winding up a watch at a certain hour, it becomes 
so much a routine as to be done in utter unconsciousness ; meanwhile the 
mind and body are engaged in something entirely different. 

An old man is reported to have scolded his maid-servant very severely 
for not having placed his glass in the proper position for shaving. ''Why, 
sir," replied the girl, " I have omitted it for months, and I thought you 
could shave just as well without it." 

We are all creatures of habit, and the doing of disagreeable things may 
become more pleasant than omissions ; showing to the young the import- 
ance of forming correct habits in early life, to the end that they may be 
carried out without an effort, even although at first it may have required 
some self-denial, some considerable resolution to have fallen into them. 

But if doing disagreeable things does by custom become more pleasurable 
than their omission, then the doing right, because we love to do what is right, 
becomes a double pleasure to the performer in the consciousness that, 
while he is yielding allegiance to his Maker, he benefits his fellow-man, 
and can not get out of the habit of well-doing without an effort and a pang. 
Thus are the truly good hedged round about, and are more confirmed io 
their good doing, and its practice becomes easier and more delightful the 
longer they live, helping them to go down to the grave " like as a shock of 
corn cometh in his season." 

But if there is something in the fixedness of good habits that binds us 
to them, there is the same thing as to the evil. Thus it is that when a 
man has arrived at the age of forty-five years, he seldom changes his opin- 
ions or his practices, which, if they are evil, become more and more fixed. 
Thus, what a man believes and practices at forty-five, he is likely to be- 
lieve and practice till he dies ; and there is small hope of his conversion to 
different views and different deeds, and the Ethiopian's skin, or the 
leopard's spots are his forever. The man, therefore, who is not a Christian 
— by principle, and profession, and practice — at that age, should regard 
his condition "with fear and trembling," for it is most likely that he never 
will be one. 

These principles are equally applicable to our physical nature — to bodily 
health. Habits of regularity, temperance, cleanliness, and exercise be- 
come a second nature in the course of years ; their performance a plea- 
sure, their infraction a discomfort ; while the use of beverages of ale, beer, 
cordials, cider, and other drinks containing alcohol, or the employment of 
tobacco in chewing, smoking, or snuffing, and the over-indulgence of the 
propensities, becomes a slavery, an iron despotism, which in the end dc 
bases the heart, undermines the health, and destroys life, making a misei 
able wreck of soul, body and estate together. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 100. 

SOLDIERS CARED FOR, 

Out of one thousand soldiers, one hundred and four are sick ; this is the constant 
proportion, as reported by the Sanitary Commission. The autumn always increases 
the number, by reason of the hot days and cool nights, causing diarrheas and dys- 
enteries, of every shade and degree. One yard and a half of stout woolen flannel, 
fourteen inches broad, worn, from August to November, tightly and constantly around 
the abdomen, in such a way that it will be double in front, with bits of tape strongly 
sewed on one end, and about one yard from the other, according to the size of the 
person, for convenience of tying, would do more toward preventing bowel-com- 
plaints among our brave and self-denying soldiers, than all known human means 
besides. This simple device arrested the onset of cholera, in three days, in one of 
the largest divisions of the Prussian army, when the terrible scourge last visited Eu- 
rope. Let every family who has a member in the army, forward such an article on 
the instant of reading this ; if you can do no better, send an old worn petticoat, 
for, by reason of its softness and pliability, it is better than any thing else. Let 
every mother who reads this, and who may have no son or other relative bravelv 
battling for the perpetuity of our glorious Union, send one abdominal bandage, to 
be given to some worthy soldier who has no mother, no sister, no wife, to exercise 
these kindly cares for him. And let the generous rich, of whom there are so 
many among us — the Astors, the Aspinwalls, the Minturns, the Stuart Brothers, 
and those like them — be assured that it is impossible to spend an equal amount of 
money as efficiently, in any other way. One man who has been in the army twelve 
months is worth now two raw recruits ; hence one dollar's worth of good woolen 
flannel for one of them, or even an old petticoat, by keeping such soldier healthy 
in the field, will be worth more than the fifty dollars bounty paid for the two re- 
cruits, under the present exigencies of the case. 

Winter is coming ; let the sisters and mothers of the soldiers begin to knit two 
or three pairs of thick woolen socks, to be forwarded to each son and brother by 
the first of October ; let the toes and heels be double knitted, or sheathed with 
the blue cloth of some worn-out coat or pantaloons, cautioning the soldier to keep 
the toe-nails closely trimmed, so as to prevent the cutting of the socks. 

Begin at once, and put up in quart tin cans, to be forwarded at intervals, (for if 
sent in large quantities at a time, they will be wasted or too lavishly used,) pickled 
cucumbers and cabbage. Onions are represented by physiologists to be among the 
most wholesome and nutritious of all the vegetable products, besides their imme- 
diately invigorating and enlivening effects. If a gallon of onions could be sent to 
each soldier, once a month, in addition to a quart of pickled cucumbers or cabbage, 
scurvy, already beginning to manifest itself, would be unknown. And if it could 
be felt how grateful a quart tin can of preserved berries, tomatoes, or fruits, would 
be to a soldier who does not see such things, preserved or fresh^ sometimes for 
months together, their sisters, and mothers, and cousins, and wives would spare no 
little pains to prepare a good supply for months to come, and would begin to send 
them on the instant. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 101 



SOEES 

A.RE accidental or spontaneous. They sometimes heal readily ; at others, they re- 
sist all known remedies, and last for months, years, and even to the close of life. 
Many persons appear in perfect health, and yet, on inquiry, it will be found that 
they have had running sores on some part of the body for many years. If a person 
is in good health, and a sore is made by a bruise, scratch, splinter, or otherwise, it 
will heal of itself rapidly ; but if an invalid, or if of a feeble constitution, the sore 
will be a long time in healing, and may prove very troublesome. Persons who 
drink alcoholic liquors have very little healing power, and a slight bruise or abra- 
sion of the skin will be weeks and months in getting well. The men who work 
about the London breweries drink large quantities of ale and beer every day, and 
when they get to be forty or fifty years old, the scratch of a pin sometimes be- 
comes fatal ; and very slight bruises or cuts are healed with the greatest difficulty. 

An abrasion of the skin, where there is but little flesh, as on the " shin," very 
often becomes a running sore for life, because there is little vitality in the part. A 
gentleman of wealth, in getting into his carriage, had a slip of the foot, and the fore- 
part of the leg scraped against the iron door-step ; it inflamed, spread, ulcerated ; 
mortification took place, and he died. He drank liquor habitually. The healthiest 
persons should carefully protect any sore on the fore-part of the leg from being- 
rubbed by the clothing. Never allow the " scab" to be picked off; let it fall off of 
itself. 

Sores sometimes come without apparent cause. It is because the blood is " bad,'' 
is in a diseased condition, and nature is making an effort to throw it out of the sys- 
tem. The person is apparently well, has a good appetite ; tries this thing, that, and 
the other, but nothing seems to do any good. And nothing will do any good, be- 
sides keeping it clean and moist, until nature has relieved herself, until the blood 
has "run itself" pure; and then the sore heals without any agency. Very often at 
this turning-point a person happens, on advice, to smear on a little goose-grease, or 
other inert material, and the sore gets well — not as a consequence, but as a coinci- 
dence — and thereafter, until life's close, goose-grease with that individual becomes 
a famous remedy, is " good for" sores, and every thing else. The sore in such 
cases has prevented an attack of fever or other sickness. On the appearance of any 
sore, it is wise to begin at once, and eat nothing but fruit3 and coarse bread ; keep 
the body clean, and exercise more freely in the open air, and thus aid nature in 
working off the offending matters. Life is often lost by healing up a running sore 
rapidly. It should never be done, unless at the same time the system is kept free 
by the use of laxative food or medicine. Under such conditions, the most incorrigi- 
ble scrofulous sores may be soon and safely healed, thus : first wash the sore well, 
then apply with a brush or soft rag, twice a day, the following: put one ounce of 
aquafortis into a bowl or saucer ; drop in two copper cents ; when effervescence 
ceases, add tW3 ounces of strong vinegar. If it smarts too severely, add a little rain- 
water. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 102. 



GEEED OF GOLD. 

When Napoleon, about 1811, desired to build a palace for the King of Rome, 
near the barrier de Passy, the shop of a poor cobbler, named Simon, stood in the 
way. Simon having learned what was going on, demanded twenty thousand francs 
for his tenement. The administrator hesitated a few days, and then decided to 
give it ; but Simon, goaded by the god of gain, now asked forty thousand francs. 
This sum was more than two hundred times its value, and the demand was scouted. 
An attempt was made to change the frontage, but being found impossible, they 
went again to the cobbler, who had raised his price to sixty thousand francs. He 
was offered fifty thousand, but refused. The Emperor would not give a franc more, 
and preferred to change his plans. The speculating son of St. Crispin then saw his 
mistake, and offered his property for fifty thousand francs, forty thousand, thirty 
thousand, coming down at last to ten thousand. The disasters of 1814 happened, 
and all thoughts of a palace for the King of Rome were abandoned. Some months 
after, Simon sold his shop for one hundred and fifty francs, and in a few days after 
the sale was removed to an insane asylum ; disappointed avarice had driven him 
crazy. 

"There was an old man," says an Eastern parable, "who had abundance of gold ; 
the sound of it was pleasant to his ears, and his eye delighted in its brightness. By 
day he thought of gold, and his dreams were of gold by night. His hands were full 
of gold, and he rejoiced in the multitude of his chests ; but he was faint from hun- 
ger, and his trembling limbs shivered beneath his rags; No kind hand ministered 
to him, nor cheerful voices made music in his home. And there came a child to 
him, and said: 'Father, I have found a secret. We are rich. You shall not be 
hungry and miserable anymore. Gold will buy all things.' Then the old man was 
wroth, and said : ' Would you take from me my gold?' " 

Many years since, a seafaring man called at a village inn on the coast of Norman- 
dy, and asked for supper and a bed. The landlord and landlady were elderly peo- 
ple, and apparently poor. He entered into conversation with them, invited them 
to partake of his cheer — asked them many questions about themselves and their 
family, and particularly of a son who had gone to sea when a boy, and whom they 
had long given over as dead. The landlady showed him to his room, and when she 
quitted him, he put a purse of gold into her hand, and desired her to take care of it 
till the morning — pressed her affectionately by the hand, and bade her good night. 
She returned to her husband, and showed him the gold. For its sake they agreed to 
murder the traveler in his sleep, which they accomplished, and buried the body. 
In the morning early, came two or three relations, and asked in a joyful tone for 
the traveler who had arrived there the night before. The old people seemed greatly 
confused, but said that he had risen very early and gone away. "Impossible!" 
said the relations. " It is your own son, who is lately returned to France, and is 
come to make happy the evening of your days, and he resolved to lodge with you 
one night as a stranger, that he might see you unknown, and judge of your conduct 
toward wayfaring mariners." Language would be incompetent to describe the hor- 
ror of the murderers, when they found that they had dyed their hands in the blood 
of their long-lost child. They confessed their crime, the body was found, and the 
wretched murderers expiated their offense by being broken alive upon the wheel. 

A London shipping merchant, on a beautiful May morning of 1862, was found 
dead in his chamber, with so horrible an expression on his countenance, that the 
persons who first entered the apartment instinctively turned away their faces in un- 
controllable terror. Death had given him but a minute's notice, but it was a min- 
ute of sane consciousness that he was leaving four millions of dollars ; that he 
would instantly stand before his Maker, to give an account of his stewardship ; and 
that through a long life he had made it his boast and a consistent practice : " I never 
bestow a penny in charity." 

Strive, reader, against the "greed of gold." It is a merciless tyrant, and in the 
end not only kills the body, but destroys the soul. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 103. 



"PRESERVES" 

Are sometimes deadly poisons, in consequence of the improper material of the ves- 
sels in which they are made or are contained. If made in copper or brass kettles, 
the utmost and closest attention should be given, to see that every spot the size of 
a pin should fairly glisten by vigorous and thorough scouring. But even this will 
not avail if the preserves themselves are imperfectly sweetened, or are not thor- 
oughly cooked. A defect in either case will result in corroding the cans or jars in 
which they are put for keeping. This corrosion makes chemical combinations 
which are fatal to life, or lay the foundation for long, distressing, and obscure dis- 
eases. The only perfectly safe preserve-jar is that which is made of glass. All 
others ought to be discarded. They are cheap, more easily and more perfectly 
cleaned, and with reasonable care, will last a lifetime. And as every family with any 
claim to thrift, respectability, and hospitality, aims to have more or less of "pre- 
serves" for the winter months, the fact of having safe " preserves," as to health, is 
of very general interest; otherwise they are no " preserves" at all, but "destruc- 
tives" alike to health and even life. It certainly would be better to have none at 
all, for they tempt us to eat when we do not feel much like eating, especially at tea- 
time, and thus aid in making many miserable dyspeptics; but as "thrifty house- 
wives" will have them, it is well to instruct the public as to the best means of hav- 
ing them free from actual poison. It is to be hoped that no intelligent, conscien- 
tious person will keep preserves in any other vessel hereafter than those of glass. 
The jars should be made of "blown," not pressed glass, and if uniformly thin, are 
less liable to break by the fermentation of their contents. 

But as external air will cause fermentation, every jar should be made perfectly 
air-tight. Cork alone can never do this, unless a trench is dug in a good cellar and 
the filled jars are put in, mouths down, and then well covered with earth or sand 
A better plan is that advised by the Scientific American. Waxed cloth tied over 
the jar is a substitute at once cheap and effective, and we have never found any thing 
superior to it. Prepare the cloth thus : melt together some rosin, beeswax, and 
tallow in equal parts ; tear the cloth in strips four inches wide, or at least wide 
enough conveniently to tie over the mouth of the jar, and dip these strips, drawing 
them through the hot wax and stripping nearly all the wax off. With cloth thus 
prepared, after the jar is filled with hot preserves, and while still hot, close the 
mouth and bind it on with good linen cord. Then with shears trim off as much of 
the waxed cloth as is desirable, and then dip it in some melted wax, which should 
be made with only about half as much tallow. Sealing-wax may be used instead if 
desired. The jars should be put where the wax will cool at once, so that the ex- 
haustion, caused by the cooling of the preserves and the condensation of the steam, 
may not cause the wax to run through the cloth. Nothing can be more thoroughly 
air-tight than bottles so prepared. 

Self-sealing air-tight glass jars, which are now so common, are the best vessels foi 
securing preserved fruits, but the above is good advice to those who have plenty 
of common glass j ars and bottles. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 104. 



STJN~r>A.Y DINNERS. 

Many a man has the courage to march to the cannon's mouth, and yet fails to 
resist over-indulgence in eating. He who has an intellect peerless among the gen- 
eration in which he lives, becomes an imbecile at the dinner-table. The great Jon- 
athan Edwards endeavored for two years to eat only as much as would meet the 
wants of the system ; but day after day he found himself conquered ; day after day 
he made the same record of these attempts — " failure !" For two years he went to 
his meals each day, resolving he would not eat too much ; for two years he came 
away from the table forced to confess his convictions that he had "exceeded.'' 
When he had eaten a decent dinner, his common sense told him to desist ; but then 
his uncommon sense would step in and say: " I shall be somewhat faint if I leave 
off now." So he would not leave off, and "in three minutes afterward I am con- 
vinced of excess." If such great minds have so little control over their appetites, 
it can not be wondered at that the less gifted, that the masses should abandon them- 
selves to over-indulgence in all their propensities. Excess in eating may be avoided 
by taking three regular meals a day (nothing between) in a private room — having 
such an amount sent as observation shows can be eaten, and still leave a desire for 
more. For fifteen years that was the practice of that beautiful character and emi- 
nent philanthropist, Amos Lawrence, of Boston. There is wisdom and health in the 
practice of some who habitually avoid eating meat of any kind every Friday. A 
better plan still, quite as sure of religious profit as of physical advantage, is to take 
nothing for breakfast or supper on the Sabbath-day but a piece of cold bread and 
butter, with a single cup of weak coffee or tea, or other hot drink, taking at one p.m. 
a single bowl of any kind of soup, with the crust of cold bread broken into it. This 
can be taken to the utmost amount desired, for the nutritious material in it is so 
small that the sense of oppression induced by an equal bulk of a promiscuous meal 
is not experienced, or if so, it is slight, momentary, and harmless. If such a system 
of eating were adopted in families on the Sabbath, taking not an atom of any thing 
between meals, an amount of human suffering and sickness would be prevented, 
which to the multitude would be absolutely incredible, could it be expressed in num- 
bers. Let the reader try it for a single day on himself, and see if he will not have a 
feeling of wellness on that and the succeeding day, which is delicious in its physical 
results, and prevents the indecorous and overpowering sleepiness which is so antago- 
nistic of the profitable and enjoyable service which is proper to the sanctuary. It 
was an expressive saying of that gifted and model minister and man, the Rev. Dr. 
James W. Alexander, that "too many of us, by reason of 'Sunday dinners,' were 
more like gorged anacondas than any thing else, and thus became totally unfit for 
the afternoon service." He who deprives the body of one day's rest in seven, a 
Divinity has ordered in wisdom and mercy, will always suffer for it sooner or later 
now and hereafter ; so the man who gives the stomach no rest, never will live out 
his appointed time, and will be miserable while he does live. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 105. 



M ^l R R I -A. a E . 

Marriage is the natural state of human kind. There never can be lasting good 
health without it ; it is an impossibility, except combined with criminal practices. 
A person may live in good health to the age of twenty-five, but if marriage is de- 
ferred beyond that, every month's delay -is the eating out, more and more, the very 
essence of life, and the worm of certain disease and premature death burrows the 
more deeply into the vitals. On the other hand, marriage not later than twenty- 
five, prolongs life. It was for this reason, noticed some three thousand years ago, 
that the ancients dedicated a temple to Hymen, the god of youth ; that is, " to the 
deity which prolongs youth." Men and women get older more rapidly when they 
remain single, and die off more rapidly ; the men from falling into dissipated habits 
and irregularities. The woman, true to nature's instincts, and living in her purity, 
grows less and less vivacious, and by slow degrees settles down in inaction, in fee- 
bleness, and premature decline. 

As long as a man is unmarried, he feels himself unfixed, unsettled ; and keen 
business men consider him insecure, because he can any day pack up his trunk and 
disappear. The most magnificent swindlers in Wall street, those for the very 
largest amounts, were unmarried men. 

There has always existed, from very early ages, a general and almost instinctive 
prejudice against those who remain unmarried after thirty. Lycurgus legislated 
against celibacy, and Cato outlawed female celibates at twenty-five, and bachelors 
of thirty-five. It was a creed of the earlier nations, that the souls of those who 
died unmarried, were doomed to eternal wanderings. 

In the present state of society, if the daughter should be encouraged to marry 
at twenty-one, and the son at twenty-five, vigorous health and moral purity would 
be promoted therebv. Pride and cowardice join in delaying marriage ; but let the 
fearful statistics of the larger cities of the world tell the sad story of demoraliza- 
tion. In Milan there are thirty -two illegitimates out of every hundred children 
born ; in Paris thirty-three, in Brussels thirty-five, in Munich forty-eight, in Vienna 
fifty-one. 

Out of every hundred suicides, sixty-seven are single, thirty-three married. 

Of the hapless insane, out of one hundred and seventy-two, ninety-eight were 
single, seventy-four married. 

Celibacy is a constant cause of premature death. Of one hundred and twenty 
who are forty-eight years old, eighty will be married, only forty single. In one 
hundred single men, only twenty-two will live to be sixty years old. Of one hun- 
dred married men, forty-eight will live to that age. Of a dozen men of eighty 
years, nine will be married, three single. Not only marry young, but marry out of 
your family. The effects of marrying cousins, for example, even to the third de- 
gree, are fearful to contemplate. Of one hundred and fifty-four cousin-marriages, 
in Dublin, there were one hundred deaf and dumb children. Dr. Buxton, of Liver- 
pool, states, that in one hundred and nine such marriages, each family had one deaf 
and dumb child ; thirty-eight of them had two deaf mutes ; in seventeen there 
were three ; three had four ; one had six ; one had seven, and one had eight deaf 
mutes — that is, two hundred and sixty-nine children born deaf and dumb, to one 
one hundred and nine cousin-marriages. The consanguineous marriages in France 
are two per cent of the whole population. Of their children, twenty-eight per 
cent are deaf mutes in Paris, twenty-five at Lyons, thirty at Bourdeaux ; while as to 
the Jews, twenty-seven per cent of the offspring of such marriages are deaf mutes, 
one sixth per cent of Christian parents ; Jews oftener marrying blood relations. 

In England, where Bible teachings more than in any other country prevail, and 
discountenance consanguineous marriages, as well as private profligacy, only six per 
cent of such children born are deaf mutes, instead of thirty, as when the English 
do marry relations, they are more distant ; and only six per cent of those born are 
illegitimate, instead of fifty-one per cent, as the direct result of the teachings of 
that blessed book. 



HEAL TH TRACT, N o. 106. 

BEAUTY AND MEDICINE, 

Never before prescribed in any book or newspaper or magazine, but known in 
Ihe silent experiences of millions to be almost miraculously reviving, and which, 
if unexpectedly " exhibited," (the officinal expression for giving a dose of medicine,) 
would be more instantaneously and safely efficient in the dreary hospitals and bar- 
racks, where so many of our poor soldiers, brave and patriotic, are languishing day 
after day, by waking up the sinking or exhausted powers, than all the pills and 
potions in the universe. In its good effects it is infallible, perfectly safe, and 
always unmistakably agreeable ; it thrills the whole man, physical and moral, 
with delight. In one respect it is curiously different from any other medicine. A 
single pill, potion, or powder of the apothecary serves only for that once and for a 
single individual, but this new medicine, which, as far as we know, Hall's Journal 
of Health is the first to bring definitely into public notice, goes a great way ;• it is 
capable of infinite (not "infinitesimal") extension; it goes further, by a million 
times, than the Hahnemann's millionth " dilution." The same potion will benefit 
each of a thousand sick soldiers as much as it will benefit one ; and that identical 
potion can be used by any other thousand soldiers, and other continuous thousands, 
with the same happifying results. The greatest drawback is, that it is not the 
most plentiful thing in the world ; still, it is more or less abundant in any five miles 
square of cultivated soil. When the hospital-surgeon takes his regular daily morn- 
ing rounds, let him be followed by 

A-pretty girl with laughing curls. 
That is all, reader ; and it is a sober truth, every word of it. But to make a more 
specific and practical application, let half a dozen girls, tidily dressed, with coun- 
tenances beaming with youth and gladness and genial sympathy, pass through the 
wards of any hospital of soldiers at a regular hour every morning, each having on 
her arm a large basket of small bouquets, so as to go the further, and each fol- 
lowed by a servant with a hamper filled with baskets of berries - a basket or % 
bouquet to be handed to each patient by the sweet visitors, .accompanied with a 
single, kind, sympathizing or encouraging word. The unexpected sight of a beau- 
tiful little flower in the desert, waked up into courageous and life-saving effort the 
desponding and dying Mungo Park. A ship's crew, cast away on the bleak and 
frozen shores of the Arctic sea, dug out of the dreary snow-bank the handle of an 
old pewter spoon, and on turning it over and seeing the name of " London" on it, 
which they had left three years ago, they burst into tears, and with these came 
new resolves to brave all dangers until danger should be past, which they did. The 
sight of an old bonnet, in the early days of California, unexpectedly come upon by 
a company of sad and weary and disappointed miners, so roused their sinking 
spirits, that with a yell and a hurrah they formed a ring, and with uproarious songs, 
danced around the dilapidated remnant of a higher civilization. Within a week, a 
gifted lady presented a clean muslin handkerchief to a sick soldier in the hospital? 
With his trembling fingers he spread it out before him, and buried his face in its 
folds in silent, long, and inexpressible" delight. When one of the public schools 
sent a cart-load of bouquets, deputing a dozen or more of the prettiest scholars to 
distribute them among the sick soldiers in the Park barracks, a month ago, the 
effect was so electrical and overpowering on the men, expressed in various ways, 
that same of the bystanders could not refrain from tears. And all this because 
both the flower and its bearer carry the mind back to home, its sweetness, its 
purity, its affection, and its sunshine, and wakes up a new ambition for life and a 
determination to live down the present sorrow, so as to drink in again the joys and 
the sunshine of home once more. These are sober facts, scientific facts, founded 
in human nature, and they ought to be made use of. Who does not know that 
such a visitor, expected at a given hour at any hospital, would be an event to be 
looked for with pleasure, and would be prepared for by greater and greater at- 
tempts to make and improve the toilet more and more early in the day ? An 
influence would go out more efficacious than any exhortation or command or 
threat in promoting tidiness and cleanliness on the part of the soldier himsejf. It 
may seem a trifling joke, but it is a sober reality, and could not possibly fail of a 
largely beneficial application. Why, a dying patient was once waked up into life 
from the fatal lethargy of typhoid by the sudden and unexpected entrance of an 
old sweetheart. Beauty is a power ; we feel it in our bones every time we come 
in sight of it ; and we verily believe that the older we get the worse we are in 
this regard. Wonder if it is so with other young men of our age ? 



NOTICES. 



LO! THE POOR SOLDIER! 

The humanity of several ladies has prompted the organization of a society for 
the relief of Pennsylvania soldiers, in this city ; and as that State is one of the 
largest patrons of our journal, it may answer a good purpose to say to them espe- 
cially, that the contribution of a single half-dollar, in postage-stamps, will secure 
some item of material comfort — it may be to a neighbor, a friend, a cousin, a 
brother, a son. If you could know what warm thanks are sometimes bestowed 
upon the donors of a single orange or lemon, or a common cucumber-pickle, by men 
wasted with burning fever, or commencing scurvy ; or what earnest expressions of 
gratitude have been made for a pair of darned old stockings, or holey cambric hand" 
kerchief, or old hat, or cane, by men who have reached here lame, without a hat, 
without a shoe, with nothing but shirt and ragged drawers. If these things could 
be known and witnessed by the notable housewives of the country, and by their 
warm-hearted daughters, known and witnessed as they really are every day in this 
city, we are sure that every home of every patriotic heart would be searched from 
garret to cellar for articles of clothing, a good deal the worse for wear, and which 
consequently could be spared, without a sacrifice worthy of mention, and thus an 
urgent good be done, without a felt cost. Let those who do not keep house send 
a few postage-stamps to " The Pennsylvania Belief Association, 176 Pulton Street, 
New-York ;" or if by letter, address it to 

Mrs. Dr. W. W. Hall, 

Corresponding Secretary, 

Care of Box 3349, New-York. 

Among the first and most liberal of the benefactors of this Association are the 
wives of some of our wealthiest and most esteemed citizens. Mrs. William II. 
Aspinwall, by her contributions of money and clothing, and which is quite as valu- 
able, by her warm, personal interest, and sincere words of approbation, encourage- 
ment, and good cheer, has shown herself a worthy wife of a worthy and high- 
minded and patriotic merchant, who, while other men have taken advantage of 
their country's emergencies, to make enormous charges for their services, and to 
swindle her in their contracts, has given the entire profits of his contracts, count- 
ing as nothing his time, and credit and risks amounting to tens of thousands, to 
the national treasury. Mrs. Robert Haydock, Mrs. General Wadsworth, and Alice 
Whitall, of Morristown, Pa., have been generous donors, while Mrs. Dr. Tyng, Mrs. 
Thomas I. Atwood, Mrs. Taturn and others, have not only given money and clothing, 
but large personal attention at the hospitals, in attending to the wants of the sick 
and suffering from their native State. Will not the daughters of Pennsylvania 
every where say : " Go on, sisters ! and we'll help you " ? Your Governor Curtiri 
has found time to confer with the managers here in New-York personally, and has 
given the enterprise his countenance and his counsel ; and with his accustomed 
self-denying and outshining patriotism and devotion, said to the ladies : " Secure 
your building, and I will pledge our State for the means of payment." The 
articles most imperatively wanted are good woolen shirts, woolen drawers, woolen 
socks, woolen wrappers, and woolen bandages ; jars of pickles, cans of preserved 
meats, condensed milk, desicated vegetables, Boston crackers, papers of starch, 
farina, et«. 



222 NOTICES. 



CURRENCY TABLE. 

One blue Franklin is worth, 1 ct. 

One yellow, " " . . 30 cts. 

One pink Washington, 3 " 

One green, " 10 " 

One black, " 24 " 

One blue, " 30 " 

One chocolate Jefferson, 50 " 

Of the new stamp currency-notes there are four in number. The five and 
twenty cent stamps will be brown ; the fifteen and twenty-five green. 

Patriots. — P. T. Barnum, with his usual liberality, has given five hundred dol- 
lars to the enlistment fund. Pteader, go to " the Museum," next time you come to 
town. The beautiful aquaria are alone worth twenty-five cents to see. 

Grover and Baker, of sewing-machine notoriety, have given five thousand dol- 
lars. Remember that ! you who are so far behind the times as to be yet without 
that most invaluable of all family-helps, a sewing-machine. But a higher honor is 
due to the inventor of all sewing-machines, and worthily the richest man in Con- 
necticut, Elias Howe, Jr., who has not only given two thousand dollars for boun- 
ties, in addition to large sums before, but has become a private soldier himself, and 
thus has exhibited one of the very highest types of patriotism. 

Soldier's Pay. — A private enlisting under the new call for Volunteers, if the war 
should close within twelve months, would receive, besides his regular rations and 
clothing, the following amount of money : 

State bounty, *. $50 

Government advance bounty, '. . 2*7 

One month's advance pay, 13 

Pay per year, 156 

Government bounty at close of war, *75 

Total, $321 

Rations nine dollars per month — one year, 108 

Clothing about, . . . 20 

Total one year's pay, $449 

This is exclusive of whatever bounty may be bestowed by individual patriotism ; 
exclusive too of the proud consciousness of having periled health and limb and 
life itself in the hour of our country's trial. Let burning shame be to all laggards 
now. 

Show your colors now, by standing by the authority of the Government and 
eternal right. Let "precedent" be considered of secondary importance ; let the 
Constitution itself, as you interpret it merely, be secondary. Whatever the author- 
ities consider " constitutional" should not only be assented to by every good citi- 
zen, but should be sustained by his words and acts and influence. If he can not 
do these things conscientiously, let him be mute as a mouse, under the "violent 
presumption" that he is a fool, and has no better sense. For a sensible man will 
always diffidently mistrust the correctness of any opinion of his own, when he sees 
it is opposed to that of men of higher abilities. 



NOTICES. 223 

" Quare ?" — What has all we have said about war to do with a " Journal of 
Health" ? Suppose it has nothing to do with it, the Editor takes the bit in his 
mouth, and bids defiance to reins, " traces," shackles, harness and all. This is the 
time for acting up to the emergencies of the occasion, and to let all precedents go 
to the dogs, unless they demonstrably, at first glance, clearly contravene the self 
evident laws of human right and national existence. But this subject has some- 
thing to do with health ; for war maims its thousands ; shatters for life the consti- 
tutions of thousands more ; while the victims of camp diseases number tens of 
thousands, ay, scores of thousands ; and we propose to prevent further calamities 
of this sort, by adopting the very first principles of all medical practice from the 
earliest ages down to the present hour; and that is, " remove the cause" of the 
disease first ; until this is done, any attempt at a cure is utterly, absolutely, and 
always perfectly useless. The cause of the war, as all know, or ought to know, is 
" Slavery," as it exists among us. Remove it then to-morrow, by proclamation, 
and cause the reality to follow in due time, by keeping a million of conscripted, 
unmarried men, from twenty to thirty-five, in the field, all the time ; as fast as a 
single man is rendered incapable from any cause, let his place be supplied from a 
reserved corps of conscripts, kept ready for marching orders at an hour's notice. 
Let this be the tune to which this war is set, and a million of men will be ready to 
march to its step in twenty days, and will sweep into the Gulf every enemy from 
the shores of the Atlantic to the great Pacific sea. When that is done, it will be 
plenty of time to inquire, " What shall be done next ?" The answer to all such 

INQUIRIES SHOULD BE LEFT TO THE EXIGENCIES OP THE HOUR. Had this been done 

in the beginning, this war would have been ended triumphantly for human rights, 
and for the glory of our nation, before now. Let the creature do right always, and 
always will the benign Creator stand by him in the same, and will deliver, defend, 
and bless. This has always been the case with nationalities, and can never be 
otherwise, because " He doeth his pleasure in the armies of heaven, and among 
the inhabitants of the earth," and " His pleasure" must always be the reward of 
right. Since the foregoing was sent to the printer, the President has called out six 
hundred thousand men in addition to those in the field. We wish every man from 
twenty to sixty had to draw, because most of the rich are beyond forty-five, and 
they are the very ones who could afford to pay a good price for able-bodied sub- 
stitutes ; these substitutes should be unmarried, between twenty-five and thirty, 
about five feet ten, and weighing not over one hundred and sixty pounds. Men 
of such a physique have strength and endurance. Boys under twenty-one are of 
very little account as soldiers ; they soon get sick, and then some other soldier 
must take care of them. 

Braithewaite's Retrospect, for July, 1862 — semi-annual, $1 25, two dollars a 
year, by W. A. Townsend, 89 Walker Street, New- York — Part 45, contains, as 
usual, the progress of medical science throughout the world for the preceding 
six months, in 152 different practical articles. 

"Sleep." — A second edition of our book on "Sleep," 360 pages, 12mo, $1.25, 
by mail, $1.40, is called for, and is now ready. It is the only book ever published 
for popular reading, which is truthful and wholly reliable as to a number of sub- 
jects connected with the hours of sleep. It is just such a book as every family 
ought to possess and ought to heed. If its suggestions were practically carried 
out, even as far as reasonably practicable without any expense of money, they 



224 NOTICES. 

would add to the lifetime both of parents and children, and would largely and in- 
fallibly promote the happiness, the moral purity, as well as the comfort, health and 
substantial thrift of every household. 

In 1768, ninety-four years ago, the people of New- York had great faith in coun- 
try air, for " Old Doctor Tillery took the boy (a sick son of Kobert Bruce) up into 
the country." That is to " the house of entertainment, at the sign of the Black 
Horse," corner of Broadway and Barclay Street. 

Exemption from Drafting. — All under eighteen, and all over forty-five years 
of age. All able-bodied men between those ages are liable to drafting; and 
they are "able-bodied," unless they have some physical disability. But what is 
physical disability ? The Surgeon-general, Adjutant-general Hillhouse, in a recent 
order, declares that physical disability should in all cases be established to the sat- 
isfaction of the enrolling officer by a physician's certificate, as well as the affidavit 
of the party. He mentions the following imperfections as proper causes of dis- 
ability: "Wounds of the head, which impair the faculties or cause convulsions; 
serious impairment of hearing, speech or vision ; anchylosis, or active disease of 
any of the larger joints ; the presence of pulmonary disease or organic disease of 
the heart ; irreducible hernia ; fistula in ano ; large hemorrhoids ; large and pain- 
ful variscell or varicose veins which extend above the knee ; the loss of a limb, or 
the thumb and forefinger on the right hand, or of any two fingers on either hand ; 
the loss of the great toe ; any marked physical imperfections which would unfit for 
active service." 

Notice ! Persons under eighteen and over forty-five are not liable for military 
duty or drafting. Such need not concern themselves about filing papers, getting 
certificates, etc. ; they need just do nothing ; for even if drafted, they would be at 
once relieved on proving their age. Hence such persons are not only " exempt," 
they are more, they are not " liable." "Exempts" are able-bodied men between 
eighteen and forty-five, who from some physical infirmity, or from some office or 
calling, are excused. Even if a man is drafted, and draws a ticket to go to the 
war, he can hire a substitute, who must be a well, sound man, over twenty-one, and 
under forty-five. An exempt must be between eighteen and forty-five ; the chief 
classes of exempts are " Shakers," Friends or Quakers, clergymen, school-teachers, 
mail stage -drivers or mail-carriers, telegraphic operators, engaged as such on or 
before the fourth of August, 1862, professors and students in all colleges or acad- 
emies of learning, all persons honorably discharged from the army or navy of the 
United States, and all members and officers of Congress or State legislatures, or 
state or general government officers, or those engaged in the Post-office service. 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 



Our Legitimate Scope is almost boundless : for whatever begets pleasurable 
and harmless feelings, promotes Health; and.whatever induces 
disagreeable sensations, engenders Disease. 



WE AIM TO SHOW HOW DISEASE MAY BE AVOIDED, ANQ THAT IT IS BEST, WHEN SICKNESS COMES, TO 
TAKE NO MEDICINE WITHOUT CONSULTING A PHYSICIAN. 



Vol. IX.] OCTOBER, 1862. [No. 10. 

CURIOSITIES OP BREAD. 

There is Divine authority for saying that "bread is the staff 
of life." As to food, it is our mainstay ; we never get tired of 
it ; it is always palatable when we are hungry, as is cold water 
when we are thirsty. But cold water is made more refreshing, 
and bread is made more nutritious, by the introduction of a gas 
which, if breathed into the lungs in its unmixed, pure state, 
causes instant death ! 

We turn with disgust from eating any thing that is rotten, 
that is, in a state of decay ; and yet, in the middle of the nine- 
teenth century, the "loaf" upon our tables is itself rotten in 
part ; the product of rottenness and whisky ! But a new light 
has risen upon our world, for bread is now made which con- 
tains no alcohol, which does not require any putrefactive pro- 
cess, contains no alum, nor soda, nor saleratus ; no emanation 
from the sweaty hands of a greasy cook, nor aught of those 
ten semi-circular lines of black which bound the digital extrem- 
ities of the queen of the kitchen; nor does it ever become sod- 
den or sour. This new bread is made of flour and water, into 
which, when mixed, is forced carbonic-acid gas; which, al- 
though so deadly to the lungs, makes all the difference between 
the sparkling water of the spring and the flatness of long- 
standing water, or that which has been once warmed ; further- 
more, from the time the flour is taken from the mill until the 
loaf is baked, human hands do not touch it. 

Now, however much the mouths of our country friends may 



226 

water at the very thought of so deliciously pure and clean an 
article, they must prepare themselves for some disappointment 
at the announcement, that it is said not to be economically 
made, except in large quantities. If every family made its 
own bread in this way, the great big bakery, like the Unitarian 
free-love home which flourished like Jonah's gourd on the op- 
posite side of the way, would collapse immediately, if not 
sooner. 

But how has " light bread" been made hitherto ? By the aid 
of this same carbonic-acid gas, and in this wise : If water is 
mixed with flour simply, and the dough is thus baked, it is as 
heavy as lead, and as hard as a rock ; because the flour is so 
fine, the particles lie close together, and form a compact, sodden 
mass ; hence, it became necessary, in order to have the bread 
" light," to introduce something between the particles of flour, 
so as to keep them apart, and allow the heat to get around them 
and "cook" them. To accomplish this, an agency was neces- 
sary, as subtle and unsubstantial as thin air itself; otherwise, 
the heat would be kept away from each particle of flour, and 
would as effectually prevent the process of cooking as would 
the flour itself. To this end, some ancient gourmand set his 
wits to work, or else by some fortunate accident made the dis- 
covery, that " rising," or " yeast," introduced into the dough, 
and allowed to remain for a few hours, accomplished the object. 
Whether he got out a patent forthwith, or more generously 
spread his knowledge on the wings of the wind — as we doctors 
do, as soon as we are satisfied beyond all mistake or cavil that 
some valuable new remedy has been discovered — can not now 
be known ; at all events, the patent has long since run out, and 
yeast and rising and leaven are all public property. 

Fermentation and rottening are the vulgar and select names 
for one and the same thing, meaning " destructive decay," de- 
composition. When a thing is fermenting, bubbles are seen 
forming and rising and breaking ; each bubble contains a light, 
thin air, called carbonic-acid gas ; this gas, when a little warmed, 
begins to rise up through the dough, and would go up to the 
sky instanter, but it can't get out ; it is a regular prisoner of 
war ; it is literally bagged, surrounded, sewed-up, cabined, 
cribbed, confined ; as helpless as a baby until it gets big, then 
it breaks away in high dudgeon, nolens volens, and scampers 



CURIOSITIES OF BREAD. 227 

off to the regions of space. In the mean time, however, the 
bread has baked, and there is no further use for the prisoner at 
the bar ; in fact, the more speedily he makes off with him- 
self the better ; for only until he has teetotally vamosed the 
ranche does the bread become " stale," and really fit to eat, 
healthfully speaking. Hence the propriety of exposing a new- 
baked loaf to the air. 

But what prevents the carbonic-acid gas from escaping the 
instant it is formed ? Flour contains a kind of glue ; the gas 
rising, is caught by this glue, in the manner of pushing your 
finger upward under a spread newspaper, or the blowing up of 
soap-bubbles ; each particle of gas expands as it gets warmer, 
and tends to carry away the detaining particle or sheet of 
gluten before it ; and thus is made the numerous honey-comb 
cells which are seen on a cut loaf of bread. The eye can even 
discover, on the side of a large cell, a glazy or shiny lining ; 
this is the dried gluten, bladder-like. 

If the heat is too great, the carbonic-acid gas expands too 
rapidly, and bursts its envelope, as soap-bubbles will burst, if 
you blow too hard, and the bread will be heavy. If there is 
not warmth enough, the dough begins to decompose, to rot it- 
self, and the bread is sour. But in the new process, the gas is 
forced in at once ; and from the time the dough is mixed, until 
the bread is delivered from the oven, one hour passes. Hence, 
as no sour rising or yeast is put in the dough, there is nothing 
to communicate its ' sourness, and no time is allowed for fer- 
mentation to be originated. This is the only known method of 
producing absolutely pure wheaten bread of nature's own con- 
stituents ; and doubtless the time will come when means will be 
devised for making "aerated bread" economically in families. 



A Great Dietetic Truth. — The distinction between natural and artificial 
aliments, tonics, invigorators, etc., is this : the same amount of vigor or 
refreshment is uniformly imparted by the natural ; half a pint of water will 
as effectually satisfy thirst to-day as it did twenty years ago or will twenty 
years to come, and so will a pound of bread as to hunger ; but the unna- 
tural, the artificial, as opiates, drugs, liquors, tobacco, etc., require to have 
constantly increasing quantities and in diminished intervals to have a given 
effect. 

23f = Next page (228) is continued from page 200. 



228 DEBTOE AND CEEDITOR. 

Grey did fly around, for lie knew by Johnson's manner all 
he bought that day would be cash to him. Tea, sugar, coffee, 
and soda were weighed out and tied up with almost lightning 
rapidity. A sack of flour was dragged from the back-room, 
and a cake of tallow and a pail of lard. Then calico was 
measured off, and muslin, and three pairs of little shoes done 
up, and then he paused a moment and said: "Any thing more ?" 

" Reckon up these, first." 

" Nineteen dollars and fifty cents." 

" Well, I guess I'll take the half-dollar in salt, pepper, cassia 
and nutmegs, and make it even. There," laying down four 
fives, "there goes my last dollar; but never mind, I'm square 
with the world now, and got something in the house besides. 
Could I borrow your wheelbarrow to trundle these things 
home ?" 

" Seventy dollars ! what a godsend !" and the merchant 
added them to the four hundred. "If I could only raise thirty 
more — ah ! .Mrs. Benton," bowing politely to the minister's wife; 
" what can I do for you, to-day?" His heart lightened as he 
heard her ask for a pound of his best tea. That would put 
one dollar in his till, for he knew she never bought on credit. 
' 4 A dollar's worth of sugar, fifty cents' worth of candles, four 
pounds of butter, eight pounds of lard — that's four dollars," 
he thought, as he weighed them. " Any thing more?" 

" At the other counter, if you please." 

Two pairs of children's shoes, calico for two dresses, muslin, 
linen and buttons for two shirts, come to six dollars — ten in 
all." 

" Mr. Benton will call for the groceries ; I'll only take these 
now," and handing him two fives, she started to go. 

" Eighty dollars to-day — I must be in luck surely," and the 
merchant hastened to add the bills to the roll in his desk. 

" Only twenty more, and I could weather the storm. Ah ! 
Mrs: Nelson," bowing to the doctor's wife, " any thing in my 
line to-day? Shirting muslin? yes, I've some; some very 
nice," and he threw down half a dozen pieces. 

" A whole piece, that's four dollars," he thought, as he laid 
it aside. " Children's shoes?" 

" Yes, ma'am ; some that I can warrant, too. Both pairs," 
and he tossed them into the piece of muslin. " Something for 
little boy's pants." " How'll this do ? four yards, did you say ? 
Something for jackets — here's the very thing — three yards — I'll 
throw you in the buttons and thread. Any thing else — ten 
dollars and a quarter — call it ten to-day, as it's cash down," 
and he bowed her out, and with a heart almost like a feather, 
placed the two fives in his desk. 

" Ten more,, and I'm saved. Ah ! Mrs. Glenn, good evening ; 



DEBTOR AND CREDITOR. 229 

what can I show you ? Cloth for pants — got the very thing, if 
it's for your husband ; no shoddy about that," and he took it 
to the window that she might examine it the more closely. 
11 I'll warrant it — three yards, did you say ? I'll throw in lining, 
too," as he counted out buttons and flung down the thread; "I 
don't often do it these hard times. Red flannel, all wool ; 
yes, some very soft, too ; jusc the thing for weakly folks. I'll 
throw in silk to make it," seeing her hesitate a little. " There, 
just pick out ail you think it'll take — don't leave me much 
profit, but — nine seventy-five — that pair of baby's shoes forty 
cents, but I'll call it twenty-five, and make it even change." 

" Saved — saved at the last moment," and he hastened to write 
his letter, and then depositing the bills in it, he carried it to 
the office, running every step, lest the mail should be made up. 
An hour later, and he was singing to little Charlie as he hadn't 
sung for a fortnight, and jumping the little fellow till the young 
mother declared every bone in the child's body would be 
broken. " I'll risk him," said the happy father, tossing him 
again quite to the ceiling ; " I'll risk any thing to-night. 
"Wasn't it a providence, though, Nelly, that at the very last 
hour a hundred dollars should have been paid in? How on 
earth so much money got into the village, just then, is a mys- 
tery to me. But for it, where should we be now ?" 

Backward and forward went the Boston merchant ; his steps 
were quick and nervous, and then slow and irresolute. Every 
few minutes lie glanced at the clock. How swift went the 
hands. Now it strikes two. Another hour and his fair name, 
his name, that for twenty years has stood unblemished, would 
be bandied about in the mouths of vulgar men. " And all for 
a paltry five hundred dollars, a sum that in ordinary times I 
carried daily about me. What did he say ?" to a clerk who 
entered in breathless haste. " 'Nothing over' — there goes my last 
hope, for that Grey will pay up, is out of the question. If we 
city merchants are so crowded, what a strait those poor country 
fellows must be in L" 

Backward and forward he walked again — the clock struck 
the quarter. " Mail is distributed by this time. Run, John, to 
the office, and if there is a letter, fly with it. Pshaw ! why 
did I send him ? It's shoe-leather worn for nothing. Five 
minutes — ten minutes — Heavens, why don't he come ? it may 
as well be over now — a letter, pshaw — quick," and he tore it 
open. Without stopping to read it, he grasped the bills and 
counted. Then seizing a roll from his desk, and jerking his 
hat from its hook, he ran, yes, fairly ran to the bank. The 
five thousand dollars were counted out by the teller, his note 
was given up, and he was half-way home when the clock struck 
three. 



230 NOTICES. 

" I couldn't wait till dinner-time, Lizzie, I couldn't wait," he 
exclaimed, clasping a beautiful woman in his arms. " I've run 
every step of the way to tell you the news. We're saved, 
we're saved." 

Two firms saved from failure — four families rescued from 
want, and how many, many hearts made light and glad by the 
self-sacrifice of one farmer's wife ! Oh! this "making do" is 
verily, we believe, the best and cheapest remedy for these hard 
times that crush us all so terribly. Suppose we try it, not one, 
but all of us. It is said that a pebble thrown into the ocean 
causes a vibration that does not cease til] the opposite shore is 
touched. How far may not one dollar, saved from family ex- 
penses, and turned towards the payment of our honest debts, 
how far may not it go towards bringing back to our loved and 
beautiful land the good times for which we are all sighing ! 
Why not make pebbles of our dollars, and cast them hopefully 
into the great ocean of want? 



NOTICES. 

Friends' Review ; weekly. Philadelphia. Three dollars a year. A Religious, 
Literary, and Miscellaneous Journal. Samuel Rhoads, editor — completing its fifteenth 
year, is giving a series of most valuable papers in reference to the early history of 
Maryland, in one of which it is stated that so early as a hundred years ago, one of 
the eighteen questions put to each individual at Friends' yearly meetings, was the 
following, number four : "Are all careful to keep their word, and pay their just 
debts and contracts in due time?" Who does not wish that the whole world was 
full of practical Friends, especially in this most important regard. " It would 
make a world worth living in," as wifey, at our elbow, this moment expressed her- 
self. The biographical papers relating to David Cooper are worthy of being read 
and pondered on by every human being. He was great in his goodness (as Gurney, 
the personal friend of Legh Richmond, so known and revered by the " bishops 

and other clergy" of the Church of England, that they gathered around his funeral- 
bier, and testified, "Our brother is dead.") A right good stock for our children to 
hail directly from, and further improved by the sturdy Calvinism of their father. 

Excursions. — Among the floating palaces of the Hudson, is Captain A. L. An- 
derson's new model steamer, the " Mary Powell," running up every afternoon 
some ninety miles, and returning by eleven o'clock next morning, enabling hun- 
dreds of our citizens to pass their nights on the banks of the glorious river, inhal- 
ing the delicious breezes, as they come up from the sea, away from the noise and 
dust and care and suffocating city heat. The successful enterprise of establishing 
this line of travel, so invaluable to multitudes of our citizens, conveys an in- 
structive lesson to young men every where ; for the Captain has notonly accom- 
plished a great public good, but has made for himself many friends, by a 
happy combination of business characteristics which, while in the reach of all who 
deserve success, are pretty sure to secure it in almost any department of legitimate 
business ; indomitable energy, unswerving integrity, and firmness of purpose, joined 
with an accommodating courtesy. These are the qualities which have secured fo* 
Captain Anderson a comfortable fortune, and what is still more valuable to himself 
and children, a good name. 

British Literature. — Leonard Scott and Co., No. 79 Fulton street, New- York, 
for ten dollars a year, furnish a reprint of the following Reviews : London, Edin- 
burgh, North British, and Westminster quarterlies, with Blackwood's monthly. These 
publications are written for by the best minds and brightest intellects in Great 
Britain ; they present to their readers a general view of the condition of the world 
as to literature, politics, and religion, and are well worthy of the patronage of 
liberal and educated men. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 107. 



SMALL-POX. 

It should be distinctly kept before the minds of the people that vaccination is an 
almost perfect preventive of small-pox until the age of puberty, (say fifteen,) but 
that after that time it becomes less and less efficacious until twenty-five, when the 
system becomes less susceptible to the disease up to thirty-five, when the predisposi- 
tion to small-pox seems to die out altogether. The specific inference is, that every 
child ought to be re- vaccinated on entering the fifteenth year. 

To show the preventive power of vaccination, statistics prove that before vaccina- 
tion, or even inoculation, was practiced or known in Boston, to wit, 1*721, (the year 
of its first trial in England by Lady Mary Wortley Montague on her own daughter,) 
one half of the entire population lay sick of the disease at the same time, and one 
out of every twenty-seven died of it — which, at the same rate, would kill over thirty 
thousand persons in New- York City alone — while the total deaths from all causes 
in a single year was less than twenty-three thousand. In 1792, forty-six per cent — 
forty-six persons out of every hundred, in Boston, had small-pox at the same time. 
But a few years later, when vaccination was generally practiced, many city physi- 
cians did not see a single case of small-pox in a period of twenty months, and dur- 
ing a period of twenty-eight years less than three persons a year died of small-pox 
in Boston. During that time the law was, that any person having small-pox should 
be at once conveyed to a house for that purpose, removed from all other habitations. 
But in 1838 that law was repealed. From this cause, together with a growing inat- 
tention to vaccination, the influx of foreigners, and the more crowded conditions of 
dwellings, small-pox is becoming more common ; and ninety persons died of small- 
pox the very year after the above law was repealed, and three hundred and eighteen 
died of it during the twenty-one months ending October, 1860. There ought to be 
a law compelling vaccination within a year after a child's birth, and a re-vaccination 
on entering the fifteenth year. One of the greatest difficulties in the way of secur- 
ing vaccination and re- vaccination, is the want of facilities for getting pure vaccine- 
matter from a perfectly healthful subject — there seeming to be a very general im- 
pression, groundless as is supposed, that the vaccine-matter from a diseased subject 
will communicate that disease to the person vaccinated, or will in some way have a 
deleterious effect on the constitution. Some water-cure journals, which are gene- 
rally read by ignorant and uninformed persons, these unfortunately being the large 
majority in all communities, have disseminated the doctrine that vaccination is rap- 
idly scrofulizing the civilized world — one of those dogmatic, impudent assertions, 
which a reckless ignoramus is very capable of making. Keckless enough to say any 
thing, without having sense enough to prove any thing. It is merely offered as a 
suggestion, that the Legislature should appoint an educated, experienced, and re- 
spectable physician in each county-town and in each ward of every city, whose duty 
it should be to keep a pure matter always on hand, and who should be paid by the 
State for every successful vaccination or re-vaccination made. The subject certainly 
merits the prompt attention of the authorities. 



HEALTH TRACT No. 108. 



PARENTAL TRAINING. 

"Wisely affectionate and considerate parents will steadily aim to have every 
ihing about the household so conducted, that their children in after-life may 
look back upon their father's house with associations full of gladness and sun- 
shine. But in doing this, they will often find themselves conniving at disobedience, 
winking at neglects, and permitting improprieties, exposures, and risks, which can 
not be commended. They are often inclined to allow indulgences on which their 
little hearts are set, which are neither judicious nor exactly right, and quite often 
are they disposed to risk their safety or their health in order to gratify them. But 
nothing is more certain to make a home unhappy than when the members of the 
family are not brought up to daily self-denials ; to mutual accommodations, and al- 
most hourly helpings ; to promptitude, method, order, and system in all things. 
Where these things are in common, there is affection, neatness, comfort, cleanliness, 
convenience, leisure, and general enjoyment. On the other hand, there always 
will be rudeness, recriminations, bickerings, hurry, waste, unthrift, sooner or later, 
and a general want of domestic comfort and enjoyment, where the children are but 
little restrained, are allowed to do pretty much as they please ; where personal 
gratification is their only law ; where care and comfort in all things is considered 
as a matter of course, however much to the inconvenience and the rights of others. 
I was in daily association with a family of this sort, in very early life, and of five 
sons who were lavishly supplied with the means of every personal gratification from 
early childhood, one brother became a double murderer, then killed himself, in 
which latter respect two others followed his example. 

In many little ways is increased labor imposed on servants, and necessary sleep 
curtailed ; and at the same time are the cares and anxieties and annoyances of af- 
fectionate parents unnecessarily added to by a careless child, who soils a riewly laid 
table-cloth or clean garment ; who leaves the clothing in the spot where it was 
doffed ; the wash-stand is left all bespattered, the basin filled with dirty water, the 
comb and brush encumbered with hairs and dandruff and grease ; while pins, 
strings, and soiled clothing are scattered about in every direction, to be gath- 
ered up and arranged and left fit for use again by other hands. Pity be to the girl 
who finds a husband, and most unfortunate is the young man who takes a wife, from 
such a family. Let parents be assured that the more their children are waited on, 
the less they will learn how to help themselves, the more worthless will they be- 
come, the more miserably selfish, the more destitute of any high moral sense, and 
the more certain to be wholly unfit for any useful place in life. To make a house- 
hold happy now, and to secure happy recollections of the past, let an influence go 
out from the parents, silent and steady, more powerful than authority or command, 
which will secure order, system, punctuality, and promptitude, on the part of every 
member, each one leaving a thing in its place, and fit for immediate use by another, 
all aiming to help one another as much as possible, and to give no unnecessary or 
unjust trouble to any of the household, in all things acting with quietude, patience, 
and kindly courtesy. 



HEALTH TBACT, No. 109. 



WHITLOW. 

It is sufficiently near the truth for general practical purposes to say, that a real 
genuine "whitlow" is a " boil," low down, next the bone, under the "whit-leather' 
— shall we say a boil under the white-leather, as the origin of the name ? This ail- 
ment is generally at the ends of the fingers, inside, and is usually caused by pricks, 
bruises, and burns, but not always ; for it has sometimes gone through whole neigh- 
borhoods, like measles, mumps, or cholera, and prevails more in winter and cold 
latitudes. If it is above the whit-leather or fascia, a whitlow eauses comparatively 
little suffering ; but most to those who, by hard work, keep the skin of the palm and 
fingers hard, thus making it more difficult for the " boil 1 ' to " break," that is, more 
difficult for the matter to make an opening and escape from the system. These get 
well of themselves, without leaving any permanently ill effects, if the system is kept 
free, if the part is kept moist and warm, and nothing is eaten for a few days but 
bread and water, fruits, and gruels or soups. But real whitlows, namely, where the 
boil is below the white or whit-leather, (fascia,) become a perfect and unendurable 
torture, and often cause the decay of the bone or the permanent loss of the use of 
the finger. To prevent this, and to give instantaneous, permanent, and safe relief, 
there is only one method which never fails. Get a physician to cut down to the 
bone, first in one direction and then another, making a cross, the object being to 
let out the pent-up matter, just as a common boil ceases to pain as soon as the skin 
is broken and the matter is let out. The matter of whitlow is more perfectly emp- 
tied out if, after this " crucial incision," the part is held in warm water for half an 
hour or more, and is then kept moist and warm by any sort of poultice ; and that 
material is best which keeps moist the longest. There are multitudes of " remedies" 
for whitlow in the newspapers, every one of which, for real whitlow, is fallacious or 
impossible; that, for example, of tying a cord around the finger, to " starve it to 
death," by cutting off the supply of blood, just about equal to a tooth-drawing ope- 
ration protracted during twenty-four hours \ There is nearly always constipation, 
and the greater the constipation the greater the agony of a real whitlow ; hence this 
should always be removed by injections, or better stall, by the free use of coarse 
breads and fruits aad berries, in any and every shape or form. The spot of a su- 
perficial whitlow or boil soon begins to turn yellow, but in the deep-seated or only 
real whitlow, after days and nights of intense pain and violent throbbing of the part, 
there is no yellowness, the skin is merely swollen or red ; besides, the pain of a real 
whitlow seems to be down to the bone itself, deep-seated, and not near the surface. 



HEALTH TRACT No. 11£>. 



SLEEP A.I^I> DEATH. 

As men begin to be about fifty years old ? espe- 
cially if of sedentary bablts r tbe feeling on rising in 
the morning is as if they had not gotten enough 
sleep, not as much as they used to have, and as if 
they would like to have more, but they can not get 
it. They look upon a healthy child sleeping soundly 
with a feeling of envy. But it is curious to observe 
that there is a bliss to all in the act of going to sleep, 
a bliss we become cognizant of only when we hap- 
pen to be aroused just as we are falling into sound 
sleep ; and there are strong physiological reasons to 
suppose that this state is a counterpart of that great 
event which is to come upon all, the act of dying. 
In fact, those who have in rare cases been brought 
back to life when on its extremest verge, and In 
several cases as to those who have been recovered 
from drowning and other modes of strangulation, 
or simple smothering, called "asphyxia" by physi- 
cians, the expressions have been, on coming to con- 
sciousness : " How delicious !." " Why did you not 
let me go?" An eminent name,, thus brought back„ 
represented that the last-remembered sensations of 
which he was conscious were as if he were listening 
to the most ravishing strains of music. Let us all 
then cherish the thought that our approach to the 
sleep of the grave is the strict counterpart of the 
approach to sleep^ of which some nameless writer 
has beautifully said : "It is a delicious moment; the 
feeling that we are safe, that we shall drop gently to 
sleep. The good is to come,, not past.. The limb& 
have been just tired enough to render the remaining 
in one position delightful, and the labor of the day 
is done. A gentle failure of the perceptions comes 
slowly creeping over us ; the spirit of consciousness 
disengages itself more and more, with slow and 
hushing degrees, like a fond mother detaching her 
hand from that of her sleeping child ; the mind 
seems to have a balmy lid* closing over it, Kke the 
eye, closing, more closed, closed altogether I and the 
mysterious spirit of sleep has gone to take its airy 
rounds." May such be tbe physical "bliss of dying*' 
to you and to me, reader, with the spiritual added,, 
ten thousand times more ineffable.. 

From Br Hall's book on "Sleep." - $1.25". Kew 
edition, 



HEALTH TBACT, No. 111. 



so:l:di;er-hea.lth:. 

The Sanitary Commission have reported that the general rate of disablements by sickness in the 
army is one hundred and four persons out of one thousand ; whereas, only thirteen out of a thou- 
sand should be sick at any one time in common life. A Massachusetts regiment, after being a 
year at the seat of war, has lost no more men from all causes than would have been the case 
under the ordinary circumstances of home life. A New-York City regiment, after three months 
of camping, lost but one man out of eight hundred, and he had heart-disease before he left home. 
But it was a regiment whose average of intelligence and culture was perhaps the highest among 
the whole Federal force. Both these cases show that camp-life is not necessarily fatal to health or 
life to a remarkable extent, and that the exercise of an intelligent care on the part of each indi- 
vidual soldier may almost banish disease from an army. And if the officers would cooperate with 
the men, would encourage them, and do all in their power to facilitate their efforts in this direc- 
tion, the cost of the war and its duration would be most favorably modified. It is true that 
only one result is possible, even if Washington were laid in ashes, and the enemy were besieging 
New- York and Boston — the annihilation of the " Confederacy ;" still it is desirable to do this in the 
shortest time and at the least cost of life and treasure. To bring this about in the most enduring 
manner, while the government is wisely waiting on events, until the proper moment arrives 
for the grand consummating act, let each soldier for himself, and each soldier's friend at home, 
and each patriotic officer among too many who are not so ! do all that is possible to keep the army 
in the very highest state of health ; because health is efficiency ! Just as Lord Nelson's ship was 
leaving England, he discovered that the flannel shirt3 of the men were six inches shorter than 
they ought to have been, and refused to go until the proper kind were furnished. He was ridi- 
culed and called an " old granny." The result was, that while the rest of the fleet was decimated, 
he did not lose a man ! and "his ship, in efficiency, was as good as any two others"! Aside 
from the dictates of humanity, a soldier's health should be the highest consideration of any officer 
who hopes to accomplish great results. 

If any one item of health in a soldier is of greater importance than any other, it is a sound 
condition of the feet. It can not easily be over-estimated. It is the very first of the four great 
needs of a soldier — good feet, good stomach, good head, and a good heart, that is, loyal to the 
core, to the authority and honor of his country. To have good feet, there should be good shoes and 
plenty of walking. A soldier's shoe should not have a high heel, should be made straight on the 
inside, to give the great toe room to spread out to the fullest ; the soles should be abundantly 
wide, and not too thin. Good food ; wearing woolen flannel all over next the skin, winter and 
summer, the latter most especially ; dry bed-clothes ; and the most complete ventilation, that is, a 
constant re-supply of out-door air every second, night and day ; these are the grand points to be 
aimed at, with large fires kindled at sun-down in and around encampments, and kept burning 
until sunrise. These precautions would save nine out of ten of all the disablements of the army, 
including both sickness and wounds ; for the astounding testimony was given as to the British 
army in the Crimea, (see Soldier- Health, p. 142,) " where one man was under the surgeon's hands 
for wounds, twelve were under the doctor's for typhus fever, dysentery, and some other diseases 
brought on by bad food, bad camping arrangements, and the crowding and avoidable dissipation 
of the men." 

"With these views, we have prepared an abridged edition of 32 pp. of " Soldier-Health," (full 
edition, 25 cts.,)-for 5 cts. — 40cts. per dozen, $2.50 per hundred, $20 per thousand — containing up- 
wards of one hundred plain, short, explicit directions for soldiers, given in full in the following 
pages of the Journal, which those who do not file the numbers can send to friends in the army. 
Additional copies will be re-furnished to subscribers by mail, at ten cents each. — Sept. 2, 1362. 






E si &■£& h %** I is ss *^p I 

^^ ° 5 ~ n £ p 



CD 



5 si!? llll - El- " - I "a? S 21 f~ifg= 5iiBi2 

E flit f If § nil *H ll»-i5i^l!ili^tl^ 



o 5 S •■ »j!^d o> 

* ?. e « | s ■B 

09 „_. vi pV >h 7: <2 

P « ?^JSfiS|j d-§«^^2^ ff^J.-tS Sfef§-flg-,S-'Tg|fjB|g^ 

° g #FF ^11^ vi*S!f J K*«!^ Ifsiius 

w 6 1 '§•2 1 ^ |^ f|'^| £a i^^ lift:^^ 






OrG 



^£a 



5f t-j 

49 ? rt3» 



e 13 cd 

£ d S 

o f £ 
m I 2 

to -H, -d 

bD ,. 



go 



p> 



TO © 



^ 8 

03 

I 2 . § 

p-g 8 

CD O 

CD O 



Q TO 



O d >VTJ 



l« ££ a^ 



fcD 

£1 



m 



It .3 

c:> MS 



O ^ 

2 CD 

rd I* 



t> rf o ^ 

■■g s a * 

§ TO O 



r-< 

CD 



CD CD 



-3 


CO 

CD 



to 



d d 
.3 cd 



d i§ 

s— i o 



V ^ .d 

^ to id 

>~>— 73 

rd^ K. 

° r^ TJ 

"la 

d '"' 



TO rH 

bOd 

d PJ 

o 

to 



CD CD -73 M 

d +^ o .3 

d O Sh 

b d Q 

d "d ^ r ^ 



CD 

TO 

CD CD 



TO^ 
. CD 



£r^ 

fe" O rt s 

CDrH. B 
P,d g 

>^d CD 



CO 



S • © d. s 

CD Jh CD^^ 



CD 



O 



CD CD 7i 55 



•J a .. 



h r, TO CD 

O-J^d^ 

i_, d 

d CD ^ 

£ TO ■+-' (U 

d d r— I ^° 

o F^-m d 



T« ° 

TO r. 



d «« 
CD O 

TO 

TO TO 



r?TOCD^CD .G £ " M £3 

=J TO^^^^Q^.-dcD 

o3 ?-. CD o CD^""^ d d rH 
d CD hH ,2 d ^S?,^ 



>■> 



.CD 



^ - fc+ d 



S ^ d^ 
CD - ■"• 



— T3 +^ d 
-t- 3 tfc3 ■ 

CD ^ o 



- h d 5 

bO CD -+I 2 cd a 

^ d ° 



^^ 8 $ ^ g 2 ^d ^g^ 



- is -■«« a 

TO d) >-s c3 fi 

03 ,CD 72 r 

. d o ^ o - 



o 2 
>sd a 



o o 

d CD 



O TO 

•3 * d 

s a 
J * 

N d 

O TO 



TO c^ 

^d 



CD 



O 



d -^ 
c3 CD 



>^fe 



©^ tsr^ 



» ACD7 

o a o c5 



CD 1 

» Pi CD 

HI 

CD m ** 



TO 



d-3 cd 

d tj 
s^ to d 

cj tf pe . 



^ d 

d^ 3 
o 



rri n 1 d r 1 ^ CD CD CD 

d ^ b0> S^ ^^ >cSd 

^tJ,d^ - CD CD CD 



.fe 



co if d 
bD to to 



h ^ "— j d 

O r^j '+? d 

■ - >-m_i_i- . .^ CD d CD r-ri 

S S^o StIoo^ o -s CD75S 

' j ^ CD c3 c^ r? CD TO rd 



d-s'J S & 5t • 7I CD 
O O CD £^>? . ?£ 



TO O 

d m 

cS O 

^.nd 



<1 



CD . 



CD 
. .CD 

o 





1 

h— ( 

O 

cy2 



M 

O 

■ 

H 

!zi 

4 

< 
w 

M 
P 






© tf TO C8 -g d K 

r-d H H _^ CD d P 

CD rd ^> TO c5 

d P n^ CD 



^ ^ d M ^ 



CD 



f-i CD 



r— I ?H 



sa K q_^j 



TO ^ 3 S 

§ « CD d 



T5 



CD 



. TO' % 
TO c3 o H 

ff b^75 ^ ^ 0: 

c5dri2CD2^CD<^ 
CDTOg'-^rHrd^O—, 



bD of ^ T? 

d cd c^ d 

'S fe^ 1 * 

^5 

^3 . CD 4^ 

CD ^ d 

■fi CD rd N 

d 4=1 CD 

CD ^-d 

d -d rd 



d 42 



TO 



_ O d Xh rj 

d .,^^,0 d^ 



H J) ,, ffl k oh 

o rSi d d *5t M 

H= B.H TO -gr^ 



o3 rH 

*? -S3 



d to 



d 



O C3 



TO *-< 



CD CD 



d 

'rd 

CD CD 
O Eh 



CD 
TO CD 

S * 

^ CD 
CD M 

bDTl 

d ■- 1 
O bD 

p &.S 

Mrd d 



t«7 ip 



& 



3 o : 5 ^ ft r§ ^ a 

££^TOdS£0 
TO^ CD CD ? ^r±J 

'P cn '43 7J g rd cd ^ 

n d'S g.&Prd d 
O cd p F rd 7= d 



^•i 



d 

CD . 

,d P rj 

■ -» • r— 1 _H 

d W'^^ 

o 

o d d 



PhCO 



,d CD TO 
73 d TO 

" ^ * ri 

fe d . 

^ 0-» CD 

CD -rj d <9 

r^ ^ C 

M d TO 

^7 CJDO 

4^ d & a 

TO C3 . rd 

CD d d 

^ rd .2 TO 
CD -g -g ,r_l 

^ g 2 g 

i-4 d 

d 2 cd ^ 

r^rd CD 

rQ ^dd 

fi H°r3 H 

w.S 7 ^ d 
Srdi3 ° 

. O ^ r= bo 

^ ^ 'S if.a 

■7Q d ^ r^ 

o^ odg 
rd d_2 2 

^ rQ7fl 



03 



IlllfSill ill ill I^IIf 511 



^ P- © ffl , 13 « 2 r! C n j" : -; CD "^ C3 75 "^ .m jj CD "tj CD w h«3 






GQ 



■sill i*S*MT li «aJ«40H #1 hi 



«+H 



Ph T3 +? * © 

o 






w qj t; . ■+- > r ^j 






Q 






n5^ S +^ ,PH .5 O 3 ^, CD 3 H ^ 13 .+3-4? ^ 






l fl tg^U^.a^ a ass's i^S ^ |^« §^-3.aj1^^ 



i- 



to © © © 

d £ o +=» 

o oS ^^ 

■ o cd 



j ^d =4H 



03 dr s 8 3 <3 

*H O ft-d 

t> d, DQ Co 



d © h rd © 43 fe hi ,2 * -d 
es © d d M S ^^ 13 

dL^o+^do^^^r- 

■^ en •*-• i — i 



go 



d o „. 

SI "^ r d d p* _d <*S i — i -t- 3 d 
^,. o3 ^ § ^©^S 

TO C rj ■+* -d "S O ^ ^ 



bDr-T 

(—4 '— ' 

.s © 

era 

2^ 

.9 © 



g ■— 2 M ;d o o3 ^°-^^ b- 

J^g-g bog ,2 2^.2 rf&+^. 

03 1 _dr-jCD CD ^c3"-<P^.CD 

© d © 03 ~-S t>^ . 5 ei fe F 



^^ w es c3 v o3 5 d © K « 

8 ^ £ g 4, 3 A © -3 d g ^ ^ J 
hnd^ g^^ ^oa © Ma)r? g g 

g^ 8-s* &*lcl ** 



bb3 

d 



•d +a •- o_( 



^ © 

c3 h T2 
<D O c8 



P .£§ ^ rj? O ~ £ g ,_, § g ^ 

UJ ° d -2 2 gS ©^£ 

-a « g.s 

^d 



- §44 

s s « 

■ Jh O O 

■s-sa ° 
5^ ® 

d ^ 

"bJDg O 



© 'S 

^ d 

o~g 
rd § 

rSfo 






en 

© © 



© ^ _, d 

S-i 



© 






© to >< *K 



c5^ %& 



l> 2 >• r^ ^ t" . - ' «, ^ o3 y 
cso^^^d^l^^^ 



~ 






£ © © 

2 r^i rQ 



S c3S^^^d^©.^ o . or g . ri 

5 ^3 2 g ko g^.a^^ -fl a ^ 



OS 



T5 fe; 

^ © 

rXi d 

-^ d 

OQ -r-l 

d < 

d <=3 

d 02 

© d 



« ©^^ 2 

© ■ — ' ^ °3 

^ .„ © (/ £j 

+> ""^ ^© 

«H O *»3 T3 2 

( o - - 

O O <D 

c3 C3 += ^ 



u o d d 

c3 ra. 



© 



d m K 



fa: ^ 



+3 f-l © ?-| 

C3 © rn ©^ 

© d +3 t> d 

,© cS 



d'g 
O bo 

© -^ 

© r* 

o g 



OQ ^2 

© c{h 



&CdO 
c3 J5 m 

2 ^ o - ^ o 
S-T3 Q 13 t> 






t-1 

d 
° d 



03^ ^^ 

03 «tl if o 

O h+j 

_, © ^-t 



b5 fe s _d j-l 



«2 h^ 



»^S,fl bl^^^^ 



^ Fl 



03 O 






.d © © t— ' ' i** 1 * ri4 



m 
O 

© 

pd 

I* 



S © 
d nd 

^ d 



& 1 S .^ : ■ Ki 

5 ei o3 

X 03 

OQ CO 

03 d 

c3 id 



o3 ^ d 4j 
°Q g o3 03 

d ^3 
© d 13 tj 

^ o O O 

m ** M 



^ «8 
O © 

© 



rH H 



a g^ 



© 



t_i o3 

S bo 2 P 

d • rs O 



© 



ryj 



bC^ 



H 2 

CD 03 

O 






H 02 



&0 



^ g 



© m 



2 jS^H "KJ 

' - c3 cd ft 
o3 ^ , .13 o3 o © 



2 3 

•43 d 

03 d 

o3 crj 
CD ^ 

^d 
^d d 
d 03 

05 © 

03 -2 
£P© 

• 2rd 

44 ^ 
9 bo. 



Pd ^4— I TJ TJ rA 

© o d d o 

^ 03 P3 03 V 

©"d.2 S * 

CD ^.2-^ 

dd ©7; ? 

■ +3 d rd "" 

3 © ^ b0 ^ 

03 © & d ^ 

^^S^d £ 

M i — i 03. -H 



S Qr © 
^d ■+>>■■ 



+3 +3 



03 



2 S^-g g ft 

03 o d ^d 



03 o3 

^ © 



M CD 



Ph^^ 



2 -e oj 



^rd 



c3 



o ^ 3 ^n © _a 



© 



43 b-V+3 Ci c3 tDcfl-Q 






d © 

. g © 

bo£ O 
d -2 

•d ^ CQ 

d c3 M 
K CDT3 

IM 

M 03 

©CM.© 

© 



^ft^- 
© id 



>. 



d -. 

CD o3 

^ © 

© 



»1 



bO 

© 

03 

d 

o3 

8^d ^ 

03 q . 
bfl 2P «fi z3 ~d 






03 



nd 



e3M P g « 



rd -d 



^^ g g^ 

©2d 



oT 03 

03 g .a 

J © *"d 



\ 






^ c cd ps c^ o © ^ ® Ml^ S ^ +* <d +* On H k° d -d O 






iJ'r >H C " C3 M S fi pI k'Hi — I & r/ i-H C3 O •■— ' ^3 W O b*l* rH ri o 






« •sldlJs^^^^Sd^^l^J-d^s^J^Sl 00 



h ,»43.a 



fiii^iai mm in mxm 

||&sg-g||i 4.a~g 1^ ^.fi -§g'Sf' a £i 



-13 ^ ? • rH rt -^ © s So "~""3 o te <i> - « a"S d olo- 11 

t-'tftl-g^-a %i fll J*g s^laf§|r_ 



H£ >I i£Hf 1 IfMI^P 



t«?„ . S- S ^ . - -':■: Z '-' - i- 



lilt llil pi i rtllfl sll#Wil% 

a s ^°^ ^ 5) ©^d ^ cd bu © 2^^ P 2 a ^-d^eS 5^ 

.S rt hAA^H+2 O £&J30Q rdU^ r^A-d Pn+^ -2 P 1 o.S 





ri 4g CO 




.!£ ^a rj 




d +f° 




SgrW 




eg .O 




"S oco 




O ,£! - 




d ** 




'1-81 


, 


CD 4-3 "^ 


►r 

Eh 

P 


CD H on 


< 


t> £ fH 


W 


, d <D 








^2§ 


P 


o b~* 


o 




02 


CD c3 o3 




CD i — i co 




H d 




o § 2 



32 ^ 
d CO 

^Q o3 
o3 

O 
Pi 



o3 



CD ^ 
.2 CD^d 

4-^ « p 



a i ° 



CD 



CD 



o3 

M '- 1 

25 da 



„ <D 

CD rM 
CO 

71 CD 
CD £ 



o3 
CD T3 

^ fa 

CT 1 CD CD 
CD £ CD 

05 



co 2 



CD 

§ 



P 53 CO _CD 

CD 03 

d "S £ 

M CO 



C3 rd 



53 > 

d © 









CD 



r^c^^ 



= V a" bc£ 

CD 



Pi CM 

d © O 



CD 
fa 

c3 

fe- © 

- i> „CD 

c£^ 
co ^ o 
§ o3 O 

pi U 3 

CD rQ C3 

rjH-'-i c3 

fa a EH 

£^3 



CO 

Ph CD 
£ d m 



ri o •w ^' 



CO 
03 

CO co co 



O d 



£ t? 



■J tri 8 5B " i^H 



co o3 o3 



1S~ 24 W IW ' (3 -55 . 03 <■ W l-l 



s.a'g Bfl aj.f.2 £ 






^ § S d^ 






9 i a & fri-ai^^^ 



CD 



rP. 



--^-^IS 



bog oj 



5R r-l © 

S S ri 

^'S o 

CD jj-g 



CD 



" OCT ^ r* 5"^^ * 

r cr 1 © c?cd 
-id ^ ,-d 

g CO CD © d 

c_ -fi >v.qq cd 2 cd fd qd 
o co r^ cd d *co ^ 05 cd 



CD . 

CD CD 

co § 

cd *i3 



CO 



05 

CD - w 
t>rM CD 

03 .0 ^a 

^- CO 



_d 

P4^ « 



+a CD 

T5 CD 

^^ 
CO 



03 ^ jj ^ 
g^ cDrg 

bD^r-1^ 
o3 



CD 



^4 



C5 



[> B ^*j 



d 

CD 

d +s 



d 

'"rd 

O 

05: v.-' fa 

SO- 

d d d 






c*h CD o3 
^ "d T5 O te: CD 

biD o c+h .d ^ 

03 S'rri.3! d 

co "T5 ^^ 43 . cd 
S CD co 03rPJ 



CD 
CO ^O 



^3 ^ d c8 03 $ 

tZ eS - ?h ^d CD 

CD Pn-d ^i-^^O o 



O O .JL, 

t> 4-3 co 

bb^ o 

CO CD w 

<B d 

O 6Q ffl 

CO cd 

~ d o 

CO *r3 

CD 03" CO 

o bD<^ 
co d , ; 

O CO 
fH CD 
•g fa bD 

^ M 

III 

. CO 



a 



o^ drd 2 



, od 

°3 o3 43 

PJ § S^ 

a co m 



d CD 

o ,d 

O += 



CO 
r-H 


p 


+» -t-3 <H 

o3 03 S 

dd O' 




^ d 


-M .!-, 

iD'HTJ 




rd ^ 




b» CD 




^3 

Cm d^ 

>^ 03 


ans belie 
1 prevails 
be obtain 


1— 1 
c- 1 


rpCD 
f-" > 


^S.Sffl 


►-3 


o3 >> 


pi i3 d 


^ 
H 


© <D 

2rd 


K 


•5- 


e Eas 

hoi era 
water 


P4 


d^H 


t-4 
P 
id 
O 

to 


•3 d 


G^ 


rd CD O 


.S d 


*f <D^ 




<D CD 

-mT 

*CQ ^i 


f> c3 CD 

^ M 

. d 

d ^ CD 




f-( Cm 


° r^ O 

CD Pm 



[xP += rf sj d eg d ^"d d d .2 



d 

S ®r^ cd I §^ 

E o m ^ _d fa 

co f-j fa co g ,-Q 

^'o3 2^ ^d 

rd Ph 2 S g 1 p 

co . n P d d P" fa 

^D d Ph © b£ d 03 

©^ -g*3 CD 03 <1 

in += ffl © O "rt ' 
^ P g 



£ ^ co t^g 

^ £ c3 ^1 fn d 

43 nj o cd > d 

-d d f> <=« P^ 



g ,Q £Dd Png 
S -d ^ bO-r-J o cd 



^a -«— ' — 
C3 d ."d 

H i? hnO q, P-t CO 
+3 M-h CO E-( 




bJD 

1 S'Ji S 2 



3 2 bOc 

rt 43 *43 i>s CD d 

P^ o co 1 co cd 

i_, M 2 c-> S 



W 
d -d © q ■» w ja 

Ph^O d a bJOEH .S a3 to d r^ c2 



-M +3 £.»,£ g 

£-5 £ ^^ FJ 

bDTJ o ^ ^d Pi 

l d ^ S CD {> 

t> r n d co bo „, 

^ bog a^ a 03 

c^ cd d rd -m 
« Q d a 



1 t_t •» £_i 

d 43 
M *2 ."d cd' 

k o o 

CD Ph CD 

d 



03^ 
o3 



Pnd [>vt3 

^ ja.s c3 

d S ^;2 



^ ^ 



9.43* t^ 1 



CO 

O -§ tiD bD © cd^^-s 

•=* ° g J8,a cd S p 
s d d M S 
3 o c3 02 o _q ^ 

o3 md - 

o e fe cd ^r 

fa CD S ^ Pntj 
Ph^^^ m & vd ° 



m © 
d +3 
CD o3 



b£ 



S o a d , 
cd w I gca J 

d d^d 
d^ g d 

Ph °3 p 



O 
co 

olc^.d 

rd O 03 

o 

O rM © 



03 



« CD 



d s 

c3<H 

d 

©CO 

^^ 

Ph 



05 d ii 

co -9 I 

bg d 

^5 r> ° 

^ 2 o 

— 1 H . CO 



i* sy to . • pri co 

O <3 c3 03 >*> 55 o3 

pa £ d o o 
© cd^:2^ 

TO TO d f-* <x> 

& d O .«-• 



CQ 

a: 



©. c§ 



d TO ^ 

© 2 M 

8^ 



-* "8? -J — ! 

_L o 



.03 g CD 

^ rO ^ 



o3 

rd 



•d o 
c3 

g-J§ 

-TO 

o3 °3 



43 „ CO 

m .3 § 

go O 
TO -^ CQ 

^ ■* d 



CD 



CD 



£f<j +" CD CD ^3 

d ^ rW CD H3 q3 

C« U 

£h d CD 

dTO g 
© fl ra 

** CO ©^t - ©TOi 

o 2 SJ=J 2 d 

>° § 8° § § 

P-^ .OhO^ g 

•fl-a »g^ I 

03 CD o +3 bD<] e 



CD 

a 

o 

CO 

TO 

CD 



Q O cd~ 

■fi. & J 

fd -rj c3 

©Oh 

8 °§ 

rM CD 

M d# 

CD CD b£> 

8 *<•£ 

§■§ ° a 



r3 CD 

13 3 

dg 

" c3 • 

TO 
CQ CD CD 

r2^ £ 

* a S 

a ^8 

a:2 a © 
g^ -r= > 

d cq 



r-T 03 



d c3 

Ord 



o 



rd o o ""d 

r^IrO "g g 

hCD ^£ 
£^-2 CD 

rd — ra 

CO 



CD 

"d 

d 

o3' 

CD 
TO 

rb 
'rH 

o3 

CO 
CO 
CD 
O 
CD 

d 

-1-3 

o 

d 



a^gs^'g ^2 



W r 7F; '*£ CD 

"-• CDrd ^r^ I 

^^ 151 i 

11^ § c^ 

If cd g^^-l 
^ -•? £> g ^ a 

.s d 1 1 ^ a 
-d ,rH ^ s.s ^ 
§ a pi d^ 

CO "" : '" ' 



d •>* -i_3 



p^^, SB CD 
S^ S^d 

a° §| 



, , M 

H3! d* b^d^ 

CD -r^ 03 g . 



03 

S.-S 

d -h 

1-8 

o L 

03 H 
O 

rd <» 



03 2 



d 

-nr^^ c3 ^ ^ . 
rn CD CD ^ Sh 



1-1 _q _L3 tr 51 © c3 , d 



rd CQ 

dd 



■+= CQ 

H 03 
03 

,pH CD . 

CD t> +2 

•-d m rd 

O .H bJD 

03'^^ 



^ 



S'3 2'g 



00 bn^ <d cd ■— 1 



P -d CD CQ CD 

03 O 



j3 CD ■— |4i> co 10 c3 

■s r a s 8^ ^° ^ 



d bo o 

d £ O 
^"co^ 

^ d r-H 

. <=8 rd 

d c+_, 
o o 



JO 



g 1 

02 CD 



CO 

H 

d 
o 

rd 

CD 

cd 



d ^n 



^^G^r'CDCDf-i 

I g^ ^r2.S « 

C 5^ L CD Lo Q-T3 



cd H 03 T r*\ 



r- 

03 

cu 

bD I 

d 



be fv a ■« 

drd o 
•f-i co d 

h c3 



n co o3 

rd ® 



CD 

rd 



E 

^ d 

^ a 

c3 CD 

rrt "5 cd' ,Jd 

v - / I 1 -4-3 



H § 



^ *^ CD 

03'^ 

^° 
11 



"^2 

1 o o 
b52 E 



CD lO 

cdtH 



03 

— rd 

-8 6 $ ° * 

O -d CD 03 ^ 

■+a fe _ CD 

... CO 



8 g 

CD d 



O > 

03 ^2 CD 

o d p 



5 STS 

t> © d 

I co 03 

CD «. 

M ^S s? 

CD 03 ^ 

g rd C3 

if d fe- 
es CD 

g a 

bo d °3 

03 

c3 bD_d 
co 



-CD 



I e= 3 g 



a- 



a a 

^ I 

gag- 

co t> bp<8 

Oo r 1- ' d - 



CO 



1:5 N r^ ^ 



CO 



rd^drd 



d rd 

o3 o3 

CD 

-rd 



a I is 

o3 

fe CQ 



CD 



o d 



C/J r-f 

.2 K 



CD 



CO >■ 



P-,-40 

2 rt 

CD CD 



d 

03 o3 • 
bo O 



r2 ° S 

^r^j CO 
CD O S 

cd rd 
5 ° 

rd.iD 



CD 

CO 

O u,. 

o ■ d 

rbcl OrS 

bo 



o3 d ^ 



o w a 



o 



>• o 



a^d go'o 

co" d c3 -rt 
2 ps-d'ed 



03 p bD n or 

r-t r-l S CO 



(-1 r-, 



^g 



CD ."d O 

©^ S sTco 
O B ^ •« 

rO O rt 

dd2 a 



^d 



■*5r. .rd 



CD dn 



CD n^ 



M«M 



o 

co 

I 



d 
_r 03 .3 

CD 



Cd^'r^ ^ fe 5 



CD 



CD C3 



CD 



d°a 



ca 



. dn^J§ 

b0 S C3 rd 

G C3 r-l 

d TO bO c3 



O * £ CO 

^H.co .g co 



+3 CD 



P cS^ 

CSrd^rQ 

d ° CO 

O O W,B 

+? Q-Tn 



^|ll 



H 5 



d 



CD -5 



te: += 



bOrO o3 a I ^ ^ 



3 ^— x 

^^ I 2cS 
.fc -^^^ 

bO CQ CO CQ •"£ 

. E>^ CD CD 
_^> o3 O M co 

rf fe to rd d 
<& d: b^is d 
d Is ^1 d 

r^ 4-^r^ "^ 

d "5 H rd CD 

TO CJ ^ rQ d 
g rS .13 2, J 

d 03 CQ d to 
g DQ « ©'53 

^ ^ ^ & s 

+= .~d to ^» 

r2r^ O ^ £ 

3l3|f 

^l.a^p? 

^8-o3^^ 

r-H H CD 

r Q £ TO 



Z 
H 

H 

'-=2 

pq 

c 

- 



00 



§ ° 



d 2 rd 



CD 

& 03 
03 d 

i § 

EC 

cc 
O 
OB 



bD fe 

03 K 

8 j 

d M 

® 53 



CD TJ 



CO C3 c3 



CD C3 W d 



S cord^ 

s_ cd o a 



P o 
o3 cq 



£^rd 

S d.2 



d 

c3 
o 

CO 

"d f-i 



H cd bD^jq rd ^ 

cs T5 d | k 



CD 



d _, CD 



CD 






^ i-a - ""d 



o 



Qr si 
B Sj -2 § 



gfce.Ss3 



^ o 

<J CD += 

n g a 

p © p ffi ffl 



3 .3 



3 S^ 



CO 
CO r 

^ .13 Cm 



"d 



^^ 



3£ 
8 « 

S.S 

o 

Ph 



° fe: 

C3 t> 

© CD 

dr^ 



bD?> 






CO 

-d 
d 

3 



CD CO 

co 

CD 



I CO o p^ 



bD a; 

co d 

c3 4 2 

j CO rd 

bD O ■*? 



co 



-3 a 



g"| CD O 



O 

flu, w 

■"d CD «w ' d 

d ©^o S 
g o o?rd 

t^a a ^ 

."Si 4^ 



fe a ^8 

o 



- CD 

Ph o 

a £ 



d S s jd d 



a co 

d co 

03 CD 

FH CD 
CD^ 

CD^^ 

!>, r Q^ r >^ r l 

S2 5h1 



M 



pT S 

CD d 



CD 

d bD 
03 d 
O C3 

d^ 

d d 

O <D 



O 



CD 
^ > 

o -^ 

O co 

CD d 
co o 



CD 

O 



d s * 4 % 



CD o3 



03 0^ 
CO CD 

03^ 

d *» 



&H 

CO 

_ Jz 

CD - 

SO. 



d 

03 

o o 

d^' 



O CD 
bDcS 



08 h w 



S . s ^! J co 

8 ^.a a-- n 

03 



CD 03 -pj 

d += CD 

i ^^ 

CO 



^ CD r^t ' r " ( 

p,d^ 



■6. a 

F C3 



-5 



co^'d;^ g 
5 s O -%j o3 

^> CO ©H O 



03 ^_, 

^d 1?ch © tc m s 






d 

CD 



CD 






^l§ 



CD c, 

S CD ^ p, 

rP CD 

m +^> Cm CD 

O "^ Q rM 

^^o § d 

C 03 -d 03 

o ^ P* * 
c d a 

d O c3 cd 

2*^ >.rd 

« co r$ ^ >. 



32 d 
03 .d 



bD 



d d 

03 CD 

it 

s 3 



o o J 
•^^ g 

CD _- 1 m 

rd^^ 
■fi ^^ 



^ 



CO 



^5 03 

a «T3 ^ 



O 



PT CD | CD 3 



°fe 



d ^ 



CD 
k^ CD 

|1I I^S^ d g 
oj d d .» ^ E rd ^ cd 

gOcD^cO^§-^c3 
O ^^ 03^ U oa co r O 

pq£?d^ c^os^t-i 
03 -d o j o b 



^^Scd^ 



^ I rf*' o 



U^ 



CD CD CD ^ d 



CD 
rd 



CO H a 

.S d c5 .e 

° O ^ £ 

d >-, d *s 

•"E c2 d "So 
r" nd bD g 

a ? S § 

»M r-d r-M <L 

CO +5 -M § 

&$%$ 

O CD r£2 S 

g c12^ 



a 
w 

W 

<l 

H 

W 

w 

Eh 



CD cord,—, CD d - ■" r; 



■ J3 • cd 

^^1 03 

CD 2 -^ 

SrdrM 

,d ^ 03 



B^rd d 



c3 £ 



c3 o3 
.^ CD 
"3 



-_2 ^ 

^^4^ c5 



bD'd 
S? d © 

r^-d d 

2 ^r2 
-M O^ 

co Ei d 
dM,Q 

o3 



jh-^ CD^ 

* >^^ CD^ g ^ 

I! 

o ^ 
m OD 



^ CD «H 

Scm d 
^ o o 

d 



O co 



03 



o 



CD 
CO 

C3 

§ n 



CD" CD ^^'K'm 

drd CD a^ ^ 



S CD 

CD T^ S-, 
-M CD CD 



-d 



id 

e r ]3 -r rd • 

m dc2 ^° &rd g 



M CD 



CD 

rd 

d o 



co 
Ph 
O 
O 

M 
-M 

-d 

8 

o 

> 

t o3 
cm 



CD 

bO 

d 
o 



CD 



SrPJ grd CO d ^ gpl^ ^ 
d ,rH ^ CD 03 



03 



-^CO^Md 



M 03 

a a 



03 



d co 



CO 



C3 



J l h rSI ^ * 



co co p* 

© "rCt 

d 2 

d oq d 



FH ^ ^c2 ^|3^^ 



O co 

'43 r& 



d 

d 08 

rd d 

m d 
coH 

M rH 

as d 

CD "' -, 

co CD 

^ a 

1^ 






I* 1 I #*J3^s** 



_T3 ^* 



S Sd •? -o ™ & - r J& o a eg £ 0r d P g o^ i g g 

g a§.>aag|-£-§^ -g S:|s.&.i3 g s § a § § 1 sS* § 

1 1 ill § g£s 1 1 SiH g^i s '£f ?i g|i« fl 

o ofi^|l§t||a||§M|l^Sgl|f1|JI|li 



CO 






CO 







r^ 






c3 






d 








b 




d 

c8 


o3 


' >^ ;; 


HJ 


c3 


CD 




*3 


^ 


o3 


c5 


tJ 


r> 


r— J 


d 



& j O O « „-fl !>,« S S D -S^I - So bo cdcd'55 tf ¥ ^te 

S 8 si « e Sfl g.S bS o^ ^ o.S'| 3 6«" fl « "Sb> .fc r S 



&i w crc! d o3 P-T& - 



1 III*! |l?l|.lf'li|il^:l lllfl^tA^ I 

s s 53 *8 « §.§-§ 1 g &*&£ l-o s» a «S .3-s-a ?•■§ S)1 g s 1 8£ 
1 g , tol--fi ^ l-ftl «f35s^ * § §.21 «-i I »' £P;fa-S /§ 

31 »' s ^11! P I .ail-^^i--;^ sfi-rl il s : |a 



<tt 






!l!ii?iaiili liii i&llS i« IfPf liil-^jji 
iHllnrillP |M !!flft til d^*| ?!i!!£<i 

iifiiliiiili rdtiiiii! 55! 11 in iilitiifi 
iKiBlillll feMl ii ! |ilfl tlfilPlr 



tsiVf Jibuti UltǤs=?ir is* IgWilJll^s-iSi 

£1!Sj13*i 11s? 11! wife ill i-A^H^m-i 



t-i 6 2. « 



KiifiiililiiiJiJfi SIlli! iaill|i!^|^ 

ppillpfii P:I= I 1 ill M sit - If IlllHI 



l°-ll?#llIrfI|I*2||-I^llii^s!* P ^e^^-8^|-B'i'l i**jfi 



-§£§§tr s*° sail ^ ^"Js-lfc !•?>'§ 1- * >.&■§•■§ 
?8&2l SiJip ssoS^ II I'll f-lz, II 9111-g.i 

i mium am ptg iih it isiit 
I inn b^i i^-fi giiiiii,-ii ii M| f ^ 



« sail ^b£^1£.££>§ 1 g * S-^-a-**^ «.g a § -;-9g g^ | 

3 ^i.^u^f^ fi iil s&sfaSi -sjj :•! ^j lis * 

fe © ^ £ £ ^ £rQ &H© »^3B £^^ © £ KS .JrH°V 00 « 8 dp o g~ M 



S Je I % -S "5 43 g * -S gw | 8 w S ^ § . | _ B)"S 9 g- -S 1 * | , . 



r-« M-l Wl C3 Cl iT JV, '•-* -1 w >-l >-> . «* pi- M rr r-c ' ■ w «<> r-( rr* ess OU OCSj-^ f^< 

I hi iiiiiiiiyi iifii rfjt Id isiij 

g -l^1s"^-i : S^--1^^|;2lH* e s r ?^ ^i^|j^s|| 






c2 g> 






I 2-8 N. Illilll gl'I^lllfl ifl pJlJfg ill II 

§ *s*i ttUfti n mill si ir§i§ifg-ini- 

«y^ if in -nit ml* $ h# ^wi ii 






I l!!l IH«ffi»il!t ffillllfi I II!! 

I J& «!rtil1«llilfllI#?fe!?Mlfi 

o 
m 




iiisii » ji ju p. -p, k | if- • mm ii 

.^IfSlff IMS |f 2IHH iJ* HI f&'jiji* 

I Ill?|!fllli1iflli5lill!l!t! fili|lfll 

§ *i§ m Is § s fi^ I ^ ii o^!?! r* Jl-ssl-i 4§ 

3 till N* II if.illlf *j§I if f |f ill I H&t a i 1 1 

I !|.1| e |5 l"f 'Mill illi 1 I tfi-i 111 fit I 

oo |||| |f if litis] hi .liiiliilllllfi § ill 



#3 ^Illltl I sill 11 **|! o^||» |.|ij 

. *? slpilff *£;*» H u$i ii- "ri rill 

§ IJllifflfl! II fit ii Jill !i|!fl ki 

I illl!ii>|rrl l!rH H-.-Slrf !§^ s l Si* I 

g d g a a S §£n"SJ§| ^gt^^ j? £"§££ «oo^g« ^°|* 

I iitlllllflJ fill J?ii#! *S|!1l *i« 

3 «i.»lis«|iil»|i| s fliilif si .t°^tfiti 



89*6 S% 

S>.£og ,C3 
o P 



o 3 ft 



2 - C <« 



d E "S 

03 oc ■** 

d.2 g 



^ c« 



o a 



§•2 ^"| 3 on 



1 1| 



85 1 -g « g ^>^- a „ 

gc = d <u ^ a> o ,2 03 

o E 03 3 '2 ,—• *> a > 

wo o rt ^<5 3 ~ 



>•- 9 



ts d a © *» 

.5 _, a $ <u ft 



a a Si 



a X 



"2 o 



2 *> o£ o -a g 

aiid _, « -J ft © 

£ « m e ,o .£>•- -s 

SSp-3 % a -Z 



a spa 



•O O^ 



9- - * 2 £.3 .a 3 . 03 , 

aff5 8 *a| 5ag 

ps^-f^f^d qS^ 

■lg§4 lK-s!= 

2 f 3 § c g «- 

J X 03 <« 3/ S ^ C3 ca 



<u *5 v -o ,d «* 

« g< .c-2 "g 3 d 
ft § xPP 3 "d ft-2 

rg 03 T3 § : 3 fci «g g 

t> ^3 ^P csS =« 

o|-S,s-| ago 

30 



*= - .3 00 o 



s « a ?r^ 

"S <u',g 2 y 

.2IIII 

ftl^'a 



a >> 



gg-a 
las 



d'12 



o £ 
00 p 



^3-3 



oo.h 

a 3 d 



"3 * a ^ 



a«-Crt<ua 3^aj 



fee « .~ 

ftJ 93 tD 

§^a. 



.-« s s a 

1 &s'i M 5 J 



J s a 



ci 



^ rt 



-"-• S £ »^ 3 
"S "33 sS o do" 

o mr a 



iS5 bfl 



s 



c 

o be 
<d a 



P 2a 1 



&-p§ I 



a> o 3 
&-= o 

^3 



<h a «s a ^ 



^5 :S "B i 3 3 ^ ©•■««« ..3 5*1 



'.5 a 



>;>>' 



o o c 



!*"S 5 



I >-S 2 * m ;a- 



_ .2 4J o "+3 
S'd ^ — ' e« to 

•** 03 d $t> 

d ■-"* 03 0> d 'r* 

<o « is >co ft 

-a a 03-^ » ^ 

« '-3 ° o *3 d 

^> O iiHflO 

S.^0 

D3 +3 03 2 +? O 



C) C3 03 

_2 Qj .a 



-d .a a ^. n 



^ .2 § S » 3 



w a3 
-d 5 i 

13 e3 7! 

■S & ft 

•lea 



- 3 jg (0 rj 

S g 03 i3 o ,33 a 

^ a .2 a -a »« «^ "-3 .2 -2 » « is o 

I! 3 ill* Ipf.i2 §;i 

s 2f-1 s -|s'«|S*2 
-.■^Iftokilll 

giSra-i-s'aboaSa^ 
<d ^ dm* "3 ft -^3^ 



m.S 



03 "0 



_ bo „ S r 2 • -■- m *= 



'« - ^ t0 



PI §>§ 

& .2 3 10 

. !- ^ 03 03 

£aS . 

^3 d a; 43 ft 
iS -° ® rr5 « 

13 , -«3" : 3 m o 
g 43 a o 3 o 

-3 J3 D « g g 

d -S 5J 03 ja *2 

CS O rt 43 Si S 

.2 a § g § 2 



; a5 
. .. ce m 

S sh n 2 ^ 

03 03 ,0 * _03 

d^ f-^5 




HeooSoat. 



11.22 



9. SG 



•si 



g^JO Sd gfl S^^oft.^^^ 05 

a§».3aflft*liags^i* 

^^2 ?# d tcGdoa 



ft «g ^03 dT3 

" d •o* "* 



'is 



-S o & 



d a ? a 

m& t« d 









- o o th c — o -g g q3 "3 -S 



° rG '- = 



^ -q 



c3 fcC 



.S -^ ^ » s w ■" 
2 >^5 -^ -mis ^^ 

^ ^ ® eD o ^ C Ih 
* jo © '-+3 fi h P 

,« g ^ M off © P 

•> o ^^j g h . - 



M G * ^ .S ffl 02 M3 

53 H 



o O o fl o r-. 

"-sill 






S3 



SO 



m 



co^ 
co co © 



^ 1 "A n3 q S © C « to c3 



03 ^z; 



^2 « > ,3 



3-5.9 



13 R>" 



r-^3 



« A 



^«m >% 



^2 ^ -M 



O 2 P 'd 



O^ 



.? al S-2 Si 



a 35 



O e3 



bJD q> 
es © .Th p q^ 









© a O O 
►S «*4~ ^ 'P 

a> P^ P 
^ S > g 

(S « " .2 

OS * g g 



5^ P 



^3 ^5 'S -p b> f 3 



;l- 



53 

^^ 
^^ 

2 2 3 © 

© A P 

3 3 3 fejp 

_ Q co T 53 



S s p°p °£ 

p ©^ ^ cd 

P 



feS 



03 5U 



Ph 
P. 

o s 

CO 



C3 03 

O O 03 

03 . Cfi 

Ml 3! to 

PP O 03 



M 



^ CO 
g< fe 03 ^.03 

fn i&' ro 5 'El 

03 e3 5 53 
>,p © P^ 



03 -M 

as.. 
% m 

_ Ph 



«g 



8. a 



P > 03^P 



rt g co Ph ^ u •% ^^ S 

^ThJ tO M flr^CC^ ® CC gjS 

S -P 5 P as S ^3 _—e P M 



«3© .rJoP .P-imjo^^ 
• - j b. o t3 ., a to .p o 

£ fe ig *.a G ,rH p 



'EL fe to r^J 

w -1 3 Q ^ 



3 43 2? CO r ^,PrPt> r O 

i s ^ ,2 w>^ ** g .2 a 

Pi^ E P^ 8 P^ It '-P ■ rQ 

•H^f 7 03 08 'P fH ^_ U >* 






03 Xt to 

CO P & 03 
03 -^ 03 lw.H 



PJ # !h ' >d."S 

e3 *H( £j g F 



M 



03 

P 



P „r T w ^ -B ^ 



*51 



t_e^,0303^-g03 
O O >^tS."B^^3 



P 

o 



to p y 3 ; 

O & rQ @ £ 5 

w 03 CO 'P „ 

P ^ a? _ a _§ 

2 rP ^ 5P*^ 5 



g 03 'P 

&:£ : § Sj ^ PJ .j§ g^.^ ■- s, 

S^2c|gC^*g2^1 

^OcSP^CcoO^O.PrPtoP 



^4 ^ c3 
p 

-§-cpp3g|b^a^ 

.«: : « _L -g ■& ^ S 

S cS fe p 



^lillli; 



■S * S --P rQ 
S %&& 

S *P 2 p ^ ra 



b0. 






P w» 

2 °r5 



co .3i 



2 "al co p- _^ 

P $H ^3 p gg 

<13 (3 M 03 k«h fl ti rt 

os s j? o s «a a 



CO rp g p 

c3 o P 







IHSlfi 1 III I?:ili|iflii=l!^l!!10| l!llHl!Slli^ 

K iii|ti i in tkiirmumpnim mm^m 

HM !"J? *?* fill 111! i|^ Jill il Ht iiisilli llittt 






c-S S 



3 <g c '-3 8 « .2 <s c « 




HEALTH TRACT, No. 112. 

SOLDIER ITEMS. 

Swallowing Poison. — Stir in a glass of water a heaping teaspoonful each 
of salt and kitchen mustard, and drink it instantly— tins will empty the 
stomach in a minute. To antagonize any poison that may be left, swallow 
the whites of two or three eggs ; then drink a cup or two of very strong coffee, 
or as much sweet milk or cream, if impossible to get coffee. 

Poisoned Vines. — Apply a paste made of gunpowder, or sulphur, with milk ; 
renew night and morning, until cured. Live on gruel, soups, rice, and other 
mild food, having the bowels to act twice a day. 

Signs of Death. — Bury no man unless his head is off, or the abdomen 
begins to turn green or dark, the only sure signs, but always sure, of actual 
death. If there is haste, cut off a toe or finger, which would wake up the 
slightest spark of life left. 

To Stop Bleeding. — Four or five drops of Perchlorideof Iron will check 
completely the flow of blood from all except the largest arteries ; half a tea- 
spoonful will arrest even their bleeding. Each non-commissioned officer 
should have two ounces of this in a flat tin bottle, wound around with a little 
cotton batting, on a bit of which the liquid could be dropped for application. 

Obedience is not servility, it is a high duty ; it is not cowardly, but proudly 
honorable in a soldier. If your officer speaks sharply, it is neither to insult 
nor to browbeat ; it is to wake up attention, instant and implicit. 

For every wounded soldier taken to the hospital in the Crimean war, twelve 
were taken on account of disease ; disease which could be avoided in more 
than half the cases by such care as the soldier can take of himself, as directed 
in these pages. Of the 15,000 lives lost in the Mexican war, only 1548 were 
from battle. The United States Sanative Commission report that 104 soldiers 
became sick to each 1000 in the present war. 

Shirts. — A distinguished British Army Surgeon says: More than one half 
of all army diseases in warm countries are owing to the exposure of the abdo- 
men to changes of temperature. Shirts should reach the thigh. 

Inner Clothing. — Every garment which touches a soldier's skin should be 
woolen in all seasons, most important in the warmest weather. It is impossi- 
ble to over-estimate the value of this one item to the health of an army. 

Limestone-Water. — One teaspoonful of vinegar, in a pint of such water, 
will antagonize all its ill effects on the bowels of those unaccustomed to it. 

Dirty Water. — As much powdered alum as will rest on a dime, stirred in 
a pail of water, will clarify it in five minutes. 

Saving Life. — In the first seven months of the Crimean campaign, the 
soldiers died at the rate of 60 out of a 100 per annum, while for the last five 
months of the war not so many soldiers died of disease as at home, owing to 
a more systematic and rigid attention to five things : 1st. Selecting healthful 
camps ; 2d. Enforcing strict cleanliness ; 3d. Avoiding unnecessary expos- 
ure ; 4th. Proper preparation of healthful food ; 5th. Judicious nursing. 

A True Soldier is considered one of the highest types of a man. But that 
officer merits not the name or the title he bears, who does not make the com- 
fort and health of his men a subject of unceasing thought, and of the most 
indefatigable effort. 

Camp-Grounds. — An elevation is a hundred-fold better than a flat or a hol- 
low ; open ground better than among trees ; better for health, safer from 
surprise, and stronger for attack and defense, even if it is calculated to stay 
but a few hours. Let the tent face the south, the top screened with brush- 
wood, and if practicable with a floor of boards three inches above the ground, 
and a ditch around the tent six or eight inches deep. 

Drinking Water improperly has killed thousands of soldiers. If possible, 
avoid drinking any thing on a mar ch. If you must drink, the colder the water 
the less will it satisfy thirst. Jgp^Half a glass of water drank in sips, swallow- 
ing each sip, with a few seconds interval, will more effectually satisfy thirst, 
and that without any danger, than a quart taken in the usual manner at one 
draught. It is greatly safest, while marching, to rinse the mouth only, but 
do that to the utmost extent desired, spirting out the water as soon as it be- 
comes warm. Chewing even a stick or pebble moderates thirst. 

Mittens, for cold weather, should have a thumb and one finger, the other 
three fingers together, so as to use the trigger handily. 

Bowel Affections are said to be cured, if at all curable, by drinking from 
one half to four half pints of a tea made of the inner bark of the sweet-gum 
tree, boiled until of the taste and color of strong coffee, with or without sugar, 
cold or hot. The tree abounds southward. * 

Sabbath-day Parades. — Immorality and irreligion are among the great 
evils of war. Knowing this, every Christian should be most dili-gent, not 
only in prayer for the soldiers, and in furnishing them with religious privileges 
in the camp, but in cherishing a strong and enlightened public religious 
sentiment. Public sentiment is a powerful stimulant to moral principle, as 
well as to patriotic feeling. It hence becomes the whole Christian commu- 
nity to frown upon Sabbath-day parades and displays. 



Bg^> YOUR <*g^H 

SUBSCRIPTION HAS EXPIRED! 

And this Journal will NOT be further sent in any single 
case without express notice. 



TO SUBSCRIBERS. — All subscriptions to this Journal expire with this 
December number. 

It has become quite common for publishers to offer various extra inducements to 
subscribers, to renew their subscriptions at the end of the year, in the way of pre- 
miums, club-rates, etc. etc. By the partiality of a good-natured public, not hard 
to please, this Journal has become valuable, and we feel quite sure that its regular 
readers would not wish it to become less so, by frittering its cost down to less than 
one dollar, at which price it will be furnished as heretofore. If any one chooses to 
take the trouble to obtain for us four new subscriptions, we will send such, in re- 
turn, any one of our publications, post paid. 

The Journal op Health for 1862 is now bound in muslin, and will be ex- 
changed for twelve loose numbers, and 25 cents for binding. Any missing numbers 
supplied for 10 cents each. 



MALE OR FEMALE AGENTS 

TO SELL v 

Lloyd's New Steel Plate County Colored Map 



600,000 

wwwjwww T0 SELL 



UNITED STATES, CANADAS, AND NEW-BRUNSWICK. 

From recent surveys, completed August 10, 1862 ; cost* $20,000 to engrave it, and one year's 
time. Superior to any $10 map ever made by Colton or Mitchell, and sells at the low price of fifty 
cents ; 370,000 names are engraved on this map. 

It is not only a County Map but it is also a County and Railroad Map of the United States 
and Canadas, combined in one, giving Every Railroad Station, and distances between. Guaran- 
tee any woman or man $3 to $5 per day, and will take back all maps that can not be sold and re- 
fund the money. Send for $1 worth to try. Printed instructions how to canvas well, furnished all 
our agents. Wanted — Wholesale Agents for our Maps in every State, California, Canada, England, 
France, and Cuba. A fortune may be made with a few hundred dollars capital. No Competition. 
J. T. LLOYD, No. 164 Broadway, N. Y. 

The War Department uses our Map of Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania, cost $100,000, 
on which is marked Antietam Creek, Sharpsburg, Maryland Heights, Williamsport Ferry, Rhorers- 
ville, Noland's Ford, and all others on the Potomac, and every other place in Maryland, Virginia, 
and Pennsylvania, or money refunded. 

Lloyd's Topographical Map of Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, 

Is the only authority for Gen. Buell and the War Department. Money refunded to any one find- 
ing an error in it. Price, 50 cents. 

From the Tribune, August 2. 

11 LLOYD'S MAP OF VIRGINIA, MARYLAND, AND PENNSYLVANIA.— This Map is very 
large ; its cost is but 25 cents, and it is the best which can be purchased.'''' 

LLOYD'S GREAT MAP OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER.— From Actual Surveys by Captains 
Bart and Wm. Bowen, Mississippi River Pilots, of St. Louis, Mo., shows every man's plantation 
and owner's name from St. Louis to the Gulf of Mexico — 1350 miles — every sandbar, island, town, 
landing, and all places 20 miles back from the river— colored in Counties and States. Price, $1 in 
sheets. $2, pocket form, and $2.50 on linen, with rollers. Ready Sept. 20. 

Navy Department, Washington, Sept. 17, 1862. 

J. T. Lloyd : Sir : Send me your Map of the Mississippi River, with price per hundred copies. 
Rear-Admiral Charles H. Davis, commanding the Mississippi squadron, is authorized to purchase 
as many as are required for use of that squadron. GIDEON WELLES, Secretary of the Navy. 

SKATING. 

CLARK'S PATENT, MERIDEN, CONN., 

For security, lightness, and promptness of application to any foot, without imped 
ing the circulation, is not surpassed by any skate ever yet devised. 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 



Our Legitimate Scope is almost boundless : for whatever begets pleasurable 

- and harmless feelings, promotes Health ; and whatever induces 

disagreeable sensations, engenders Disease. 



WE AIM TO SHOW HOW DISEASE MAY BE AVOIDED, AND THAT IT IS BEST, WHEN SICKNESS COMES, TO 
TAKE NO MEDICINE WITHOUT CONSULTING A PHYSICIAN. 



Vol. IX.] NOVEMBER, 1862. [No. 11. 



SWEET FORBEARANCE 

One day, of a past century, at high noon, in Summer, a young 
man laid by the wayside, in a state of beastly intoxication. The 
hot sun shone full on his face, and seemed to be burning it to a blis- 
ter. One and another came and looked, and passed along in silent 
pity, or cold indifference. At length, a young lady hastily spread her 
handkerchief over his face, as a partial protection, and was soon lost 
in the crowd. 

When the castaway awoke, partially sobered, he discovered the 
handkerchief, and on it, the name of one whom he had known in 
his better days, but who, since he had abandoned himself to his 
appetites, had refused to acknowledge him as a friend, or even to 
recognize him as an acquaintance. 

The young man read, in this unpretentious act of a young lady 
whom he had highly esteemed (and with a reciprocity) in his better 
days, a lesson of sympathy, of reproof, of a quiet exhibition of a 
forgiving nature, with a willingness to do what she might to bring 
him back to his former self, and he resolved, then and there, that 
he would never " drink another drop " again. And by the grace 
of God, and a manly determination, he never did ! His reform was 
radical ; his attentions were renewed, and after a season sufficiently 
long to certify to the earnestness of his purpose, the young lady 
married William Wirt, who subsequently became one of the 
purest, and best, and brightest men of a past generation. 

Many a young woman is there, who, in the loftiness of her own 



250 

virtue, and in the stately pride of an untried heart, would have 
passed such an erring brother by in indifference, contempt, or in 
deeper disgust, and thus have left him to become lost to himself, to 
his country, and to the world. 

Vice we may rightly abhor ; drunkenness we may, and ought to 
despise ; but the vicious and the drunken need our sympathies, and 
strongly claim our countenance — we should even go out of our way, 
in our efforts to lift them on their feet again, to hold them up, and 
help them forward, as long as they are willing to try and take a 
step themselves in the right direction. 

Many are there who would have passed by, doing nothing then, 
only afterwards to busy themselves in thoughtless, if not in mali- 
cious rehearsals of what they had seen, forgetting the deep repro- 
bation of conduct so inexcusable. 

Let it be remembered, that a true humanity consists in sympathy 
for the erring — a sympathy not theoretical and superficial, but prac- 
tical and real ; a sympathy which spends itself in words of kindness, 
and in acts of love and help. Let us remember, that it is not for 
man, the creature worm, to sit as judge and executioner of his 
brother man. Let justice and judgment be in the hands of the 
Great Father of all. The province of the creature is to live in the 
constant practice of the warm benevolences of a better and a higher 
nature ; for it is by these, and these mainly, that we are to throw 
around this world a chain of love, and raise it up to God ! This is 
Christ-like — this is divine. 



SPARE THE BIRDS. 

Many a fond association hovers around the familiar name of 
Robin Redbreast ; he is the loved harbinger of the coming Spring- 
time. In early March, while the snow still lingers in the fields, on 
stake, or fence, or bending twig, he perches himself, and utters his 
well-loved notes. Brigand with the dog and gun! touch not a 
feather ; harm him not a bit. By all the memories of departed 
childhood, be his protector and his friend ! 

It seems a savage law, at first sight, that in England, a man 
should be sent to prison for killing a bird ; but it is as much an act 
of vandalism, as to pluck a beautiful flower in a garden not one's 
own. The sweet notes of a single bird, in the course of a season, 
may soothe a hundred hearts ; in another hundred, may wake up 
strong yearnings for the innocence of childhood ; and in a hundred 



SPARE THE BIRDS. 251 

more, may arouse to cheerful activities hearts almost crushed by 
bitter disappointments and by wasting cares ; while not one of any 
hundred will fail of a pleasant feeling at the first sound of its voice. 
Is not he a vandal, then, who kills a robin, and without any single 
compensation for the act, shuts off a thousand pleasurable emotions 
from the hearts of his toiling brother man ? But, let us appeal from 
sentiment to cents. 

Forty years ago, it was customary to have a shooting-match on 
May election day ; and on one of these, so many birds were killed, 
that a farmer purchased them by the cart-load to manure his fields ; 
and the scarcity of birds, that season, was a subject of general 
remark. A few weeks later, the grass withered, and blackened, 
and died. 

If the gizzard of a robin is examined, daily, for two months of 
early Spring, there will not be found a single particle of vegetable 
food ; but it will be found full of a fleshy material. In every gizzard 
will be found from one to two hundred insects ; these, multiplied 
by sixty days for every robin, and that product again by the vast 
multitudes of that sweet bird, which swarm in innumerable thou- 
sands from New Hampshire to the Carolinas, the actual destruction 
of insect life becomes amazing ; and when it is calculated that each 
insect, in common with its class, if permitted to live, is the parent 
of thousands more for another season, the actual amount of riddance 
performed by the robin alone, for any one year, is more than an 
army of men could accomplish with the aid of millions of money. 

Men who have worked in the surface earth much, have some- 
times, with one stroke of the spade or hoe, loosened myriads of 
whitish, sluggish, winged insects. These insects, while under 
ground, feed on the roots of grasses and berries, withdrawing from 
them all their substance, leaving the plant to die. 

It is upon these under-ground insects and larvae that the robin 
feeds in early Spring, when they begin to wake up to life. His 
instincts and his activities give him their joint aid in ferreting out 
these hordes of destroyers, and he feeds upon them heartily. 

Who shall deny that the first love of blood is planted in the 
bosom of a truant school-boy, in his first forage against the beautiful 
and innocent warblers of the wood, to ripen, as manhood comes 
on, into an unfeeling temper, and a savage, murderous conduct ? 
No doubt, the bootless and remorseless destruction of a bird has 
ended in the pitiless murder of a man. Fishing and hunting are no 
educators of the affections ; but they do feed some of the worst 
traits of our nature, and cannot but tend to callous the heart. 



252 



SICKNESS AND DEATH. 



Statistics seem to show that in an ordinary community there are twenty- 
eight persons sick where one dies, and that at the very least one half of 
this sickness is easily preventible. The number of persons dying out of one 
thousand of all ages and sexes in one year, is called the " Death-Kate ;" 
this varies according to locality, customs, etc. In the most notorious dis- 
tricts in England it is thirty-six persons out of a thousand. In New- York 
city, in 1859, the reported death-rate was thirty-three in a thousand. The 
death-rate of all England is twenty-two ; of the United States, twenty-four. 
But if a thousand men are taken — as the greatest mortality is among child- 
ren — the death-rate is greatly reduced. The death-rate of the " Household 
Cavalry" is a little over eleven per thousand ; of the ■ * Foot Guards" twenty. 
Why this great difference of nearly one half ? The cavalry are out of doors 
all the time ; the guards are in-doors, sitting, sleeping, lounging, smoking, 
and breathe a vitiated atmosphere — showing that sitting still out of doors 
in the coldest winter weather, as is the official duty of the cavalry, for 
hours together, is not as destructive of health and life as sitting around in 
well-warmed barracks, breathing a contaminated atmosphere. The lowest 
death-rate, ascertained with any certainty, in the world, is in the isolated 
Islands of Faroe, where only fifteen persons out of a thousand die in a 
year. Therefore whatever number over fifteen die out of a thousand in any 
one year, is that much greater mortality than there ought to be. Accord- 
ing to the admirable and able report of Daniel E. Delavan, Esq., City In- 
spector of New- York, there were 22,117 deaths during 1861, in a popula- 
tion of say 850,000, or 26 as the death-rate, being eleven per thousand more 
than it ought to be ; hence there were 9350 unnecessary deaths in New- 
York city during 1861. Surely every family should read and practice the 
precepts of a journal like this, the chief object of which has been from the 
first, to show how to avoid sickness. 



BRAVERY. 

Every man thinks himself brave until the battle. We have loner 

o 

been under the impression that we feared nothing and nobody, in 
spite of some dreamy intimations now and then. It is generally 
supposed, that, as a man acts in his dreams, he would act under the 
same circumstances if awake. By this rule, we are neither one 
thing nor the other, but rather, if anything, the other, as to bravery. 
We have frequently dreamed of battles, and invariably there was a 
contest within, and a question — a dilemma with three horns, and all 
sharp. We wanted to run away, but was afraid of the disgrace ; 
we wanted to fight, for the credit of being considered brave, but were 
afraid of the bullet ; and we wanted to be statu quo, and thus be 
on the safe side both ways ! Once we were fairly driven " to the 
scratch," most sorely against our will, and, at the very first crack, 
we "hollered," and waked up, but wasn't hurt ! But, not to put 
too fine a point upon it, nor too long, we find that, as circumstances 



253 

change, we have changed with them. When the circulation of another 
journal barely reached hundreds a month, we wrote exactly as we 
thought ; didn't care a straw for anybody, and took great delight in 
pleasing ourselves, being the principal patron of our pet. But, now 
that we print thousands monthly, we find ourselves backing down 
from our high ground, and instinctively shrink from writing a line, or 
even word, that would unpleasantly affect this, that, or the other 
" exchange ;" this, that, or the other minister ; this, that, or the other 
sect ; this, that, or the other party ; this, that, or the other trade, 
calling, or profession. We had so much rather give any one a 
pleasant feeling than an unpleasant one, that we are very often 
amazed, in looking over our exchanges — masculine, feminine, and 
neuter, regular, irregular, and defective — to see them pitching into 
each other, tooth and toe-nail, with savage sarcasm, with merciless 
malignity, with brutal recklessness, or cowardly innuendo. When we 
look at these saliences as coming from men of all creeds, confes- 
sions, and callings, and contemplate our own smoothness and milk- 
and-water-ness, we feel for a moment as if we were a mess of dish- 
water, and forthwith write a tremendous (in our own estimation) 
article against this doctrine, and that " pathy," and the other heresy 
of law, Gospel, or physic. And when the last word is written, with 
the fever of excitement at the boiling point, we feel ready to sit for 
a portrait of double-refined complacency. But when we have taken 
a romp with the children ; or, with a little one on either knee before 
the flaming grate, sing with them, 

u Jerusalem, my happy home," 

" There is a happy land ;" 

or, wnen we have taken dinner, or a walk into the sunshine, or 
played a tune on the jews-harp, and then take up the article to re- 
view at an imaginary distance of years ahead, or of a dying hour, 
we tear it up, and exclaim, " What's the use ?" when love, and not 
battle, is the law of the moral universe, the weapon of Omnipo- 
tence : so that we shall endeavor to avoid writing anything for 
these pages in the darkness of night, in the depression of fatigue, in 
the dullness of a hearty meal. If we don't feel in the humor of 
writing, we shall wait until we do, or engage in some bustling occu- 
pation, and raise a commotion or a storm of some kind, to clear and 
purify the mental atmosphere. Authors, writers, editors, ministers, 
practice kindness to all, for it oftener converts than a kick ; it oftener 
mends than breaks ; oftener raises up than casts down ; oftener ele- 
vates than degrades ; oftener helps than hurts ; oftener cheers than 



254 THE CHURCH AND THE WORLD. 

discourages ; oftener wins than wounds ; and, many a time, would 
have encouraged to saving exertions a struggling, disheartened, and 
despairing brother, when a harsh word, a cold look, a heartless 
tone, has felled him to the earth, and he has perished in his help- 
lessness. All of woman born, be kind ! 



THE CHURCH AND THE WORLD. 

There never was a time when Christianity flourished more, spread 
faster, extended farther, than when the line of demarkation between 
the church and the world was most clear and distinct ; than when to 
be a Christian was to be despised, persecuted, killed. In those 
days, men were not ashamed of their religion ; for, if they were re- 
ligious at all, their piety was of so sterling a stamp, that it was un- 
concealable ; it shone like the sun, it was seen in every act, it was 
heard in every word, it was felt in every presence ; there was that 
about a man, which, without a word or act, said, "He is a Chris- 
tian." On the other hand, in proportion as the great line is indis- 
tinct ; in proportion as there is an amalgamation between the church 
and the world, a commingling of views and policies and practices ; 
in proportion as the spirit of accommodation prevails; in such pro- 
portion, is piety weak, watery, empty. As observant men grow old, 
they who are not specially under the influence of religious principle, 
their motto is, more and more, " policy." For this, they suppress 
personal independence, suppress opinion, suppress conscience. It is 
the same with communities and nations. Thus, an unchristianized 
civihzation is pretence without reality, is form, is ceremony, is a grand 
sham ; words are used to conceal ideas, and Talleyrandism is the order 
of the day. 

The price of liberty is eternal vigilance, and by no other means 
can a sound practical Christianity prevail in any family or commu- 
nity or nation. Hence, it behooves the best friends of religion to ex- 
ercise a ceaseless vigilance against the commingling of sentiments 
and practices, as between the church and the, world. 

In a heroic independence, the church is found largely wanting, in 
the present age ; and, by an assumption of the principle, that they 
who are in Rome must do as Rome does, there is no distinction, in 
a general way, between the dress of the church and that of the 
world. Our wives and daughters do not " adorn themselves in 
modest apparel," but " with embroidered hair and gold and pearls 
and costly array ;" they greedily catch up the extravagances of hoi- 



255 

low courts abroad ; and the question as to dress, is not whether it 
is appropriate, but, "Is it fashionable ? Does it prevail in foreign 
courts ?" And, up to this time, there is no absurdity or indecency 
of dress practiced at the Court of the Tuileries, that is not forthwith 
adopted here ; and the habiliments at the altar of devotion are the 
same as those worn in the salons of royalty. This subject is anti- 
quated and threadbare, and is dismissed with the single suggestion, 
that the true and old nobility of England is distinguished by its 
plain and convenient and useful attire, leaving it to the servants of 
the household to glory in extremist fashion. • The children of the 
great King would do well to take a lesson therefrom, and, at least, 
let the medium of fashion be their guide. 

Truthfulness is a defect among Christians. The most expressive 
adjectives, the fullest expletives, the strongest forms of speech, are 
brought into constant requisition, in the most trivial affairs of life. 
A little dust, an inconvenient wind, a slight shower, makes the wea- 
ther " horrid." The muttering of distant thunder, is " awful ;" and 
" outrageous," and " disgusting," and " too contemptible for any- 
thing," leap to the lips of our daughters, with the facility of the 
most endearing expressions. " I am pleased to meet with you," is 
too tame a phrase in case of an ordinary introduction; "I am ex- 
tremely happy to make your acquaintance," is the uniform utterance. 
Half the letters begin and end with a mechanical lie, instead of a con- 
scientious gauge of phrase. If all are treated thus alike, where is 
the encouragement to virtue ? where is the wholesome frowning on 
vice ? The true rule should be, meet the humble, working Chris- 
tian, whether in rags or ermine, with the cordiality and equality of 
a brother ; but meet the roue, the gambler, the defrauder, the Sab- 
bath-breaker, and the outlaw, in whatever direction that outlawry 
may exhibit itself, with a dignified distance, yet warmed with com- 
passion. In shorter phrase, make virtue feel that it is encouraged, 
and vice that it is frowned upon. Let justice and truth be exhibited 
in every act of life. 

Gambling is steadily and stealthily, under false guises, creep- 
ing into the church. " Let us do evil that good may come," is a 
maxim as false as it is mischievous. A past generation had no diffi- 
culty in instituting lotteries for purposes of benevolence. Scatter- 
ing attempts to do the same now meet with a general and stern re- 
buke. Still, it is not an unknown thing, at this present writing ; 
although every State in the Union, which has any self-respect, has 
banished the lottery from the statute-book, taking in reality the lead 
of the church. 



256 THE CHURCH AND THE WORLD. 

That is essentially a gambling transaction of the baldest kind, 
where there is a possible benefit, on a given occurrence, bearing 
no adequate proportion to what is hazarded, and which is not de- 
pendent on one's own efforts ; that is, where a man has no power, 
honestly, to bring about that given occurrence. 

All gift transactions come within this rule. So does the purchase 
of a slice of cake, at a church fair, for a penny, when some one is to 
get a slice which has within it a gold ring, or other valuable com- 
modity. 

a Life Insurance," more properly, in a moral sense, called " Life 
Assurance," in England, is of this form of gambling. One church 
has a kind of an official organization of this sort for the benefit of 
its ministers. These establishments pay large salaries, and large 
dividends, showing that they are largely profitable, and just in that 
proportion the benefit is all on one side. The commandment of the 
Church is, " Leave thy fatherless children ; I will preserve them 
alive ; and let thy widows trust in Me." It is as applicable now as 
it was in Jeremiah's day, and has not lost its meaning. If a man 
works diligently and does right, in the fear of God, as large a share 
of worldly prosperity will be allowed to him and his, as is considered 
by the Almighty to be safe and good ; and any invocation of mere 
chance, which will act as an interference with this order of things, 
or which will be in the nature of a counteracting agency, is not 
allowable. 

Any profit derived from a common life insurance institution is, in 
a measure, practically, the price of blood, for death only brings ad- 
vantage. And more, the dividends and premiums are paid mainly 
from the hard earnings of the poor and the unfortunate, as it is 
chiefly the poor who seek the benefits of these establishments, me- 
chanics, clergymen, and salaried persons, who have pretty much 
given up the idea of being rich, or even comfortably forehanded. 
It is they who barely make a living, who are the chief patrons of 
life insurance ; persons who pay the premiums with effort, and, some- 
times, with painful self-denials, with harassing turn rounds, and, oc- 
casionally, with ruinous sacrifices ; for, if the premiums are not paid 
at a certain hour, there is the forfeiture of all that has been paid for 
years, for a lifetime ; and it is from those whom such a forfeiture 
fails to stimulate to payment, that these companies derive a large 
share of their profits. A worthy clergyman, or a poor mechanic, 
has been paying his premiums punctually for years, but sickness, or 
accident, or financial pressure, w T hich none could foresee or prevent, 
make it an almost impossible thing to meet the premium — the very 



257 

sickness, perhaps, which is to remove him from the world ! Can 
any one measure the desperation of effort under such circumstances, 
to secure the needed amount ? The very apprehension of inability 
to do so, may be enough, sometimes, to press a man into the grave, 
who, but for that, might have risen above his disease. All insur- 
ance companies of this kind, of lengthened experience, know that 
large profits arise from lapsed policies, policies forfeited by some legal 
quibble, by forgetfulness, by absolute inability to continue the pre- 
mium. 

No intelligent man will deny these statements, hence the proof 
will not be entered into. 

These views are modified where there is a just reciprocity of in- 
terest, as in the case of those organizations founded on the " Mutual " 
plan. As to the justness or morality of insurances on personal and 
real estate, nothing is here said ; that must take care of itself. The 
question under discussion now is, as to simple life assurance, whe- 
ther a Christian man is not amalgamating with the worldling in pa- 
tronizing these institutions? Otherwise, where is there any dis- 
tinctive trust in God ? In what regard does the churchman and the 
worldling differ? Surely, in this thing there is an abnegation 
of the express command, u Come out from among them, and be ye 
separate." This is clear. It is imperative. It comes with a 
"Thus saith the Lord." 

A truer policy, against which there can be no great objection, is, 
to take the same amount of premium which would be paid to 
a company, and put it 'out on bond and mortgage with a wise care ; 
then the loss of it becomes, to a great extent, an impossibility ; 
equal in safety, perhaps, is an investment in the funds of the general 
government, and, next to that, in savings' banks. By thus invest- 
ing, and taking up the interest quarterly or semi-annually, a man's 
family will, if he begin at twenty-five, or on the day of his marriage, 
have, at the age of fifty years, about double the amount that he 
would have had, had he invested in a life insurance, and died at that 
age, and have it, too, with a certainty. No contingencies to harass 
his last hours, as to the solvency of the company, as to quibbling 
evasions, as in a recent case, where a life insurance company repu- 
diated the payment of a policy paid faithfully and regularly by 
a woman, for years and years in succession, on the ground that it 
was nothing but a bet, and that the law did not enforce such claims ; 
and yet the directorship of that company had among it the honored 
names of some of our merchant princes. 

If it be urged, that men would not faithfully pay up and rein- 



258 



FRANCE IN AMERICA. 



vest, on the plan of a loan, the reply is, the fault is not in the j.rin- 
ciple, but in the man. Because, it avails more with some to sign a 
temperance pledge, than would a verbal promise or simple resolu- 
tion, that does not detract from the superior merit of abstaining, 
from stern, unaided principle, rather than from a formal or mechan- 
ical compulsion. It is the motive of the abstinence which gives it 
high character. He is the grandest man, who acts from principle 
alone. He is pitiful, who does right from compulsion. 



FRANCE IN AMERICA. 

" Silence a l'orgie " — freely Anglicized, " Shut your mouth," — 
was the famous cry of a Frenchman, against a certain class of out- 
lawed literateurs, " for their revelry in obscenities, and their clamor- 
ing after personalities ;" and types of these we find in our own 
country, both in the secular and the religious press, and to an extent 
which ought to arrest the attention of all conservative men. The 
apostrophe of the beautiful and gifted Madam Roland, as she bared 
her neck to the guillotine, finds an echo in Christian America : " O, 
Liberty ! how many crimes are perpetrated in thy name !" Even 
in America, the liberty of the press is daily becoming more and 
more a license and a nuisance. Even among good men, useful men, 
honored men, there is an impatience of opposition, in mere differ- 
ence of opinion, which is astounding. A man can scarcely utter his 
sentiments on any debatable subject, but, in three cases out of four, 
he will be assailed with epithets, with personalities, with an impugn- 
ment of motives, which leaves us in doubt whether the assailants 
are from the gutter or from bedlam. Instead of a quiet, calm, 
dignified, and confident marching-up argument, there is the pri- 
mary befooling, the contemptible quibble, the silly jest, the malig- 
nant sarcasm, and then the mean personalities, with a persistent 
effort, all through, to be tremendously severe. 

In any newspaper controversy, civil or religious, nine men out of 
ten will not fail to show, within three passes, that their origin was 
the mud-puddle, not three generations a-gone, not two, often direct. 
As for the man who can meet weapons like these with calm indif- 
ference, with silent contempt, and will steadily throw in his fire 
without noise, or trickery, or roundabouts — where is he, among a 
million ? 

Americans brag a great deal about their bravery. Brave people 
never brag. True courage is always quiet. Bluster and bravado 



259 

are the native elements of the born poltroon. True courage wants 
nothing more than a clear field and a fair fight. There are few 
editors who have not witnessed, with an amusing contempt, the 
willingness of correspondents to say hard things in the dark, stand- 
ing behind them, as cowardly Indians shoot from behind trees. 
There is as much degradation in aiming epithets and accusations at 
known personages from behind an anonyme, as there is in shooting 
through a window at night. Some of our great men can do these 
things ; having been allowed to do so, no doubt, that, by the con- 
templation of what mean things they can do sometimes, they may 
never be puffed up, in their own estimation. In illustration, a fact 
of very recent occurrence may be given, which fully sets forth the 
truth of what has been said. One of the most eminent theologians 
of the age, and said to be as amiable as he is eminent, closes a 
nameless article, directed against a proposition made by another, 
his equal in many things, his superior in more, and who had been 
charged with the motive of desiring to have the agency in question, 
— it " is a task which none but an idiot or an angel would dare to 
undertake." To make such a shot at a man, known and good and 
honored everywhere, from the darkness, is a degradation to any 
one, whatever may be his greatness or his goodness. 

" That is a diversion ; let us go on with the argument," said 
Henderson, the Scotchman, after coolly wiping the water from his 
face, which his opponent, in his rage of inevitable defeat, had thrown 
from his glass. And quite as self-debased must the theologian have 
felt, as did Henderson's antagonist, when a reply came with all the 
dignity of a scholar, the forbearance of a Christian, and the high- 
bred courtesy of a gentleman born. 

If, then, a Frenchman can feel outraged at the indecencies and 
degrading personalities of the press in his own country, it is high 
time that, in view of similar things here, we should take up the 
refrain, " Silence a l'orgie." 



THE SAME ALL THE TIME. 

" Choose your friends of such as are the same all the time," 
was a sententious pulpit utterance, during the great awakening. 
What a regiment of monosyllables ! and yet conveying a meaning 
which it would require a whole book to express. • A real good old 
Anglo-Saxon phrase, is it. The sentiment was uttered in reference 
to the propriety, and greater safety of the newly-made members of 



260 THE GREAT BATTLE. 

the Church, taking as their patterns and companions, not the men 
who had so suddenly become zealous — so much so, as to seem to be 
carrying all before them ; but rather the old stagers, who did not 
seem so very fervent ; who were neither very fast, nor very slow ; 
neither running at any time, nor stopping at any time ; were rather 
going at a steady pace, from one year's end to another's ; who were 
all the time the same humble, steady, earnest, reliable workers in 
the Church ; never a flash, never an icicle. 

Young man ! there is good counsel in this for you, in life's begin- 
ning. It is the steady labor which accomplishes the most work. 
The impulsive are uncertain. Without steadiness of purpose, few 
succeed in life. There are fast men, who, for a season, distance 
everybody, only to die prematurely, or in poverty, and that not 
always an honorable one. In the early morning, all vigorous and 
fresh, the pig shot away from the tortoise, and soon left it out of 
sight; but, long before the close of the day, was passed, lying 
exhausted — and the turtle waddled along to victory, apparently as 
ready for a new race as it was in the morning. In business, then, 
as well as in religion, for your exemplars, your associates, and your 
friends, choose men who, in a high sense, u are the same all the 
time." 



THE GREAT BATTLE 

Between a true liberty and despotism ; between good and evil ; 
between light and darkness; between truth and error; between 
holiness and sin, is in progress : not as yet at its height, perhaps, 
for there are omens of troublous times ahead, and the weapons of 
that warfare should be well understood by every soldier whose am- 
bition is to earn a name and a crown. The weapons are two: 
truth and love. They are to be burnished, brightened, and sharp- 
ened, by the proper cultivation of the head and heart ; by the ex- 
ercise of thought and feeling : thought to cleave, feeling to melt. 
Thought forges ideas ; feeling goes out in acts. Thought is power ; 
feeling is power. Both throw out great truths ; and those who can 
best express those great truths in words — words which shall strike 
home those truths upon the heart and intellect, leaving an impress 
there, deep, clear, distinct, abiding — these are the noble men who 
are forging weapons for that war, to be used, if not by themselves, 
yet will be by some equally noble brother who comes after, to fill 
the vacated place in the ranks. 



HEALTH TRACT, NO. 113. 



THE MORNING-PRAYER. 

The humble and consistent looking upward for the gratification of our desires, the 
satisfaction of our wants, and that aid which conies from above to enable us to per- 
form properly all the duties of life, is a religious obligation. But Providence has 
so arranged matters, that the performance of our duties may bring great benefits 
along with it. Many of the " observances" which Moses imposed upon the Israelites 
tended directly to the promotion of human health, of physical well-being. Moldy, 
spotted houses, damp and disease-engendering, were to be pulled down, and their 
materials scattered or burned ; frequent personal ablutions were insisted on, thereby 
promoting individual healthfulness ; while the use of rank meats, and other articles 
of food, unsuited to that climate, was most specifically prohibited. The disuse of 
all flesh for a month or more in the spring of the year, in some religious denomina- 
tions, is the dictate of a sound physiology, and is not only promotive of health, but 
is antagonistic of disease ; and if it were wisely carried out for " forty days" every 
spring, would demonstrably prevent many an attack of sickness, and would ex- 
tend many a valuable life. Numerous spring diseases are directly traceable to the 
undisputed physiological fact that, as the warm weather approaches, we need one 
third less food, and sickness is inevitable when as much is eaten in warm weather 
as in cold. A judiciously observed u fast" is as promotive of physical as of spirit- 
ual health. There is wisdom and piety in the early morning-prayers of some • 
churches ; and there is health in them too \ A multitude of moral, social, and 
physical good effects would follow, if in all large towns and cities fifteen minutes 
were spent in singing and prayer in every house of worship, at some convenient 
early hour. Ten verses might be read, three or four stanzas of some familiar hymn 
sung, and a short, pertinent prayer offered by the clergyman, some of his officers, 
or other active Christian men, to commence at the moment and end with the fifteen 
minutes by the stroke of a bell. The merchant, on his way down to his store ; the 
lawyer, to his office ; the workman, to his shop ; the banker, to his desk — all could 
easily arrange to stop in and carry on with them a sanctifying influence to impreg- 
nate all the after-business transactions of the day. The son or daughter, on their 
way to school, could accompany their father ; and a walk, on such a mission, to the 
mother or grown daughter and son, soon after breakfast, how it would break up 
the " second naps" of the morning, and that lazy, late lounging in bed, which saps 
the health and vitiates the habits of so many of the young of cities ! Such a plan 
would waken up early activities by presenting an object for the same ; would infuse 
a new life into our morning existence, and give many an hour of out-door exercise 
to our wives and daughters, for want of which many of them prematurely pine away 
and die. Such meetings would create a neighborly feeling among the members of 
many congregations ; would promote unity and love and cooperation in building up 
the interests of the Church ; would bring the members nearer together, and would 
be a bond of social and Christian union of incalculable value, besides the hygienic 
advantages already stated. 

The ready plea of want of time is not valid. . There is not a man in New-York 
who could not save fifteen minutes from any day's work and give it to the morning 
prayer-meeting. As for our wives and grown daughters, many of them are literally 
dying off in-doors, for want of an adequate inducement to dress and go out in the 
open air, pleasantly, for an hour or two a day. Such an expenditure of time daily, 
systematically, would add years to the life of some, and save others from weary 
weeks and months of worse than idleness on beds of avoidable sickness, because 
they not only lose their own time, but require that of others to attend them, be- 
sides deranging the movements of the whole household. 



HEALTH TRACT, NO. 114. 



FIREPLACES. 

Multitudes in large cities look back with fond regret to the gladsome days of 
childhood, when the blazing wood-fire on the hearth was but one of a multitude of 
other comforts and of other joys, departed now, never to return — except the fire on 
the hearth ! even the use of the old-fashioned open fireplace, with its fitful fiickerings 
and its dancing shadows on the wall, to say nothing of its cheeriness, the pure air 
and the delightfully soft and genial warmth which pervades the whole apartment. 
The writer has burned common hard or anthracite coal, flat on the hearth, in an 
old-fashioned, broad, deep fireplace, for three winters, consuming less than four 
tons of coal each, the fire burning from five a.m. to ten p.m. for nearly seven months. 
The extra heat warms a large chamber above sufficient to dress and undress for re- 
tiring in the very coldest weather. It also affords warmth enough to an adjoining 
room for the children practicing their music-lessons, and for ordinary social gather- 
ings ; this, too, when the furnace has not been fired-up once in two years, with an 
exemption from colds and loss of time at school (connected with colds) most grati- 
fying to think of. When the halls are not warmed by furnace-heat, there are several 
very important advantages derived. The children especially get into a habit of 
briskness and activity in passing through them, largely promotive of a vigorous and 
active circulation of the blood, and of good-humor. This very activity of bodily mo- 
tion, which cold weather excites, instinctively seems to communicate its influences 
to the animal spirits and to the mental operations ; all in striking contrast with that 
lazy, elephantine, drawling mode of locomotion and speech, which settle down upon 
the inmates of a habitually summer-heated house. 

In furnace-heated city houses the foul air of the cellar, and the hot and noisome 
fumes of the kitchen, fill the halls and chambers above ; and in the latter they are 
breathed during the live-long night, to the inevitable enfeeblement of the constitu- 
tion, and the ultimate destruction of the health. The most ignorant know that sud- 
den changes of air are hurtful, even perilous, in proportion to their intensity and 
frequency ; inducing those pneumonias, inflammation of the lungs, or lung-fevers, 
which have been so frequently and speedily fatal in multitudes of cases ; and even 
when recovered from, are attended with a painful and tedious convalescence, extend- 
ing sometimes to years, and not seldom crippling the health for the remainder of 
life. Furnaces are commonly arranged to keep up a heat of near seventy degrees 
Fahrenheit. 

On the first day each of last December, January, February, and March, our ther- 
mometer, at six in the morning, stood at 36, 32, 28, 28, respectively, making an 
average difference of 40 degrees between the out and in-door temperature. But one 
fourth that difference, from 20 down to 10, above zero, is piercingly felt in winter, 
hence a sudden change, so great as 40 degrees, must greatly imperil the health and 
even life of the old, of the feeble, and of young children ; but these dangers must 
be greatly lessened in passing from a sitting-room of 70, through a hall of 50, into 
the out-door air of 30, as would be the case where open fireplaces are used, instead 
of furnaces. A piece of soft coal or light wood, six inches square, laid on a bed of 
coals, in a low-down grate, will give the beautiful and cheery flickering of the old- 
fashioned fire-place ; and then there are all the advantage of the open fire, as to 
constant ventilation and genial warmth. See book on "Sleep," by Dr. W. W. 
Hall, New- York. The " low-down grate" is patented by Andrews & Dixon, of 
Philadelphia. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 115. 



KEEPING- APPLES. 

The apple is the most valuable of all the fruits of the earth, in consequence of 
its lusciousness, its preservability, the variety of uses to which it can be applied, 
and its productiveness. Mr. E. Lake, of Topsfield, Massachusetts, in 1861 ob- 
tained, from one acre of ground, two hundred barrels of Baldwin Russet apples, 
besides a ton and a half of squashes and a hundred cabbages ; one weighing twenty- 
seven pounds. It has been stated that a single tree has yielded in one season forty 
bushels of apples. A hundred and fifty good-sized apples make a bushel. Two 
baked apples are an abundant desert for dinner ; two each for breakfast and supper, 
with a single cup of tea or coffee, and as much bread and butter as is wanted, is 
as much as children and sedentary persons ought to have. Apples come in August 
and keep good until May, nine months, two hundred and seventy days, fifteen 
hundred apples, or ten bushels, or four barrels ; easily had in the country for one 
dollar each. Thus four dollars' worth of apples will furnish one person, three parts 
of the year, with a "relish" for breakfast and supper, and " dessert" for dinner, 
of which he will no more "get tired" than of bread, and it will be cheaper and 
incomparably more healthful than pies, preserves, sweetmeats, doughnuts, cookies, 
dumplings, puddings, and the other long list of stomach-destroying and dyspepsia- 
engendering articles. 

Preserving Apples. — Pick out the perfect ones, pack them away, surrounding 
each apple with dry, ground plaster of Paris. Thus : begin with an inch of plaster, 
then a layer of apples an inch from the side, and half an inch apart ; sift in the 
plaster until covered nearly an inch, and so on until the receptacle is full. This 
fertilizing plaster costs from three to ten dollars a ton, and is as good in the spring 
for such purpose as if it had not been used. Pippins will keep until June in any 
cool, dry room in the house. 

Apples, spread on a board-floor, and covered with five or six layers of newspa- 
pers, or a sheet, or clean straw, will keep until spring, and even on a common dry 
cellar-floor. Apples will keep many months if, free from any bruise or speck, 
they are wrapped each in soft paper and laid on a shelf cool and dry. In cities 
and towns, apples, as commonly bought in barrels, will keep pretty well until spring 
in a dry cellar ; but they should be carefully picked over, and the unspecked ones 
laid down softly every two weeks. Even laid on shelves, two layers deep, and cov- 
ered with newspapers or straw, picking out the specked ones for use, every few 
days, very few will be lost. Very good apples can be bought in New- York, during 
the latter part of October, for one dollar and a half a barrel ; and if cared for and 
used as above, and in addition given out to school-children for luncheon, instead 
of nuts, sweet-cakes, candy, cross-buns, doughnuts, and the like, sickness would be 
prevented, and money saved to an amount which would surprise any one who never 
" tried it." Those who live in the country will save themselves a grea,t deal of 
trouble, and admirably succeed in keeping apples in perfect order until June, if 
they would take the precaution to pick each apple from the tree and lay it in a 
basket ; then lay them on the floor of a cool, dry room for a few days to dry, and 
then pack them away in some one of the plans above suggested. It ought to be 
known that a baked sweet apple is the most digestible food that can be swallowed ; 
they are digested in about an hour and a half, bread requiring two hours longer. 
Let invalids remember this. 



HEALTH TBACT, No. 116. 



CONSUMPTION. 

For just twenty years, there has not been an hour in which I have not had under medical 
treatment a variety of persons in all the stages of consumptive disease, from the first insidious 
onset to its last hopeless conditions. With such opportunities, the following observations have 
been made ; nearly all of them but corroborations of eminent medical men in the Old World, as 
well as the New. 

Common Consumption is a gradual and painless destruction of the substance of the lungs, 
running its course in about two years, when it commences its inroads after twenty-five. 

The greatest number who die of Consumption are under twenty-five ; the seeds having been 
planted while in their teens ; the effect, mainly, of damp feet, avoidable exposure, inordinate and 
irregular eating, vicious youthful habits, and bodily irregularities. 

Hereditary origin accounts for only about one fourth of the deaths from Consumption, and 
while it is a disease of all climes and countries, it is comparatively rare in high northern latitudes, 
and in very elevated localities any where. The city of Mexico, over seven thousand feet above 
the level of the sea, in latitude nineteen, with a population of about two hundred thousand, gives 
only three consumptives out of each hundred deaths ; while New-York and Boston and London 
give seven times that number. The seeds of Consumption are called "tubercles," because they 
look like little tubers or bulbs ; each one is a little bunch or " push " on the sides of the air-blad- 
ders which make up the lungs ; and as none of these are larger than a pea, the tubercles them- 
selves are of necessity much smaller, averaging perhaps the size of a pin-head. 

Almost all grown hogs have a kind of hard, tubercular lump in the liver, from one to multi- 
tudes, without apparently affecting the health of the animal. So anatomists tell us, that of any 
hundred dead persons over forty, ninety will show a greater or less number of tubercles in the 
lungs, although they may have been stricken down in an instant, as in battle, from apparent 
perfect health. Hence most grown persons have more or less of tubercles ; hence, also, a man 
may have tubercles all his life, and die of old age ; therefore it is demonstrable, that tubercles 
may exist without actual Consumption being present — that is, they are harmless in their quies- 
cent state ; as harmless as powder until fire is applied. Tubercles can at any time within three 
months be excited to a consumptive condition, by one of two causes, and by no other : first, a suc- 
cession of bad colds ; second, by any long debilitated condition of the body, however that debility 
may have been caused, whether by sickness, grief, over-work of body or brain, or by any depress- 
ing influences of long continuance. 

A bad cold never can create tubercles, nor can it cause Consumption by any possibility, unless 
tubercles previously exist. Yet when they do exist, bad colds are the most frequent exciters of 
Consumption. All the exciting causes under the second head do produce or create tubercles. 
Hence, the most certain means of avoiding Consumption is, to maintain all the time a high state 
of general health ; and this is almost infallibly done, by living a regular, temperate, active, out- 
door life. Those who are most out of doors are least liable to Consumption. 

The infallible and ever-present signs of Consumption are, a continuation for months of a 
pulse always beating upward of ninety times in a minute, (seventy being the healthful standard,) 
thinning of flesh, loss of strength, and an increasing shortness of breath in walking a little fast, 
up even very slight ascents ; there may or may not be cough, but nearly always there is a cough 
©n rising or retiring, or both, when more advanced. 

An average man, in perfect health of lungs, can blow out at one effort two hundred and fifty 
cubic inches of air ; such a man can not die of common Consumption in a year. This rate gradually 
diminishes as the decline advances ; at one hundred and fifty the case is always and utterly hope- 
leBS. The spirometer measures this with infallible and mathematical accuracy. With a pulse of 
seventy, and a full measurement, the presence of Consumption is an infinite impossibility, how- 
ever bad the cough or the spitting of blood. The cure of Consumption, when curable — and there 
are many such cases, is accomplished by an active out-door life, by some sudden and great 
change of occupation, by the spontaneous appearance of some ulcer or breaking-out on the skin ; 
or by the supervention of some other disease, as asthma, which wards it off and indefinitely post- 
pones it. No medicine or drug, or any thing to be swallowed or inhaled, has ever yet been found 
which can possibly have any direct, radical, efficient agency in permanently, even arresting the 
progress of Consumption. Many such have been proposed with great confidence, while all have, 
one by one, gone out of notice, which could not have been the case had they been efficient. The 
only means are to secure a vigorous digestion, and to bring back the full breathing of the lungs, 
both of which are possible 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 117. 



THE $01MEH'$ Alt, 



It was a cheerless autumn day ; the rain was falling in torrents ; every thing was saturated 
with water ; and as my wife passed among the sick and wounded and dying and dead soldiers, she 
bent over the wretched pallet of one, and asked him if he needed any thing. " Nothing, Madam, 
I thank you." 

" Do you want any thing to read — any books, or papers, or magazines ?'! 

Reaching his poor, sunburnt, scrawny hand from under the bed-clothing, he laid it on 
a book, and directing her attention to it, said : " This is all the reading I want." 

It was a well-worn Bible. Happy man ! A stranger, far from home, sick, in rags, apparently 
" not far " from the grave, he had no wants which liis Bible could not supply. There were dark 
clouds in the sky above ; his Bible was sunshine to him. 

He knew nobody ; nobody knew him ; he was literally " a pilgrim and a stranger ;" but he 
had an acquaintance in his Bible, and as he read it, his eyes fell upon old familiar names, which 
carried his mind back to the village-church, to the " family worship " of his childhood, and he 
read of David and of Jonathan, of Moses and of Elias, of Peter and of Paul, but most of all, of 
Jesus of Nazareth, the Friend of sinners and the Saviour of man. 

Weak and wan as he was, he asked for no wine to sustain him, no delicacies, prepared by 
tender hands, to nourish him into life again ; for he had " meat to eat" which those around him 
" knew not of." He read in his Bible morning, noon, and night ; and he found out that as often as 
he read it, he felt nourished and comforted. It was a dish of which he never became tired ; for 
although apparently the same, he found something new in it every day ; some sweetness that he 
had not tasted before. No wonder, then, that he found every want supplied in the soiled book 
which he carefully kept always in reach. 

Some soldiers, in tents and under other forms of shelter, were writing letters, turning over the 
leaves of magazines, or reading newspapers ; but this soldier's Bible supplied all the reading he 
wanted. In it he found " things both new and old ;" he found them reliable ; to-day brought no 
contradiction of what he read yesterday. The messages which he received were telegraphed from 
heaven, and he had heard the " Operator " there say over and over again, as to his messages : " If 
it were not so, I would have told you." Happy soldier ! Blessed book ! Doubtless he would feel 
a full accord with him who wrote : 

" This little book I'd rather own 

Than all the gold and gems 
That e'er in monarch's coffers shone, 

Or all their diadems. 
Yes ! were the seas one chrysolite, 

The earth one golden ball, 
And diamonds too the stars of night, 

This book were worth them all." 

Reader, you will be sick one day ; it may be a long sickness ; you may be far from home, far 
from friends, far from medical aid. Let me tell you there is a " balm " in the Bible ; a medica- 
ment, a cordial, of a nature so searching, of a power so all-pervading, that there is " no sorrow 
which it can not heal," no suffering which it can not soothe, no pain which it can not mitigate. 
It helped the soldier to live above his sufferings ; it will help you to do the same. It met all his 
wants ; it will meet yours. There was a fullness in it to him ; that fullness it will be to you, and in 
an hour, too, when no human drug can avail, when the most skillful physician in the land is pow- 
erless to ease a single agony, and when the most that the best friends on earth can do for you, is 
to gaze at your suffering in sorrowing helplessness. Make the Bible then your companion, your 
counselor ; keep it always in easy and convenient reach, as the soldier did ; and learn like him to 
be satisfied in its fullness, and like him, to find in it a safe Guide, a Friend in need, and an able 
Physician. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 118. 



CHILDREN'S EATING-. 

This is a subject of literally vital interest to every family in the land ; more es- 
pecially in large towns and cities, where the want of facilities and inducements to 
out-door activities makes it absolutely indispensable to adopt some system in refer- 
ence to the times, quantities, and qualities of the food to be taken by children ; for 
the want of attention to which things multitudes die early, while other multitudes, 
not as large however— for half of all that are born die before the age of eighteen 
years, in consequence mainly of inattention to the habits and health — become dys- 
peptic, scrofulous, or consumptive before the age of twenty-five, many of whom are 
destined to a life of weariness, of painful toil, and of wasting efforts for a living 
through sickness, and disease, and chronic sufferings. 

On entering the fifth year, or sixth at farthest, a child can be very easily habitu- 
ated to eat at three regular times a day, at intervals of five or six hours, with noth- 
ing whatever between, except, at a little past mid-way, a single good ripe apple, ot 
a piece of cold, dry, coarse bread may be allowed to the less vigorous. Frequent 
eatings, at two or three hours' interval, especially in connection with being in the 
house most of the time, initiates many children into a life-long dyspepsia, simply 
because the stomach, being kept at work all the time, has no rest, loses its tone and 
strength, like an over-worked servant or animal, and wears out prematurely. 

A second consideration is quantity. If children are taught to eat slowly, in lov- 
ing good-nature — as will be the case if they are let alone by their parents, and not 
put in an ill-humor by incessant reprimands and innumerable rules and- regulations 
about a hundred and one contemptible trifles — they may generally be allowed, for 
breakfast and dinner, to eat as long and as much as they want, only if all the hard 
food is cut up carefully with a sharp knife into pieces not larger than a pea. This 
should be conscientiously and always attended to by one of the parents, for it can 
not be safely intrusted to one hireling out of a million ; parental affection only will 
do it as it ought to be done. 

At supper, children should always be controlled ; let observation determine how 
much a child will eat and leave something over, and then allow thereafter certainly 
not over two thirds of that amount. 

And now as to that most important of all items — quality of food for growing 
children. The instinct for sweetness is inappeasable ; without it, any child, how- 
ever healthy, will soon die, and, fortunately, the two things which children most 
love every where, and of which they never would get tired, and will always relish 
when hungry, are milk and bread, and these furnish as much sugar as any child 
needs. But no child can ever grow up healthy and handsome without good teeth, 
and as the permanent ones begin to be made from the fourth year, their food should 
contain in great abundance those elements which are needed for sound, durable 
teeth. The bony part of the tooth contains seventy-one per cent of lime, the en- 
amel ninety-four per cent. Out of one hundred parts of the finest, whitest flour, 
only six per cent is lime ; of one hundred parts of flour made of the whole grain, 
there is twenty-five per cent of lime, or four times as much ; and no other general 
article of food contains any thing like as much lime as common brown bread. 
Therefore, it is a reasonable conclusion that if children were to live largely on flour 
made of the whole product of the grain, in the shape of well-made and well-baked 
brown, bread, very much would be done toward securing them durable and beautiful 
teeth. When children are from home, let them live as others ; when at home their 
bread should be uniformly made of the whole product of the grain ground, from 
their third to their fifteenth year, to be eaten with half a pint of milk for breakfast 
and supper, adding some berries from June until September, and one or two baked 
apples the remainder of the year, adding a teaspoon or two of sugar. Such a sup- 
per or breakfast will always " taste good " to them. Such a bill of fare, with two 
or three variations a week, and allowing them to eat what they want for dinner, 
will pretty surely, other things being equal, give good health, good teeth, a good 
constitution, and a good old age. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 119. 



THAT BEST DAY. 

" What are you going to do now ?" said a gentleman to his friend on Broadway, 
who had recently failed in business. " I believe I will go home and get acquainted 
with my family," was the reply. 

There is a man in this city known on both continents. He assured a friend one 
day that for nearly seven years he had not seen any of his family out of bed, except 
on Sundays. He ate breakfast at sunrise, hurried down-town, took dinner at Del- 
monico's, and returned late at night to find all in bed. So wholly was he engrossed 
in business, so absorbed in money-making, that all family ties, all its affections, all 
its loves, were of secondary importance. His "chief end" was to get rich! He 
succeeded ; but at a cost of heart-warmth, of the kiscious loves of infancy and child- 
hood, which made it a dear bargain. But what became of his sworn duty to his 
wife all this time — the great duty of sympathy in the burdens of housekeeping and 
child-training, duties which no man can permit to remain in abeyance without com- 
mitting a crime against his family, against society, and against the great Father of 
all, who has intrusted the proper training of children to parental care ? What was 
the result of these great derelictions ? This man failed ; lost every dollar of his 
fortune ; strove again for wealth, succeeded, and again failed. For the third time 
he failed, and at this writing is not worth a dime. 

Both these cases show that the pursuit of wealth in large cities becomes an in- 
fatuation, a frenzy, which bears down the victim of unhallowed greed so resist- 
lessly, that he becomes unconscious of the highest obligations of humanity; his 
moral sense grows so obtunded that he sees nothing, feels nothing, hears nothing 
but what pertains to the getting of money. Is it right ? will reason approve of it ? 
will humanity approve of it ? will an outraged conscience approve of it in the terri- 
ble hour of the last conflict with death ? This ignoring of all obligations, human 
and divine, in the crazed pursuit of riches, does not largely obtain, except in the 
great cities of the world, where human ambitions are stimulated by rivalries to the 
intensest pitch. Still the onward rush for wealth is like the dashing of an infuriated 
steed down a steep declivity — every moment and every step but increase the mo- 
mentum ; and the human tide would be numbered by millions in every grade of 
life, in the country as well as in the town, did not infinite benevolence " put down 
the breaks" at short intervals by the blessed institution of the Sabbath day, which 
a poor laborer, with beautiful truthfulness, once called " that best day," because 
it was all his own ; because on other days he was expected to work for his em- 
ployer from early dawn until the darkness, when he was too tired himself and his 
children were too sleepy for the interchange of affectionate caresses. But when the 
Sabbath came it was a day of resting, and in contemplation of the privilege of being 
with his family through the whole of it, either around the fireside, at the family 
table, or at the village-church, he felt it was " that best day " of all the seven. It 
is physiologically the "best day," because it is a necessary rest for both brain and 
body ; necessary for man, necessary for beast, hence Divinity has ordered, "In it 
thou shalt not do any work ; thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, nor thy man- 
servant, nor thy maid-servant, nor thy cattle," and the man who, in the light of the 
Bible, persistently and systematically violates this command, lovingly intended for 
his best good, physical and moral, may reasonably expect the Almighty's signal 
punishment, either in the failure of his earthly ambitions, the premature failure of 
the vital powers, or that greater failure still, the blasting of the mind. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 120. 



COAL-FIRES. 

Washington, when contemplating leaving home early of a winter's morning, 
would have every thing minutely arranged over-night, so that he might kindle his 
own fire, and thus avoid waking up the servants before daylight and depriving them 
of that necessary rest which was their due. Not long ago, a charity student in the 

Theological Seminary, of this city, on being enjoined to retire early and rise 

betimes, in order to save his eyes and health from the injurious effects of artificial 
light and late hours, complained that it was impracticable, because the colored 
man did not make the fires until seven o'clock, and that he himself did not know 
how to make a coal-fire. It would be too much to expect that such a youth will 
ever be more than a drone in the pulpit, or any where else than under an overseer 
on a well-conducted plantation. The writer's habit is to rise before day in fire-time 
of year, so as to be ready for study at the earliest moment of sufficient daylight ; 
and for two other reasons : to allow the servants to get all the sleep they need, and 
to avoid that unwholesome impatience and annoyance which are sure to follow the 
oversleeping or unskillfulness of hirelings, for to begin a day in irritation spoils the 
head for study and the heart for happiness for hours if not for the entire day. To 
aid the servants, then, to perform a daily duty easily and well, to prevent those 
early irritabilities which are so apt to discompose whole families, and thus antago- 
nize those mental serenities so essential to domestic comfort, to bodily health, and 
mental composure, it will be advantageous both to body and mind for every reader 
to become an adept in kindling a coal-fire. First, know that hard coal will not 
"get on fire" until it is thoroughly heated through and through; second, a small 
piece of coal does not require as much to heat it up as a larger piece, hence, the 
less wood you have to kindle with, the more necessary is it that the pieces of coal 
which are touching the wood should be small. As wood is more expensive than 
coal, economy suggests the use of as little wood as practicable. The coal, then, 
for kindling should not only be as small as a pigeon's egg, called " chestnut-coal" 
by the dealers, but to economize the wood, the pieces should not be over four inches 
long, so that they can be laid compactly, then the heat will be more concentrated 
on a given point of coal, and thus the sooner heat it through and through to the de- 
gree requisite for actual ignition. If the wood is thus placed and is covered with 
one layer of "chestnut" coal, it will redden with great rapidity and certainty; as 
soon as this is the case, cover over the reddened coal with another layer or two, and 
in a minute or two put on the larger size. By putting a handful of shavings or 
paper in a grate compactly, then some splinters of dry wood, not larger than the 
little finger, and outside of that a layer of pieces an inch or more thick and three 
or four long, then apply a match to the paper, and while it is " catching," put on 
the small coal as above, there will not be a failure during the winter, nor a fit of 
passion, nor a growl in the whole household, at least for want of a good and timely 
fire. To lessen a coal-fire, press it from the top, so as to make the mass more com- 
pact, giving less room for air ; to revive it, lay on small pieces tenderly, put on the 
blower, and when red, add larger pieces and riddle out from below. Heaping on 
more coal or letting out the ashes below, will certainly put out a low coal-fire. 



HEALTH TRACT, No. 121 



THE DEAF HEAE. 

Some become deaf in very early life, in consequence of an unfavorable recovery 
from scarlet fever, measles, mumps, and other ailments, such as cold in the ears, or 
by the violent straining of vomiting. Others grow deaf as a consequence of in- 
creasing age. In all these the deafness grows with advancing years. A great 
multitude of remedies have been tried for the removal or mitigation of this calam- 
ity; but with the exception of such cases as are the result of "hardened wax," the 
writer has never known any material benefit to have been derived in a single instance, 
either by medicines or external appliances. The successful cases were the result of 
moist bland applications, of which glycerine is the best, from the quality which it 
possesses of remaining moist longer than any other known substance. Let fall two or 
three drops in the ailing ear, then introduce a bit of lint or cotton saturated with 
it. If by repeating this operation night and morning, for some weeks, there is no 
relief, it may be considered a remediless infirmity. But the increase of the deaf- 
ness will be considerably retarded, by using all possible means to keep up the gen- 
eral health, by regular bodily habits, by personal cleanliness, by a temperate life, 
and by arranging to spend several hours of each day in the open air, in some enliv- 
ening and agreeable manner. 

Artificial aids have sometimes been called into requisition ; such as ear-trumpets 
and auricles, which never fail to deepen the deafness, and that rapidly. It is there- 
fore wisest and best for one who hears with difficulty, 

1. To apply glycerine, night and morning, for months. 

2. Maintain a high state of general health. 

3. Steadily resist all artificial aids for the ordinary occasions of life. 

4. Never allow any thing stronger than sweet-oil, tepid water, or glycerine to be 
applied to the ear. 

5. Never permit the introduction of a probe or stick, or any thing else into the 
ear, for any purpose whatever. 

In one case art is admissible — that is, in religious worship ; and this being only 
once or twice a week, the hearing will not be appreciably impaired in the course 
of several years. 

The writer knows a lady who has not heard a sermon for several years, although 
a regular attendant. She now hears with the utmost ease. This has been accom- 
plished by a peculiar arrangement of that part of the pulpit on which the Bible is 
laid, and a distribution of pipes under the floor and through the pew-seat. The 
sound of the speaker's voice can be transmitted with perfect distinctness to various 
parts of the house, without appreciably affecting the volume of sound — that is, 
an apparatus arranged for one person, enables him to hear with perfect clearness ; 
if extended to a dozen others, the first one hears as well as if there was but a sin- 
gle attachment. To Christian men and women whose hearing is defective, and who 
are thereby cut off from one of the greatest privileges of life, this device is of ines- 
timable value ; for as we grow old, and the ties which bind us to the world become 
almost daily fewer and more fragile, we instinctively draw closer to Him who has 
appointed religious worship as a means of communicating to us his will. Those 
communications become sweeter, more nourishing, and more necessary every day 
to the ripe and aged Christian ; they are the greatest solace in life." Thus it is he 
feels with King David, " a day in thy courts is better than a thousand " any where 
else. Single attachments are made for fifty dollars, and at much less cost when there 
are two or more in one church, by application to D. D. Stelle & Co., 85 Leonard St., 
New- York City, who have not failed in a single case, thus far, to give entire satisfaction, 
by their PHONOPHORUS or Sound Conductor. 



hall's jouknal of health. 

THE TIMES. — If in this exigency, Omnipotence were to say, " What is 
thy request?" I should be afraid to utter more than seven monosyllables : 

"Thy will be done, make mine thine." 

I want no more victories ; that implies death to many. I do not want peace, 
unless it removes the cause of the war, else similar wars would inevitably follow 
My greatest solace is, " God reigns," and "shall not the Judge of all the earth do 
right ?" If I had my way, human slavery should cease on the instant, but I am 
not certain that it would be wisest and best, hence I leave the question to the de* 
cision of Almighty power, and wisdom, and beneficence, desiring that I may be 
led to agree thereto. I am not ashamed to have been born, and bred in the South. 
Grander models of true manhood and womanhood are not found elsewhere on 
earth. They look to God in prayer with as much sincerity as the North. They 
are mistaken. They have been misled. Our universal prayer should be for them, 
as our brothers, that God would show them their error. I know that the North is 
right in the great object of the war, for Omnipotence has shown his approval by 
favoring the North in the two most important means under, his sole control. Such 
a succession of fruitful seasons has never occurred before. Such an exemption 
from yellow fever and other Southern epidemics, even when Northern troops had 
to remain South, has not been recorded in our history. Therefore God is with 
the North. Where he had to work with human agencies, he could only show his 
favor indirectly ; rather by overruling ; consequently we have had reverses, but 
these have been overruled to great good ends. Had Sumter never have fallen, 
the North would never have been united together as one man. Had we afterwards 
marched steadily on to victory, Congress would not have passed the confiscation 
act ; and but for the Chickahominy and subsequent misventures, the President would 
not have felt compelled to issue the emancipation proclamation ; and there is reason 
to fear that victory after victory now, would procure a most unfortunate modifica- 
tion of that document. The raid upon the Border States would appear discourag- 
ing ; but it will do more than any thing else to cause the people to stand by the 
government, even if the cherished institution should have to be heaved overboard. 
And here let me suggest to all praying people, that the agency which they should 
invoke should be the going out from the Almighty of a spiritual influence over the 
whole South, and North also, to bring order out of confusion, as when chaos 
reigned. It is as easy for Omnipotence to change the mind of the South as to give 
victory to Northern arms ; then why not all join in the earnest, hourly prayer, that 
the Lord would give our Southern brethren a better mind ; that he would change 
their views of things, and help them to see that there is no better government on 
earth than ours, and that there is no wiser policy than that which relieves us of 
slavery. It is a great solicitude to me, lest the Faith of Southern Christians should 
fail, when they see that they can not succeed, but must come back under the laws 
of the Union, the laws which they helped to make. I hope when these truths do 
break in upon them, they will still feel like Job, " Though he slay me, yet will I 
trust in him," and that they may in such faith live long enough to see that God's 
■ways are best ; and that like Job, they may in the end have in material wealth, 
even " twice as much as they had before." Such I believe will be the condition of 
the whole United States within five years after slavery has ceased utterly. 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 



Vol. IX.1 DECEMBER, 1862. [No. 12. 



GEOLOGY AND GENESIS. 

A great and an injurious mistake is made by some Bible exposi- 
tors, in endeavoring to reconcile Bible statements with the claims of 
science. Very few scientific truths are demonstrable, out of the 
line of mathematics. Many things appear to be true — seem to be 
reasonable ; but the attempt to square a Bible assertion with a 
seeming fact, with a " reasonable " assumption, is a folly and a sin. 
If any fact, or truth, or proposition, is an absolute demonstration, 
founded on no bare assumption, and such fact, or truth, or proposi- 
tion, is in direct and incontrovertible opposition to a Bible state- 
ment, then it may be time to " inquire into it ;" but sooner than 
that, is not wise. 

There is no fact in Geology more universally admitted, than that 
an uncounted multitude of years were required for arranging the 
present order of things, as to the surface of the earth ; that ages 
must have been necessary to form its various layers or strata ; and 
since the Bible speaks of " days," as to the time consumed, the con- 
clusion is being very generally adopted, that the " day" of the first 
chapter of Genesis meant an indefinite duration of time. Hugh 
Miller, the Napoleon of modern geology, as to its mere physical 
observed facts, favors this interpretation, which derives an influ- 
ence from his name, altogether beyond its merits; because one 
of his earliest fancies was that of a fanatic, or lunarian, in refer- 
ence to some vision or " apparition." His last act was that 
of a madman ; while, between the two, there were indications of 
mental weakness, which were nothing short of foolish fancies. 
Such a man's testimony, such a man's opinions, such a man's theo- 
ries, should be received only with great deliberation, with consider- 
able hesitation, when they bear on religious truth ; and are abso- 
lutely worth nothing beyond the corroboration which whole facts 
afford. 

The dogmatism of the dolt will not be fallen into here. It 
is preferred to leave the subject open, only recording a caveat 
against committing the interpretation, as to the meaning of any 
portion of the Bible, to any man, even though it be in connection 
with a subject of which he was a perfect master. 



274 

The power which commanded, "Let there be light, and light 
was," is adequate to the making of this world, and a million more 
like it, in six days. That Power is above law, and can suspend law 
by the fiat of his mouth ; and by the same, can make it. All 
physical law is nothing more or less than the will of God. If he 
chose to make this world in a week, or minute, or second, by any 
agency, that agency is law enough. 

We will not commit ourselves by saying that the first chapter of 
Genesis means this, that, or the other ; nor will we aver that it 
does not or cannot mean anything that may be affirmed ; we only 
want that it shall not be committed, by common consent, to any 
human interpretation, simply because we cannot tell what develop- 
ments of natural truth are to be made in the course of events. 

One principle of interpretation, which ought never to be lost 
sight of, is simply this : any word or sign, any letter or hiero- 
glyphic in a document, ought to have the same meaning attached 
to it throughout. If a day of work means an indefinite duration, 
so does a day of rest ; and to rest indefinitely, whether for Maker 
or man, is an absurdity. For man to work an indefinite time, is a 
physical impossibility. If a day of work means twenty-four hours, 
so does a day of rest. If a day of work means a million of years, so 
does a day of rest. Hence, we prefer to accept the interpretation 
which the record makes of itself, that a day consisted of an evening, 
running back to the morning which preceded it, and including both 
morning and evening in that " day one," which is the Hebrew form 
of expression. 

The "beginning" of the first verse may have been ages be- 
fore the commencement of the description; and this earth may 
have existed for ages more, as a wild waste of waters, in shapeless- 
ness and darkness. These propositions are neither affirmed nor 
denied ; our great idea is non-committal ; but that, after the second 
verse, there is anything inconsistent with a literal interpretation of 
the record, we cannot see. 

Geologists are firm in their conviction, that there was a duration 
of ages before even the lowest forms of vegetation existed ; that 
then, in the lapse of other vast cycles of time, creeping things and 
reptiles came ; and next, animals ; and, last of all, man. Geology 
shows, beyond a peradventure, that such was the order of their 
coming ; and this glorious first chapter of Genesis, the oldest and 
grandest written record on the globe, says the same thing. But 
when Geology asserts, that it must have required countless ages to 
have brought about these changes and progressions, it is merely an 



HIDDEN TEEA8UEES. 275 

assumption. The Bible says " a day ;" Geology says that day was 
one of years, centuries, cycles. How long that day was, the Bible 
does not say; Geology speaks for it, defines it. But Geology 
wasn't there, hence can know nothing about it. And a geological 
" must," which calls in question a Bible statement, which requires 
the modification of a Bible record, is an impudent presumption. 

If, then, the unlearned Christian has to meet the pretentious 
lore, and the " great swelling words " of infidel geologists, as to the 
meaning of the Bible account of creation, it is sufficient to answer, 
" The Sacred Volume says nothing as to the age of the earth before 
light, and dry land, and sea, and vegetation, and insect, and animal, 
and man, came. But when they did come, it says they came in a 
4 day ' — that that day included an evening and a morning ; whether 
it was a day of twenty-four hours, or of twenty-four years, or mil- 
lions of years, it does not say ; it was not necessary for it to have 
been said. Here I leave it. If you assert that the ' day ' meant 
long cycles of time, prove it by witnesses on the spot ; and when 
you have done so, you will have shown nothing contrary to the 
Bible record." 



HIDDEN TREASURES. 

" I have meat to eat that ye know not of," was the declaration 
of the Blessed Redeemer to his wondering disciples. There was a 
double meaning in this case — the chief was, that he had sources of 
happiness of which they were ignorant ; those divine contempla- 
tions, as to the objects and results of his mission, which at the time 
they could not appreciate, any more than at this day can irreligious 
men conceive of the joys which belong to the children of the king- 
dom ; the joys of contemplating sin forgiven, of soul saved. On 
topics like these, a Christian may muse and feed by the hour ; and, 
like Moses in the mount, may come out from that communion with 
face and soul all bright with a radiance divine. 

But these are not the " Hidden Treasures " of the heading. It 
is intended to speak of treasures worth more than gold to their pos- 
sessors, they being ignorant of them, while others are enviously 
aware of their existence. 

" I wish I were a Christian ; they are the happiest people in the 
world. I would give all I am worth to be one." Such was the 
frank declaration of one of the " men. of the time," a "representa- 
tive " man, in a casual conversation on the street, within a few days. 



276 

He was a scholar, a genius, a man of renown ; and yet few men are 
more profane, scoff more, vituperate more, when speaking or 
writing in reference to the men and ministers of our holy religion. 
He explained himself to mean, that religious people were happy in 
believing, without a doubt, as to the truth of religion ; in regarding 
the Bible as the book of God, with that implicit confidence which 
questions nothing ; and in their patient looking beyond to " the 
rest prepared for the " faithful. 

To be able to read the Bible, and receive every assertion as of 
divine origin ; to have no misgiving as to the truth of a single 
word ; and even when an incomprehensible declaration is made, to 
be able to pass on to others more plain, with the calm and quiet 
feeling that it admits of a perfectly clear and satisfactory explana- 
tion ; that, as to every declaration of grace, as well as act of Provi- 
dence, 

" God is his own interpreter, 

And He will make it plain ; 
Tho' unbelief is sure to err, 

And scan His work in vain — 

to have such a faith abide in the heart from infancy to age, through 
all the trials and the toils of time, who shall say that it is not " a 
well of water, springing up unto everlasting life ?" 

There are some — few, we hope — who, in taking up the Bible, 
seem to be on the look-out for objections. Instead of reading it 
with the ready acquiescence in its statements, which they yield, 
without an effort, to a newspaper, magazine, or new book, only 
halting at declarations which challenge incredulity, or which are 
strikingly contrary to personal conviction or experience, they pro- 
ceed as if they were expecting some absurdity, or some untruth, or 
some lurking trap or snare. They put upon the Divine declarations 
their own hasty and unfledged interpretations, and then exclaim, 
" How can that be ?" Such a spirit, in reading the Bible, entitles 
its possessor to our sincerest commiseration and pity. The whole 
life long of such a man must be a cloud, whose end is to settle in 
the darkness of the second death ! 

A child-like implicitness, in receiving the statements found in the 
Sacred Scriptures, must be built up at the time when children, as 
yet, have that same kind of reliance in the truth of all that their 
parents say. To the good and happy child of a consistent parent, 
there never is a thought, a feeling, or desire, to go beyond a simple 
" Father said so." " Mother told me that." To kindle and cherish 
in a child's heart such a feeling, in reference to the Bible declara- 



HIDDEN TREASURES. 277 

tions, ought to be the early effort of every 'parent ; and to succeed 
in doing it, will contribute more to that child's happiness in this 
life, to say nothing of that which is to come, than the bequest of a 
fortune. But as to most parents, how many years of self-denying 
toil are spent in securing such a fortune ! how few hours, in that 
training, which, as to the Bible, leads to " have faith in God !" 

Let children and others be taught some first principles as to the 
Bible. 

First, The Bible was not written to communicate scientific 
truths ; it only makes use of them as illustrations, or as vehicles of 
information in reference to God ; but, in doing so, it never makes a 
mistake, by taking for a truth, in science or history, what was not a 
truth. 

Second. Although statements may be made which cannot be 
reconciled with present knowledge, or which are apparently con- 
tradictory, a close investigation will always show a beautiful har- 
mony ; or additional information will always substantiate the Bible 
record, or afford ground for rational and satisfactory explanation. 

By searching out instances of this sort, from time to time, a 
growing confidence will spring up in the minds of the young, which 
will render good service in after life. For example : 

Ezekiel, chapter twelve, declares that the king, Zedekiah, of Jeru- 
salem, should die in Babylon — a most unlikely thing ! but more, 
while Zedekiah was not in Babylon, and while he was not to go 
there — still he was to die there, and yet was not to see Babylon. 
The quibbler would say, How was he to get to Babylon from Jeru- 
salem without going there ? And how could he be in Babylon, and 
die there, and not see it ? The prophet's words are these : " I will 
bring him to Babylon, yet shall he not see it, though he shall die 
there." Four years later, a few words in Second Kings, chapter 
twenty-five, make the whole as plain as day, and of a literal truth- 
fulness that delights the Christian and amazes the infidel ; for the 
king of Babylon came near to Jerusalem, and by his army took 
Zedekiah captive ; took him by force towards Babylon ; but before 
they reached the city, they " put out the eyes of Zedekiah, bound 
him with fetters of brass, and carried him into Babylon," where he 
ultimately died. 

Volumes could be written, giving such exemplifications as this 
of the beautiful truthfulness and critical exactness of scripture his- 
tories ; and, if properly exhibited to children from time to time, it 
would result in fixing in their minds such a habit of confidence 
in scripture statements, that, as often as " difficulties " arise, they 



278 HALL'S JOUEIsTAL OF HEALTH. 

will be pushed aside or passed over, in the abiding feeling that all 
that prevents their perfect understanding, is a little better know- 
ledge of the facts of the case ; and in after hours of joy or dark- 
ness, the believer will clasp the Bible closer to his heart, day by 
day, until the close of life, while the same confidence in the spirit- 
ual truth would be carried over to the lessons which are of a moro 
material nature, such as those which pertain to diligence in busi- 
ness, to the duty of providing suitably for one's family, and thus 
preventing children from falling into the vices and practices which 
belong to unthrift, such as idleness, dissipation, late hours, vicious 
associations, all of which lead to health lost early, and to constitu- 
tions prematurely broken. The reader can thus see the close con- 
nection there is between an abiding and implicit faith in the truth 
of the Bible and that peace of mind, that prosperity in business, 
and that length of days of those whose conduct is squared by Bible 
principles ; making it emphatically true that while " the wicked 
shall not live out half his days," the Bible believer will go down 
to his " grave in a full age, like as a shock of corn cometh in his 
season," while all along that journey, it will be said of it, his " ways 
are ways of pleasantness, and all his paths are peace." 



TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

Many good communications are sent for the Journal. The editor writes 
all the articles which appear in its pages, except where his positions are 
illustrated by authentic facts of others well expressed ; and even if it were 
not so, all articles would be rigidly excluded which reflect on private per- 
sons, on clergymen, on old-school physicians, or the administrators of the 
Government and its laws. If any body is particularly anxious to " blaze 
away" at either, it can be done to the greatest public good in the shape of 
a paid-for advertisement, in some extensively circulated newspaper, with 
the writer's full name, post-office address, street, and number. 



SUBSCRIBERS 



Will please remember that their subscriptions end with this December 
number, and that the Journal will not be sent in any single case unless 
the desire is expressed in writing, accompanied with one dollar; hence, 
those who do not wish to continue need not be at the trouble of writing 
to that effect. Those who have failed to receive any number, will be sup- 
plied without charge, on application. Any back number from the first 
volume will be furnished for ten cents. 



279 



METHODIST PREACHERS. 



A year or two ago, a keen business-man lent " a broken-down 
Methodist preacher " nine hundred dollars, without any other secu- 
rity than his knowledge of human nature gave him. We need not 
stop here to eulogize the activity, the self-denial, and the indomit- 
able energy of that somewhat contemned class, " Methodist Circuit 
riders," of an age agone, on that most unjust of all grounds, of there 
having been a few among thousands (fewer in proportion, by far, 
than in the Saviour's little company of twelve), who were unfaithful to 
their high trusts. But where one was unfaithful, there were scores, 
and hundreds, and, perhaps, thousands, who lived long, labored 
hard, and died working — died in their devotion — died with their 
armour on — died in penury, and went down to unrequited, un- 
honored, and forgotten graves; unrequited, unhonored, and for- 
gotten, as to man, but remembered in Paradise by the Master, to 
be honored at the Judgment by the Maker of all Worlds, when 
conquerors and kings will be passed without a single recognition, 

Not a few, after having worn themselves out in the service of the 
Church, after having become disabled by disease, find themselves 
turned into the great field of the world, to earn a living in a man- 
ner the best they may. The subject of this narrative was one of 
these ; and, carrying with him that independence and energy and 
willingness to the exercise of that self-denial which he had full large 
opportunities of cultivating in his humble calling of " circuit rider," 
he determined that he would go to work in a mode nearest akin to 
his legitimate calling, and most likely to renovate his health, as well 
as to replenish his purse. He went to a friend — and those who are 
neither afraid nor ashamed to do any lawful thing, so that they can 
make a living thereby, seldom lack friends in need — and, with the 
frankness which unfaltering self-reliance only can give, said, " I want 
to borrow some money," and proceeded to build his castle, and 
a most aerial one it seemed to be at first glance. " I want to pur- 
chase a stock of twenty-dollar Bibles, to sell to poor people." A 
poor preacher borrowing money to purchase costly Bibles to sell to 
poor people, appeared to be rather a poor inducement for a business- 
man to lend money, without the inevitable " bond and mortgage." 
But a farther development of the programme gave some plausibil- 
ity to the plan. The money was loaned, and the Bibles purchased 
at the lowest publisher's cash rates. To make a beginning, and 
thus put him in funds for extending his operations, he took a 
fine Bible under his arm, made his way to Fulton Market, and pro- 
menaded its oderiferous aisles until he found a purchaser ; he then 
returned to get another. In the course of a feAV weeks, in the fur- 



2K0 

therance of his original plan, he was traveling around on foot 
among the farmers, especially seeking out those recently married. 
Not one in fifty would think of giving twenty, and twenty-five, and 
thirty dollars for a Bible. Still, they were exhibited ; they were so 
beautifully got up ; and then again the thought would occur, u If 
we have anything good about the house, it ought to be the Bible ;" 
and the mind would run back to other years, of father and mother 
and home, and " the dear blessed Bible that lay on the stand," ready 
to be opened for the morning and the evening sacrifice ; and on 
the mind would run, following the father and mother, long since 
gone up higher, with the reading of the Bible as a means of re- 
joining them in Heaven, when life's labors were all over. But just 
here hard facts would come in. " We can't spare the money ; there 
is not that much in the house." " But, perhaps, you can pay a little 
now, and you may lay by a dollar every week, and I will call for 
it." And the Bible was taken. There is no danger, thought our 
hero, in trusting under the circumstances. People who have a 
heart to purchase a family Bible, are not likely to lack the principle 
of honorable payment. To shorten the story, this gentleman, in 
less than two years, has extended his business so much, that, having 
recovered his health, he finds his time fully employed during the 
week, in the city, in keeping a good stock on hand, for his agents, 
who are scattered in every direction — he, a master colporteur, and 
they his employes, working for him. On the Sabbath he preaches 
as of old, and thus, in a two-fold way, is he employed in sowing the 
seed of the Word, supplying families with the Bible at his own 
cost, and with a liberal profit to himself. 

With the same personal independence and self-denial and 
energy, who shall deny that many a minister might be restored to 
his legitimate calling, when, if he had lounged about Summer re- 
sorts and watering-places, or had "gone to Europe," or had 
" given up his charge," waiting for a return of health, he would 
have continued an invalid, infirmities growing upon him, to be ended 
only in the grave. 

Reader ! there are multitudes who are mere cumberers of the 
ground, between whom and extensive usefulness, there is nothing 
intervening, but the want of humility ; they have not the moral 
heroism to be willing to do anything useful, to be anything, rather 
than do nothing, waiting for better things to come to them. Are 
you one of these ? — 



hall's journal of health. 



PKOPHETS AT HOME. 

That best and wisest of all books contains the sentiment that, " A pro- 
phet is not without honor, save in his own country, and in his own house." 
Home product is not valued as highly as that which comes from abroad. 
The Home Journal, always well edited, has grown greatly in its influence 
within a year or two, by its increased adaptability to the times, as to the 
substantial utility of its articles, especially in connection with the war. 
The issue for November 1st contains two columns closely printed, in small 
type, in reference to the influence which living in the country has upon 
the health of those who do business in town, especially when they go in 
and out by rail. Nearly six years ago we wrote a few pages on the sub- 
ject, which happened to be among the few articles of our Journal which 
not one of our exchanges thought it worth while to copy. But now, when 
mainly the same sentiments and the same reasons for them, appear in a for- 
eign periodical, under so distinguished a name as that of Dr. Forbes Wins- 
low, one of the most able of British medical writers, corroborated by two 
other eminent names, Dr. C. J. B. Williams, and Dr. Angus Smith, they are 
reproduced at great length, as if the subject itself and the views therein were 
new. We therefore reproduce our own article, first published in March, 
1857, because it is more directly to the point, in fewer words, and more 
easily comprehended by that great mass of Americans, who must do two 
things at a time, (so fast are they,) who can give only that time to reading 
which is passed in riding from one place to another, and more, who de- 
mand that what they read should be so plain that it can be understood at 
a glance, without any more intellectual effort than is required to compre- 
hend a sum in simple subtraction, such as four from two leaves six. But 
as the Journal now circulates among outside barbarians, as in the Sand- 
wich Islands, Canada, New-Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward's 
Island, London, Paris, Constantinople, and even in the Holy City itself, it 
may be well enough to make a note of explanation of that little mathemat- 
ical problem, by the statement of a fact, personal to ourself. When we 
were married, some years ago, two of us sat down to table, but there 
are now six of us; so " we two," and four children — the four from the 
two (as far as we know and believe) — make six • quod erat demonstrandum. 

And now for our article, written six years ago, to show that, ordinarily, 
health is not promoted, but is endangered, and often lost, by living in the 
country and doing business in town ; and that there is an actual loss of 
quietude of mind and bodily comfort may very readily be inferred from the 
fact that most of those who go to the country, soon get tired of it, and are 
willing, in multitudes of cases, to sell out at a loss, in order to get back to 
town again. It seems to us that even on the beautiful banks of the Hud- 
son, three persons out of every four, engaged in business in the city, are 
very willing, even eager to " sell out." 



HalVs Journal of Health. 

LIVING IN THE COUNTKY 

And doing business in town, is a " dog's life," from beginning 
to end, as far as New York is concerned. Instead of adding 
to one's comfort and quiet, it diminishes both. So far from 
promoting health, it undermines it ; while in a business point 
of view, it is attended with a multitude of annoyances of 
every variety. We have tried it under very favorable circum- 
stances, and speak from experience. We know that many per- 
sons think that they would like nothing better than to be able 
to work in town and live in the country. In some few cases 
it may be a comfort ; it is when a man can afford to go to his 
place of business not sooner than ten in the morning ; or if he 
does not go at all for any day, or two or three of any week in 
the year, it makes no kind of difference, having persons on the 
spot who will do just as well. But to be the main spoke in the 
wheel of any establishment, whose punctual and daily presence 
is indispensable, it is an unmistakable bore to live out of the 
city limits. 

The semi-citizen is in a hurry from one year's end to another. 
When he goes to bed at night, among his last thoughts are — 
and there is an anxiety about it — that he may oversleep him- 
self, or that the cook may be behind time with his breakfast ; 
so going to sleep with these thoughts, the instant he wakes in 
the morning there is a start, and the hurry begins — he opens 
his eyes in a hurry, to determine by the quality of the light 
whether he is in time. His toilet is completed with dispatch, 
but instead of composedly waiting for breakfast-call, his mind, 
even if not on his business, will be in the kitchen. Can a man 
converse composedly with his family, when the fear is upper- 
most of his being left by the train ? It is impracticable. Even 
with the case in a thousand, where the cook is a minute-man, 
he can't for the life of hime at with a feeling of leisure: may 
be his watch is a little slow ; may be the train is a little before 
time, and the result is, a hurried and unsatisfactory meal, to say 
the least of it, under the most favorable circumstances ; but 
suppose the cook is like the multitude of her class — never be- 
fore, but always behind the time — what a fretting feeling is 
present, mad as fire, yet afraid to say anything ; soon the wife 
gets the contagion, and then the play begins; stand about 
everybody. 



Living in the Country. 

You are deposited in the cars for town ; accidents and delays 
will occur; your mind is in your office, may be a customer is 
waiting, or you are pressed for time to meet an engagement. 
As soon as mid-day is past, the solicitude begins lest circum- 
stances should prevent your departure by a specified train; this 
increases as the hour draws near, and when we take into ac- 
count the dilatory nature of most men, it will be a marvel if 
some one is not late in meeting you, or making an expected 
payment ; or a customer does not hang on your button-hole, and 
you don't wish to offend him. In short, there are such a mul- 
titude of causes in operation to crowd the last moments of the 
business day, that we do not believe that one semi-citizen in a 
hundred, of any day, walks to the depot from his place of 
business with a feeling of quiet leisure. When you get home, 
you are too tired and too hungry to be agreeable until you get 
your last meal ; even then there is a calculation about getting 
to bed early, so as to have your full sleep by morning. We 
ask, where is the " quietude " of a life like this ? It does not 
exist. Such a man is an entire stranger to composure of mind. 
One beautiful morning a sprightly young gentleman entered 
the cars just as they were moving off. We had seen him often, 
always in a hurry, always in a pleasant humor. He said to a 
friend, as he took his seat : " I've been in a hurry from morning 
until night for the last two years — always on the stretch, but 
never left. Came very near it this time." Soon afterwards it ap- 
peared that he had been industriously engaged the whole of that 
time, and had accomplished a great deal ; for he had, in various 
directions, disposed of seventy thousand dollars belonging to a 
public institution, of which he was the custodian. If this in- 
cessant hurry, from one year's end to another, can promote 
quietude of mind, can conduce to one's pecuniary advantage, 
can foster domestic enjoyments, it is new to us. We think, 
rather, that it tends to fix on the mind a stereotype impression 
of anxious sadness, which, in the father of any family, to be 
seen every day, must have a decided effect in subduing that 
spontaneous joyousness which should pervade the countenance 
of every member of a happy household. 

There is one little matter which we prefer to speak of before 
dismissing the subject, which we consider of vital importance, 
and is the idea which led to the penning of this article : 



HcrtVs Journal of Health. 

A daily action of the bowels is essential to good health under 
all circumstances ; the want of it engenders the most painful 
and fatal diseases. Nature prompts this action with great regu- 
larity, most generally after breakfast. Hurry or excitement 
will dispel that prompting, and the result is, nature is baffled. 
Her regular routine is interfered with, and harm is done. This 
is a thing which most persons do not hesitate to postpone, and 
in the case of riding to town, a delay of one or two hours is in- 
volved. This never can occur with impunity, in any single 
instance, to any person living. This very little thing — post- 
poning nature's daily bowel actions — failing to have them with 
regularity — is the cause of all cases of piles and anal fistulas, to 
say nothing of various other forms of disease : fever, dyspepsia, 
headache, and the whole family of neuralgias. A man had 
better lose a dinner, better sacrifice the earnings of a day, than 
repress the call of nature ; for it will inevitably lead to consti- 
pation, the attendant and aggravator of almost every disease. 
To arrange this thing safely, breakfast should be had at such 
an early time as will allow of a full half hour's leisure between 
the close of the meal and the time of leaving for the cars. 



NEAK-SIGHTED. 



Peesons living in cities begin to wear glasses earlier than 
country people, from the want of opportunities of looking at 
things at a distance. Those who wish to put far off the evil 
day of " spectacles" should accustom themselves to long views. 
The eye is always relieved, and sees better, if, after reading 
a while, we direct the sight to some far-distant object, even for a 
minute. Great travellers and hunters are seldom near-sighted. 
Humboldt, now in his eighty-seventh year, can read unaided. 
Sailors discern objects at a great distance with considerable dis- 
tinctness, when a common eye sees nothing at all. One is re- 
ported to have such an acute sight, that he could tell when he 
was going to see an object. On one occasion, when the ship 
was in a sinking condition, and all were exceedingly anxious 
for a sight of land, he reported from the look-out that he could 
not exactly see the shore, but he could pretty near do it. 



11 1 



UseShBHS 



Win*] 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION LIBRARIES 




3 9088 01223 2021 



». i »t